André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
Hans Arp (also known as Jean Arp) was a German-French artist who incorporated chance, randomness, and organic forms into his sculptures, paintings, and collages. He was involved with Zurich Dada, Surrealism, and the Abstraction-Creation movement.
Max Ernst was a German Dadaist and Surrealist whose paintings and collages combine dream-like realism, automatic techniques, and eerie subject matter.
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
The Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti created semi-abstract sculptures that took up themes of violence, sex, and Surrealism. His famous later work is characterized by towering, elongated figures in bronze.
Active in Paris from the 1920s onward, and influenced by Surrealism, Miró developed a style of biomorphic abstraction which blended abstract figurative motifs, large fields of color, and primitivist symbols. This style would be an important inspiration for many Abstract Expressionists.
René Magritte has achieved great popular acclaim for his idiosyncratic approach to Surrealism. His beautiful and troubling images of bowler-hatted men and nature scenes are popular in art and general circles.
Man Ray was an American artist in Paris whose photograms, objects, drawings, and other works played an important role in Dada, Surrealism, modern photography, and avant-garde art at large.
Yves Tanguy was a French painter and one of the key figures of French Surrealism in the early twentieth century. Having never received any formal training, Tanguy was a self-taught painter who became best known for his highly imaginitive landscapes and detailed precision.
Leonora Carrington was a British-born Mexican artist, painter and novelist, commonly associated with the Surrealist movement. As one of the few female Surrealist artists, Carrington made a distinct and lasting impression in the 1940s while showing work at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York and international exhibitions of Surrealist artists.
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
Meret Oppenheim was a Swiss artist best-known for her work in Surrealism. A decade into the start of this movement, Oppenheim was invited to join the surrealist exhibition, "Salon des Surindependants" by Hans Arp and Alberto Giacometti, who were impressed by her work after visiting her studio. After this first appearance, Oppenheim had many solo exhibitions throughout and after her career, in Europe and in the United States. The artist's most famous work is the surrealist sculpture, Object (Le Dejeuner en fourrure), which consists of a teacup covered in fur.
Hans Richter was a German-born American painter, graphic artist and experimental most importantly, filmmaker. Associated with the German Expressionist group The Blue Rider, and later with the Dada movement and De Stijl, Richter's life work is renowned for spanning much of the twentieth-century modern canon.
Hans Bellmer was a twentieth-century German avant-garde photographer and draughtsman, commonly associated with the Surrealism movement. Bellmer is best known for creating a series of pubescent female dolls in the 1930s, which were designed as a direct criticism of Nazi-controlled Germany and its idealization of the perfect human form. Bellmer eventually fled Germany for Paris and was embraced by Breton and the French Surrealists.
Luis Bunuel Portoles was a Spanish-born Mexican filmmaker and avant-garde auteur. Heavily influenced by Surrealism, Dada and religious lore, Bunuel's films were famous for their disturbing imagery and dreamlike sensibility. In addition to his adopted Mexico, he filmed in France and the United States.
Cahun's photographs are renowned for blurring the lines between gender and sexuality, as illustrated in her Surrealist-inspired and non-gender specific photomontages and self-portraits.
The Spanish-Mexican Surrealist Varo, a well-studied alchemist, seeker, and naturalist, created dreamlike imagery often dealing with individual balance in an interconnected universe.
André Masson was one of the pioneers of Surrealism. He specialized in dreamscapes of writhing mythological figures and tortured natural forms.
A muse to no fewer than three of is key members - Paul Éluard, Max Ernst, and Salvador Dalí - Gala Dalí grew into an astute critic and uncompromising businesswoman.
Paul Eluard was a French poet, and one of the original participants in the Surrealism movement, forming strong ties with the likes of Breton, Aragon and Ernst.
Louis Aragon was a French poet and writer for several revolutionary and avant-garde journals. He was involved with Dada in Paris before helping found Surrealism in 1924.
Baudelaire was a French poet and art critic during the mid-nineteenth century. He was an early promoter of the Impressionists, and developed the idea of the flanuer (one who wanders the city to experience it), which had a lasting legacy on the modern era.