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Artists John Chamberlain
John Chamberlain Photo

John Chamberlain

American Filmmaker, Sculptor, Painter, and Printmaker

Movement: Abstract Expressionism

Born: April 16, 1927 - Rochester, Indiana

Died: December 21, 2011 - New York, New York, USA

John Chamberlain Timeline


"I wasn't interested in car parts per se, I was interested in either the color or the shape or the amount... Just the sheet metal. It already had a coat of paint on it. And some of it was formed.... I believe that common materials are the best materials."
John Chamberlain
"Art is a liaison between some sort of deranged mentality and others who are not going through it."
John Chamberlain
"...one day something - some one thing - pops out at you, and you pick it up, and you take it over, and you put it somewhere else, and it fits. It's just the right thing at the right moment. You can do the same thing with words or with metal."
John Chamberlain
"You use [colors] in a graffiti manner, or as though you were writing a foreign language that you didn't really know, so you write as if it were a penmanship exercise rather than communication."
John Chamberlain
"Art is basically made by dissatisfied people who are willing to find some means to relieve the dissatisfaction."
John Chamberlain

"My work has nothing to do with car wrecks."

John Chamberlain Signature


John Chamberlain is known internationally for his long career of making vividly colored and vibrantly dynamic sculptures using discarded automobile parts that he twisted and welded into monumental shapes. He used the early modernist techniques of collage and assemblage at a magnified scale and he emphasized the brilliant colors of automotive paint. Chamberlain's sculptures appeared in New York at the same time as the paintings of the Abstract Expressionists; some were his mentors and they shared a similar critical reception.

Key Ideas

Chamberlain used the jagged edges and curved surfaces of the salvaged auto parts in his spontaneous, instinctual process. In effect, this was similar to Abstract Expressionist painters who used house painters' brushes, mops, brooms, and poured paint to make splashy gestural marks and washes of saturated color.
Scorning the presumptions of critics and intellectuals, Chamberlain was not commenting on the waste and taste of American consumers. He chose materials that were cheap, abundant and easy to work with, plus he enjoyed the process of finding and accumulating them. Their brilliant commercial colors and flashy surfaces inspired his creativity.
Chamberlain's art gave the common materials he used - steel from auto bodies, foam rubber used for cheap furniture, Plexiglas boxes, and paper bags - new meaning in sculpture. His experiments with what he openly called "junk" or "garbage" took place at a monumental scale and, along with their rough facture, revealed a range of new choices for his contemporaries.
Chamberlain achievement was to be able to work at any scale. He said that if you got the scale right, the size never mattered, as long as you understood how the pieces fit together. The fit he discovered and utilized was based on the implied relationship between size and scale.


John Chamberlain Photo


Born April 16, 1927 in Rochester, Indiana, Chamberlain was the son of a fifth-generation saloonkeeper. When he was four his parents divorced and he went to live with his grandmother in Chicago. There he discovered an interest in music but lacked the talent to pursue the training. As a rebellious teenager he and a friend decided to hit the road for California. On their way they were arrested and told to move on: mostly to stay out of trouble Chamberlain lied about his age and joined the Navy at 16 in 1943.

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John Chamberlain Biography Continues

Important Art by John Chamberlain

The below artworks are the most important by John Chamberlain - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Cord (1957)
Artwork Images

Cord (1957)

Artwork description & Analysis: In his twenties while living in Chicago, Chamberlain discovered the sculpture of David Smith at the Art Institute. About Smith's work he said, "I liked it a lot because it wasn't representing something else...and it was a very strange looking thing...and because I hadn't seen anything like that before." Explaining the making of his early pieces he said, "I found myself working with a certain spontaneity. I was trying to attach the top part of (a sculpture) to the lower half, but when I put it in the right place, it connected up in three different places, so it told me how to put it together."

Chamberlain's first steel sculptures emphasized the linear "drawn in the air" quality of Smith and other 1950s sculptors, but in Cord the steel rods and fittings have been clustered and massed into shapes with physically greater volume. Notice that Cord is a tangle of metal rods and fittings elevated by several short posts and perched over a pedestal base. In his future works Chamberlain eliminated the pedestal and placed his sculptures directly on the floor. Eliminating the pedestal was a goal of the 1960s sculptors, many of whom sought this more emphatic and less precious mode of presentation. When placing work directly on the floor it became incumbent on Chamberlain to make the metal parts fit together so as to be weight bearing. He continued to use spot welding to reinforce the structure as was done in Cord but when his pieces became larger, freestanding, and more complex, an armature within their mass was a necessity. With the contrasts of its sharp-edged vertical and horizontal elements, Cord predicts the look of his art to come.

- Formerly Allan Stone, New York

Shortstop (1957)
Artwork Images

Shortstop (1957)

Artwork description & Analysis: Shortstop launched Chamberlain's career as a major artist in the mid-20th century; his subsequent works with car parts stemmed from this initial breakthrough piece. Made entirely from "found" materials - the fenders of an abandoned antique Ford - Shortstop reinvested the French Surrealists' use of "found objects" with American virility.

Chamberlain was building on the the Surrealists' techniques of collage and assemblage that had relied on chance juxtapositions, and which were still in vogue with poets, painters and other sculptors. It was frequently their goal to shock readers and viewers by unlikely combinations of words and images. In addition, Marcel Duchamp - inventor of the "readymades" - was the acknowledged grand master of the visual arts contingent of Surrealists and lived in New York City at this time.

To make Shortstop, Chamberlain altered the fenders he had found by driving over them with a truck and then joined them together by a process of trial and error, accepting cues from the way the pieces themselves suggested their fit. After this piece he went to scrap yards deliberately to search for discarded auto parts suited to his creative inspirations. Recognizing his sources critics were swift to observe that their power as abstract art might come from tragic accidents. Although he would reject their allusions to a car wreck, Chamberlain surely knew that the poetry of his work came from the unexpected vigor of tortured metals contorted visually into the afterimage of a crash.

Painted and chromium-plated steel and iron - Dia Art Foundation, New York, New York

Zaar (1959)
Artwork Images

Zaar (1959)

Artwork description & Analysis: In the post-World War II cultural atmosphere automobiles were an important symbol of American recovery and industrial leadership. Materials for metal sculpture had always been expensive: the fact that Chamberlain discovered a source in discarded metals brought him recognition for his ingenuity. And the colors he found were a bonus, for there were few artists making colorful sculpture at this time. But his forays into junkyards did not focus exclusively on car parts. Zaar was composed chiefly of a steel bench with a red stripe.

Chamberlain's art succeeded on several levels. To some viewers the sculptures made a statement against a progressive consumer culture that embraced the new and rejected the old. In addition, he titled his works with a self-indulgent humor. Since his college years Chamberlain had written poetry and read widely so he wasn't above using sly allusions to popular culture. Zaar was a popular hair treatment used to make permanent waves: Chamberlain must have dealt with it when he worked as a hairdresser in Chicago, before becoming an artist. The curvy outlines of Zaar might have reminded him of that product.

Welded steel, painted - Raymond and Patsy Nasher Collection, Dallas, Texas

More John Chamberlain Artwork and Analysis:

Miss Lucy Pink (1962) Untitled (1967) Norma Jean Rising (1967) Luftschloss (1979) Gondola Charles Olson (1982) Seagram Building Installation (2012)

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
John Chamberlain
Interactive chart with John Chamberlain's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


David SmithDavid Smith
Julio GonzalezJulio Gonzalez
Richard StankiewiczRichard Stankiewicz
Vincent van GoghVincent van Gogh

Personal Contacts

Willem de KooningWillem de Kooning
Donald JuddDonald Judd
Franz KlineFranz Kline
Robert CreeleyRobert Creeley
Charles OlsonCharles Olson


Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism

Influences on Artist
John Chamberlain
John Chamberlain
Years Worked: 1957-2011
Influenced by Artist


Frank StellaFrank Stella
Nancy RubinsNancy Rubins

Personal Contacts

Donald JuddDonald Judd
Andy WarholAndy Warhol


Pop ArtPop Art
Process ArtProcess Art
Junk ArtJunk Art

Useful Resources on John Chamberlain






The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

written by artist

Hans Ulrich Obrist and John Chamberlain: The Conversation Series Recomended resource

By Hans Ulrich Obrist, John Chamberlain


John Chamberlain: A Catalogue Raisonne of the Sculpture 1954-1985 Recomended resource

By Julie Sylvester

John Chamberlain: The Foam Sculptures

By Klaus Kertess, Marianne Stockebrand, Iris Winkelmeyer, John Chamberlain

More Interesting Books about John Chamberlain
A Crusher of Cars, a Molder of Metal

By Randy Kennedy
The New York Times
May 8, 2011

In the Studio: John Chamberlain

By Annette Grant
Art + Auction
July 2, 2008

John Chamberlain's Heavy Metal

By Daniel Kunitz
The New York Sun
February 21, 2008

Unshackled, Unconventional Sculptor Recomended resource

By Carol Strickland
The New York Times
June 13, 1993

More Interesting Articles about John Chamberlain
John Chamberlain's Steel Vision Recomended resource

Sotheby's TV

John Chamberlain: Modern Sculpture

ART/New York Program

The Chamberlain Couch - 1976

Chamberlain makes a couch for artist John Hersey

John Chamberlain at Pace, New York - March 2008

Exhibition footage

More Interesting Videos with John Chamberlain

in pop culture

The Secret Life of Hernando Cortez - 1969

Chamberlain directed and appeared in this film

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein
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