- The International StyleOur PickBy Henry Russell Hitchcock and Philip Johnson
- International Style (Taschen's World Architecture)Our PickBy Hasan-Uddin Kahn and Philip Jodido
- Le Corbusier and the Maisons JaoulBy Caroline Benton
Important Art and Artists of The International Style
Home to the state-supported school for the applied arts, the Bauhaus was founded in Weimar in 1919 by Walter Gropius, but moved to Dessau in 1925 when political conditions in the latter became more favorable to its left-leaning educational climate. Gropius designed the school's new permanent home along with the faculty residences nearby that same year.
The pinwheel-plan institutional building is composed of an asymmetrical set of prismatic structures of reinforced concrete. Each section - dormitories, studio spaces, offices, and refectory - uses a different design that delineates its respective function with remarkable clarity, particularly the use of massive glass curtain walls for the studio spaces to maximize the admittance of natural light. The wraparound corners of these windows, which emerge from the plane of the rest of the facade, enable one to see through two sides of the structure simultaneously, a feature that prompted architectural critic Reyner Banham to call it the first "Cubist" building. The complex only housed the Bauhaus for four years before the political climate became untenable and it moved to Berlin, closing for good under Nazi pressure in 1933.
The Villa Savoye is the last of Le Corbusier's houses that he designed during the 1920s, and fittingly is considered the summation of his "Five Points of a New Architecture" elucidated in his treatise Vers une architecture (1923). The pilotis, or thin point-support columns, are arranged in a near-perfect grid that provides the architect almost complete freedom in the designs of both the floor plan and the facades. The second floor, the main living space, is characterized by the ribbon windows that provide unencumbered views of the landscape - fostering the strong connection between nature and the machine - and it is crowned by a roof terrace.
Built entirely out of the industrial materials of steel, concrete, and glass, the Villa Savoye exhibits several links with the modern means of transportation that fascinated Le Corbusier. The terrace features a sculptural wall whose curved forms echo the smokestacks of ocean liners, a relationship which is underscored by the placement of the house within a large lawn, much like a ship sailing through a vast sea; and in the metal ship-deck railings of the ramps that connect the house's three levels. Meanwhile, the curve of the driveway as it snakes around the first level uses the exact turning radius of a 1929 model Voisin - the automobile manufacturer that had supported Le Corbusier's work throughout the decade. The villa thus represents the way Le Corbusier conceived of a dwelling as "a machine for living."
Mies and Lilly Reich together designed the German Pavilion for the 1929 World's Fair in Barcelona - a structure which now ranks among the most significant temporary structures ever built, particularly for an international exposition. Demolished after the fair, it was reconstructed in 1986 using the original plans, now in the collection of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. It constitutes Mies' most succinct statement in the reduction of a building to the minimal requirements to define space: a handful of columns elevated on a platform juxtaposed with asymmetrically-arranged opaque and transparent wall planes, supporting a flat roof.
The Pavilion functioned during the fair as simply a reception space for dignitaries, as the Weimar government had other space for actual exhibits. Though there is an extreme emphasis on horizontality, the platform of travertine (a common stone used in ancient classical monuments) elevates it much like a Greek temple, with a structural clarity to match. But also here we see the fineness of materials: the cruciform-plan steel columns are chrome-plated, and the interior is ornamented solely with a red curtain, while the colored onyx walls are cut to expose the diamond pattern, all of which recalling an attention to refinement and craftsmanship that is balanced with the building's clear machine-made qualities. It therefore exemplifies the visual form of Mies' famous dictum, "Less is more."