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Dziga Vertov
Russian Filmmaker
Movements and Styles: Documentary Film, Constructivism
Vertov was one of the most acclaimed of the Soviet filmmakers closely aligned with the Constructivist movement.
Max Pechstein
German Painter and Printmaker
Movements and Styles: Expressionism, Die Brücke
Max Pechstein's boldly-colored nudes and landscapes exemplify his leadership in Expressionist art.
Degenerate Art
Degenerate Art was a term used by the Nazi party to modern art including Expressionism, Fauvism, Dada, Cubism, and Surrealism and well as art that was produced by Jewish artists.
December 25, 2022
Lucas Samaras
Greek/American Multi-media Artist
The painter and assemblage artist Lucas Samaras has produced a body of work that is remarkable for its scope and inventiveness.
Derek Jarman
English Filmmaker, Author, Activist, Painter, and Stage Designer
A pioneering gay filmmaker, Derek Jarman trained as a painter but became known for pushing the boundary of experimental cinema and for his explorations of identity.
Josefa de Óbidos
Spanish-Portuguese Painter, Miniaturist, Etcher, Terracotta Modeler, Silver Worker and Calligrapher
Josefa de Óbidos was the most celebrated female Baroque artists in Portugal who is best known as a painter of still lifes and devotional narratives.
Eleanor Antin
American Performance and Installation Artist
Eleanor Antin's prefigures the most important feminist debates of this century and is some of the most arresting and poetic Performance art of the previous.
ORLAN
French Artist
ORLAN molds her own body via surgeries provoking questions of beauty, self-image, and consent.
Agnes Pelton
American Painter
Movements and Styles: Symbolism, Modernism and Modern Art
Visionary artist Agnes Pelton painted in rich and ethereal Symbolism.
Florine Stettheimer
American Painter, Theatrical Designer, and Poet
A pioneer artist from early twentieth-century New York, Florine Stettheimer advanced new possibilities in painting for women artists.
Patrick Caulfield
British Painter and Printmaker
Movements and Styles: British Pop Art, Pop Art
British modernist Patrick Caulfield's use of clean lines, and areas of pure color was original and influencial.
Kazuo Shiraga
Japanese Painter and Performance Artist
Shiraga built his reputation on the back of his involvement with Japan's first avant-garde group, the Gutai Art Association where he establishing himself as a pioneer in "performance painting".
Sally Mann
American Photographer
Movements and Styles: Documentary Photography
Primarily working in black-and-white, Sally Mann's photographs explore the emotions that are connected to human experience, from girls navigating their way through adolescence to remains and decomposing bodies. Her most famous and provocative series was photographs of her three young children.
Textile Art
From the elaborate garb of royalty to minimalist woven wall hangings, Textile Art has been revered both for its technical expertise and visual appearance.
November 1, 2022
Emily Carr
Canadian Artist
Emily Carr was a Canadian painter and national heroine, known for putting the wild Western Canadian landscape and its indigenous inhabitants on the global art map.
Jonathan Eastman Johnson
American Painter
Movements and Styles: American Realism, Realism
Jonathan Eastman Johnson's paintings addressed the civil war, the abolition of slavery, and scenes of simple rural life in New England.
Evelyn De Morgan
English Painter
The Symbolist painter Evelyn De Morgan engaged with political, social and moral issues of 19th century England including prison reform and women's suffrage.
Jean-Baptiste Greuze
French Painter
Movements and Styles: The Rococo, Neoclassicism
The French painter Jean-Baptise Greuze was famous for his genre paintings(colorful vignettes), as well as "innocent" portraits of young women.
Leon Kossoff
British Painter
Movements and Styles: Expressionism, School of London
At a time when Conceptualism and Minimalism were dominating the contemporary art scene, Kossoff emerged from within a group of radical figurative painters known as "The School of London".
Coco Fusco
Cuban-American Artist
Striking and intensely political images, porformances and installtions that make up Coco Fusco's intertwined practice of art and activism.
Rockwell Kent
American Painter, Illustrator, Wood engraver, Draughtsman, and Architect
Rockwell Kent was revered mystical landscape paintings that captured the essence of natural wilderness.
Suprematism Updated
Suprematism was one of the most radical developments in abstract art that was meant to be superior to all prior, and that would lead to art's barest essentials.
September 30, 2022
Hyman Bloom
American Painter
Movements and Styles: Expressionism
Bloom's paintings explored Judaism, Eastern religion, and the occult, while maintaining a consistent thematic and figurative quality.
Amy Sherald
American Painter
Rising to fame after being hand-picked by former First Lady Michelle Obama to paint her official portrait, Amy Sherald is today one of the best-known Black American artists.
Louise Moillon
French Painter
Movements and Styles: The Baroque
Louise Moillon was one of the most important early 17th century French still life painters.
Alfonso Ossorio
Filipino-American Painter and Assemblage Artist
Ossorio, a key player in the Abstract Expressionist and Art Brut movements, is also remembered for his assemblages, or what he called, "Congregations".
Superflex
The Danish artist collective Superflex are product designers, artists, community organizers, and project coordinators, working to critique capitalism and commodification of modern life.
September 27, 2022
Nobuyoshi Araki
Japanese Photographer
One of the most famous and influential Japanese photographers of the post-war period, Araki's work is technically masterful and culturallly rich.
Bill Brandt
British Photographer
Bill Brandt was an British photographer and photojournalist known for his high-contrast images of British society and his emboldened nudes.
Constructivism Updated
Constructivism flourished in Russia with an entirely new approach, a technical analysis of modern materials to serve modern society.
August 15, 2022
Alice Rahon
French-Mexican Painter and Poet
Rahon is best known as a poet and painter whose Surrealistic imagery influenced by the pre-historic, the mythological, and the mystical.
Roger de La Fresnaye
French Artist
Movements and Styles: Cubism, Salon Cubism, Expressionism, Symbolism
The French painter La Fresnaye was a leading member of the Salon Cubists.
Laura Aguilar
Mexican-American Photographer
Photographer Laura Aguilar provided new possibilities for the depictions of subjects and bodies that had traditionally been excluded from art history.
Ulay
German Artist
Ulay's artworks influenced a generation of Performance, Body, and Installation artists and became foundational to an art-world understanding of the power of live performance in a gallery.
Lavinia Fontana
Italian Painter
Movements and Styles: Mannerism, High Renaissance
Fontana was one of the first professional female artists, working on many prestigious commissions in Bologna and Rome.
Aegean Art
The islands of the Aegean Sea once produced a wealth of unique, influential, and mysterious artworks and cultural artefacts.
French Art
In many ways, the history of France and its culture are interconnected with the country's achievements in the arts.
Dieter Roth
German-Swiss Artist
The creative and witty Dieter Roth was a Swiss artist famous for his artist books, prints, sculptures, and works made out of found materials.
Pope.L
American Performance Artist
Pope.L's diverse artworks pushed the limits of his body and challenged audiences to reflect on identity and poverty.
Carsten Höller
Belgian-German Installation Artist and Sculptor
Carsten Höller's interactive artworks break down the divide between art, personal space, and sensory experience.
Carlo Carrà
Italian Painter and Writer
Carlo Carra was a leading figure of the Futurist movement that flourished in Italy during the beginning of the twentieth century. In addition to his many paintings, he wrote a number of books on art.
Joaquín Clausell
Mexican Painter
Movements and Styles: Impressionism, Post-Impressionism
Clausell is Mexico's pre-eminent Impressionists focusing on the country's national parks, canals, and seascapes.
Rachel Ruysch
Dutch Painter
Movements and Styles: Dutch Golden Age, The Baroque
Ruysch is the celebrated painter of still lifes and flower pieces to emerge during the Dutch Golden Age.
Historical African Art
The histories, themes, and styles of African Art are as diverse as the communities and cultures that traverse the continent.
Identity Art and Identity Politics Updated
Artists of color, LGBTQ+ artists, and women have used their art to stage and display experiences of identity and community.
Raymond Duchamp-Villon
French Sculptor
Movements and Styles: Cubism, Salon Cubism, Avant-Garde Art
Raymond Duchamp-Villon successfully applyed Cubist principles to sculptural works.
Luca Signorelli
Italian Painter
Movements and Styles: High Renaissance
The Renaissance painter Luca Signorelli is most revered for his rendering of figures in action and his unparalleled mastery of the human anatomy.
Rufino Tamayo
Mexican Painter
Movements and Styles: Cubism, Mexican Muralism
The Mexican painter and printmaker Rufino Tamayo stayed away from pro-revolution political statements preferring to promote ideas of personal freedom and liberty
Ford Madox Brown
British Painter
Ford Madox Brown was best-known for his paintings of historical and moral subjects. Although he used vivid colors and realism in his works, Brown was not a member of the original Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood, but instead a friend and inspiration of many of its members.
Glenn Ligon
American Painter and Printmaker
Glenn Ligon is one of the most astute observers and commentators on race, sexuality, and history in America.
Cave Art
Cave Art (or Paleolithic Art) is a broad term for the earliest known art-making in human history.
Lorenzo Ghiberti
Italian Sculptor and Goldsmith
The artist and sculptor Lorenzo Ghiberti is credited with creating one of the greatest masterpieces in Renaissance Italian art, the east doors for the Baptistery in Florence Cathedral.
Tyree Guyton
American Urban Environment Artist, Outsider Artist, Painter, Mixed Media and Installation Artist
The American artist Tyree Guyton transformed his devastated Detroit neighborhood into a living art gallery.
Abstract Expressionism: Second Generation
After the dominance of Abstract Expressionism a group of artists with disparate styles and approaches pointed the way forward.
February 27, 2022
Jacob Riis
Danish-American Photographer
As a newspaper reporter, photographer, and social reformer, Riis rattled the conscience of Americans with his descriptions - pictorial and written - of New York's slum conditions.
Lucas Cranach the Elder
German Painter and Printmaker
Movements and Styles: Northern Renaissance
The most important artist of the Protestant Reformation, Lucas Cranach the Elder court portraiture and woodcuts helped the religion become the major movement within Christianity in sixteenth century Europe.
Erich Heckel
German Painter, Printmaker, Sculptor
A founding members of Die Brücke group, Heckel was instrumental in putting Expressionism on the map of twentieth century modernism.
Horst P. Horst
German-American Photographer
Movements and Styles: Fashion Photography, Surrealism
Horst P. Horst was a pioneer of fashion and portrait photography and a key figure in the development of 20th century photography as a whole.
Lawrence Weiner
American Conceptual Artist
Movements and Styles: Conceptual Art, Public Art, Post-Minimalism
Lawrence Weiner was one of the pioneers of text-as-art. His use of language is notable for its lyricism, its inquisitive engagement with the material world around it, and its playful visual forms.
Filippo Brunelleschi
Italian Goldsmith, Architect, and Sculptor
Movements and Styles: Early Renaissance, Modern Architecture
The architect and sculptor Filippo Brunelleschi was one of the foundational figures of the Italian Renaissance.
Paolo Uccello
Italian Painter and Mosaicist
The Renessance painter Paolo Uccello pioneered visual perspective and blended a mathematical approach to compositions with more decorative qualities.
Fernando Botero
Colombian Painter and Sculptor
Movements and Styles: Political Artists, Satirical Artists
Painting in a distinct style known as "Boterismo," Botero depicts his subjects as disproportionately round often infusing them with irony or amplifying a political bend.
David Bailey
English Photographer
An iconic photographer as well as a filmmaker, David Bailey revolutionized fashion photography and portraiture by introducing a new informality to portraiture and street imagery.
Roland Barthes
French Philosopher, Social Theorist, and Semiotician
Movements and Styles: Postmodernism
Roland Barthes is France's best-known essayist and literary critic and his Post-structuralism (or Deconstructionism) ideas have been wide-reaching and have had a profound impact on how we interpret artworks.
Maria Izquierdo
Mexican Painter and Watercolorist
Movements and Styles: Feminist Art
The Mexican painter María Izquierdo brought indigenous motifs into her art and gave them new layers of meanings.
Henry Ossawa Tanner
American Painter
Movements and Styles: Impressionism, Orientalism, Realism, Symbolism
Henry Ossawa Tanner moved to France and became the first African American man to achieve international acclaim as a painter.
Robert Henri
American Painter and Teacher
The leader of the Ashcan School, the painter Robert Henri pave the way for the development of twentieth-century American Realism.
Albert Bierstadt
German-American Landscape Painter
Bierstadt is one of America's greatest landscape artists who made epic panoramas of the untamed American West that proved immensely popular with the American public.
Menashe Kadishman
Israeli Painter and Sculptor
The sculptor and painter Menashe Kadishman established himself in the movements of Minimalism, Conceptual Art, and Neo-Expressionism before focusing on themes of Jewish heritage and familial sacrifice.
Monir Farmanfarmaian
Iranian Mosaic Artist
Movements and Styles: Minimalism, Feminist Art
The Iranian mosaic artist Monir Farmanfarmaian - a vibrant, adventurous individual - connected her Persian background with avant-garde postmodernism.
Cimabue
Italian Painter and Mosaicist
Movements and Styles: Byzantine Art, Early Renaissance
The Painter and Mosaicist Cimabue took the lead role in the transition from the medieval/Byzantine to the modern era of Italian art.
Robert Longo
American Photographer, Sculptor, Filmmaker, and Musician
Movements and Styles: The Pictures Generation, Postmodernism
With his torqued figures in suits and dresses caught as if mid-fall, Robert Longo's art unpacked popular imagery for contemporary audiences.
Paul Cadmus
American Painter, Printmaker, and Photographer
Paul Cadmus was a pioneer of Queer Art who with an incisive, satirical gaze, depicted scenes from modern American life in all of its beautiful and grotesque details.
Matthias Grünewald
German Renaissance Painter
Movements and Styles: Northern Renaissance
The Northern Renaissance artist Matthias Grünewald painted the mystical spiritual style of late medieval, religious European art.
Ivan Albright
American Painter
Movements and Styles: Magic Realism, American Realism
American Realist artist Ivan Albright focused his detailed paintings on mortality and the fragility of human life.
Antoni Tàpies
Spanish Mixed Media Artist
Movements and Styles: Art Informel, Surrealism, Neo-Expressionism
Tàpies created thick surfaces built up from harsh matterials unearthing of primal forms, becoming a major influence on modern painting.
Alan Sonfist
American Land Artist
The Environmental artist Alan Sonfist has explored issues of ecological deterioration, preservation, and what would later be understood as "climate change" via methods of the naturalist, historian, and urban planner.
Correggio
Italian Renaissance Painter
Movements and Styles: High Renaissance, The Baroque
Correggio, a preeminent Renaissance painter, created powerful pictorial drama that anticipated the emergence of the Baroque and Rococo styles.
Tania Bruguera
Cuban Artist and Political Activist
Cuban artist Tania Bruguera creates challenging performative works, as well as community outreach programs that are central to contemporary political art.
Christo and Jeanne-Claude
Bulgarian-American and French-Moroccan Sculptors, Photographers, and Conceptual Artists
Christo and Jeanne-Claude large-scale installations stand out as some of the greatest achievements in site-specific art.
Jacques Villon
French Painter, Illustrator, and Printmaker
Movements and Styles: Cubism, Salon Cubism, Synthetic Cubism
Jacques Villon excelled Belle Époque printmaking before advancing the rise of Cubism.
Antonio Canova
Italian Sculptor
Movements and Styles: Neoclassicism, Romanticism
Antonio Canova drew inspiration from Greek and Roman art to become the leading and iconic sculptors of Neoclassicism.
Public Art
Whether a statue in a town square or a rough guerrilla-style marking Public Art engages with audiences outside of galleries and museums.
September 18, 2021
Wifredo Lam
Cuban Painter, Sculptor, and Printmaker
The Cuban artist Wifredo Lam was a trailblazer who helped open up mid-century modern art to Black historical awareness+.
Christian Boltanski
French Sculptor, Photographer, Painter, and Film Maker
Boltanski focus on memory, the holocaust, mortality, and mourning made him a leader within the Conceptual Art and Post-Minimalism movements.
Fra Filippo Lippi
Italian Painter
Movements and Styles: Early Renaissance
Fra Filippo Lippi, one of the great masters of the Early Renaissance, combined traditions of devotional art and humanist influences.
Vito Acconci
American Artist and Architect
Vito Acconci boundary-pushing performances used powerful language, audience engagement, and sex and eroticism to create innovative viewing situations.
British Impressionism
The movement of Impressionism, which originated in France, was concerned with capturing the momentary impression made by a visual scene on the artist's eye. It took hold in Britain both through continental influences and independent lines of development, from J.M.W. Turner's expressive seascapes to the delicate night scenes of James Abbott McNeill Whistler. Whistler's work of the 1860s-80s had a profound impact on a younger generation of painters such as Walter Sickert and Philip Wilson Steer, who were involved in creating the defining networks and events of British Impressionism, including the New English Art Club and the London Impressionists exhibition, towards the end of the 1880s. Meanwhile, another group of Whistler's acolytes in Scotland, the Glasgow Boys, developed a distinctive Impressionist-influenced style equally indebted to the Naturalism of Jules Bastien-Lepage. While all this was happening, British artists were also developing vital and sustaining creative relationships with French contemporaries and masters, such as Sickert with Degas, which also fed into the evolution of British Impressionism.
September 5, 2021
Gala Dalí
Russian-Spanish Art Patron and Muse
Movements and Styles: Surrealism
A muse to no fewer than three of is key members - Paul Éluard, Max Ernst, and Salvador Dalí - Gala Dalí grew into an astute critic and uncompromising businesswoman.
Anton Raphael Mengs
German Painter
Movements and Styles: The Rococo, The Baroque, Neoclassicism
Mengs was regarded by many in his day as Europe's most important painter and he was a strong advocate of formal arts education and national art academies with many of his former pupils going on to achieve prominent positions in Academies of Europe.
Hieronymus Bosch Updated
Dutch Painter and Draughtsman
Bosch is the visionary painter most celebrated for his detail-drenched and narrative renditions.
American Realism
American Realism is a tendency that has traveled the timeline of American history and through its various manifestations such as Hudson River School, Ashcan School, Regionalism, and Photorealism, having shaped America's identity as a nation.
Art for Art's Sake Updated
Definition of Art for Art's Sake idea and uses in the history of visual art.
Louis Aragon
French Poet and Writer
Louis Aragon was a French poet and writer for several revolutionary and avant-garde journals. He was involved with Dada in Paris before helping found Surrealism in 1924.
Richard Morris Hunt
American Architect
Movements and Styles: Beaux Arts Architecture, Gothic Revival
Richard Morris Hunt is widely credited with transforming American architectural design and became one of the most recognized architects in America.
LS Lowry
English Painter
Movements and Styles: Existentialism in Modern Art
Lowry is perhaps England's most instantly recognizable painter whose signature "matchstick men" go about their business within industrial backgrounds.
Peter Halley
American Abstract Artist
Movements and Styles: Post-Minimalism, Neo-Geo, Installation Art
Peter Halley is an abstract artist known for his geometric paintings with the use of intense day-glo colors.
Stéphane Mallarmé
French Poet and Art Critic
Stéphane Mallarmé is considered one of the greatest French poets of the later nineteenth century. He was also a champion of many of the avant-garde artists of the time, including the Impressionists and Post-Impressionists.
Albert C. Barnes
American Doctor and Art Collector, Educator, and Writer
The pharmacy mogul Albert Barnes was a philanthropic art collector who built the world famous Barnes Foundation of modern art.
Raoul Hausmann
Austrian Sculptor, Photographer, and Writer
Movements and Styles: Dada, Photomontage, Collage, Modern Photography
One of the founders of Berlin Dada, Hausmann is credited with formulating the technique of photomontage with his companion Hannah Höch.
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