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Artists Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters Photo

Kurt Schwitters

German Painter, Collagist, and Writer

Movement: Dada

Born: June 20, 1887 - Hanover, Germany

Died: January 8, 1948 - Kendel, Cumbria, England

Kurt Schwitters Timeline

Quotes

"Art is a primordial concept, exalted as the godhead, inexplicable as life, indefinable and without purpose"
Kurt Schwitters
"In the war [at the machine factory at Wulfen] I discovered my love for the wheel and recognized that machines are abstractions of the human spirit."
Kurt Schwitters
"Merz stands for freedom from all fetters, for the sake of artistic creation. Freedom is not lack of restraint, but the product of strict artistic discipline."
Kurt Schwitters
"The artist creates by choosing, distributing, and reshaping the materials."
Kurt Schwitters
"I felt myself freed and had to shout my jubilation out to the world. Out of parsimony I took whatever I found to do this because we were now an impoverished country. One can even shout with refuse, and this is what I did, nailing and gluing it together. I called it 'Merz': it was a prayer about the victorious end of the war .. everything had broken down .. and new things had to be made out of the fragments: and this is Merz.
Kurt Schwitters
"I could see no reason why used tram tickets, bits of driftwood, buttons and old junk from attics and rubbish heaps should not serve well as materials for paintings; they suited the purpose just as well as factory-made paints... It is possible to cry out using bits of old rubbish, and that's what I did, gluing and nailing them together."
Kurt Schwitters
"Merz art strives for immediate expression by shortening the path from intuition to visual manifestation of the artwork.. ..they will receive my new work as they always have when something new presents itself: with indignation and screams of scorn."
Kurt Schwitters
"Any desire to reproduce natural forms .. limits the force and consistency of working out an expression."
Kurt Schwitters
"The picture is a self-sufficient work of art. It is not connected to anything outside."
Kurt Schwitters

"Merz, means to create connections, preferably between everyting in this world"

Kurt Schwitters Signature

Synopsis

Directly affected by the depressed state of Germany following World War I, and the modernist ethos of the Dada movement, Kurt Schwitters began to collect garbage from the streets and incorporate it directly into his art work. The resulting collages were characterized by their especially harmonious, sentimental arrangements and their incorporation of printed media. He actively produced artistic journals, illustrated works, and advertisements, as well as founding his own Merz journal. He wrote poems and musical works that played with letters, lacing them together in unusual combinations, as he'd done in the collages, in the hope of encouraging his audience to find their own meanings. His multiple avant-garde efforts culminated in his large merzbau creations. These works, collaborations with other avant-garde artists, would start with one object to which others were added, causing the whole piece to change and evolve over time, growing to great proportions that forced the viewer to actually experience, rather than simply view, the art.

Key Ideas

Schwitters used actual trash, such as broken items and scraps of paper, in his collages. Although the use of found objects aligns him with other branches of Dada, his bold dependence on society's throw-aways provoked additional associations on the part of the viewer and differentiated his expression. Ultimately, he investigated links between seemingly unconnected objects and ideas.
Instead of honoring the age-old tradition of giving precedent to text and containing visual imagery to set areas by essentially dividing the page into quadrants, Schwitters' print work exhibits a lack of order: his advertisements, artwork, and text are placed in unexpected areas. As a result, the space left between draws equal attention to the text and images themselves, challenging the organizational hierarchy by which printed documents were formerly governed.
Schwitters' work was critical in the early development of experiential art. His Merzbau, for example, created through collaboration with other artists and evolving with the constant addition of elements, were a kind of walk-in collage necessitating the viewer to assume an active role in the work's interpretation and significance.
In a very different format, but with similarly exploratory goals, Schwitters created a poem he called Ursonate, a musical composition composed of letters strung together into sounds, not words, which compelled the audience to create her own connections and draw her own significance. Schwitters' part in modernism is emphasized in this auditory performance work as well as the visual oeuvre, both encouraging the audience to find a way to draw their own conclusions; to enable them to find a better world beyond the depressed one in which they lived between the wars.

Biography

Kurt Schwitters Photo

Childhood

Kurt Schwitters was born on June 20, 1887 in Hanover, Germany. He was the only child in a middle class family. As a boy, he travelled with his father to the 1900 World's Fair in Paris. When he was 14, he had his first epileptic fit, signifying the start of a recurring condition that the artist felt continually impacted how he related to the world.

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Kurt Schwitters Biography Continues

Important Art by Kurt Schwitters

The below artworks are the most important by Kurt Schwitters - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Revolving (1919)

Revolving (1919)

Artwork description & Analysis: This work demonstrates a significant shift in Schwitters' early artistic practice from primarily conservative figurative painting to abstract collage. After World War I, Schwitters began to collect broken and discarded materials he found on the streets and arrange them into works of art. Born from the rubble left by the war, these works emphasize the fact that art can be made from destruction; that urban detritus could be made into something beautiful. In Revolving, found items are organized to form lines and shapes to which he adds bits of yellow and blue paint for shading. He creates a geometrically harmonious work by finding a careful balance between the physical roughness of the found materials and the smooth shapes they form. The concept that attaching small objects (not to mention - garbage) to the surface of the canvas could be considered art was radical. Yet Schwitters was convinced that the act of taking broken fragments and unifying them into a whole demonstrated art's potential to remake and reimagine a fractured world. Additionally, it enabled him to reject conventional illusionism, the rendering of objects as they appear, something he associated with trickery and even hypocrisy in light of the crumbling socio-economic situation in Germany following World War I.

Scrap wood, cord, cardboard, wool, leather and wire mesh and oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, New York

Merz Picture 32 A. The Cherry Picture (1921)

Merz Picture 32 A. The Cherry Picture (1921)

Artwork description & Analysis: In this work Schwitters continues his exploration of abstract collage, creating an intricate and complex work that incorporates many different materials and pieces. Merz Picture 32 A. The Cherry Picture is remarkable for its abstract design and its abandonment of any sense of illusionistic hierarchy. An interplay of colors (light and dark areas) as well as added materials such as wood and scraps of paper, suggest depth and there is a total abandonment of traditional one-point perspective. Especially notable is the use of elements featuring text, such as product labels and newspaper clippings. These examples of commercial culture provoked the viewer to consider the relationship between art and everyday life.

The focal point of the image is a white flashcard featuring a printed cluster of cherries and the German and French words for "cherry" upon which he has scribbled an ungrammatical phrase "Ich liebe dir!" ("I love she!"). He essentially takes a standard educational tool and destroys its utility with blatantly incorrect language. Like other Dada artists, Schwitters manipulated words and images in order to highlight the irrationality and arbitrariness of conventional systems, in this case, language.

Cut and pasted colored and printed paper, loth, wood, meal, cork, oil, pencil, and ink on paperboard - Museum of Modern Art, New York

Merz 11: Typoreklame (1924)

Merz 11: Typoreklame (1924)

Artwork description & Analysis: Merz 11 offers an example of Schwitters work within the print media, groundbreaking both contextually and stylistically. The content of the Merz Magazine, launched by Schwitters in 1923, was varied and eclectic, featuring a range of artistic forms, including poetry, prose, art and advertising, and representing a variety of avant-garde artistic movements including De Stijl, Constructivism, and Dada. In this way the Merz journal united different avant-garde networks while serving as a platform to promote Schwitters' own diverse work.

Formally, the journal had a very different look. With its bold red and black lines, irregularly positioned negative space, simplified sans-serif type, and asymmetrical layout, the cover of Merz 11 resembles the striking geometric style of Constructivism practiced at the Bauhaus. Noted in other books and periodicals published at the time in both Europe and Russia, this aesthetic exemplifies the most innovative, daring and up-to-date graphic design trend. Unique to Schwitters' composition, however, is the unpredictable, irregular, and lively use of space on the pages. This would have been quite startling to the contemporary viewer. The dynamic arrangement of text and the space left between on the page highlights the artist's awareness of typography's creative possibilities and his desire to elevate the status of graphic design to art.

Letterpress - Museum of Modern Art, New York

More Kurt Schwitters Artwork and Analysis:



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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Kurt Schwitters
Interactive chart with Kurt Schwitters's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Georges BraqueGeorges Braque
El LissitzkyEl Lissitzky
Hans ArpHans Arp

Personal Contacts

Theo van DoesburgTheo van Doesburg
Raoul HausmannRaoul Hausmann
Tristan TzaraTristan Tzara
Richard HuelsenbeckRichard Huelsenbeck

Movements

CubismCubism
DadaDada
De StijlDe Stijl

Influences on Artist
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Years Worked: 1917 - 1948
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Jasper JohnsJasper Johns
Robert RauschenbergRobert Rauschenberg
Ed RuschaEd Ruscha
ArmanArman
Joseph BeuysJoseph Beuys

Personal Contacts

Hans ArpHans Arp
Theo van DoesburgTheo van Doesburg
Hannah HöchHannah Höch
Francis PicabiaFrancis Picabia
Tristan TzaraTristan Tzara

Movements

DadaDada
Pop ArtPop Art
Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Installation ArtInstallation Art
Performance ArtPerformance Art

Useful Resources on Kurt Schwitters

Books

Websites

Articles

Videos

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Kurt Schwitters: A Journey Through Art

By Gwendolen Webster, Roger Cardinal

Kurt Schwitters: Space, Image, Exile

By Megan R. Luke

Kurt Schwitters: Artist Philosopher Recomended resource

By Mel Gooding

Kurt Schwitters: Color and Collage (Menil Collection)

By Isabel Schulz and Josef Helfenstein

More Interesting Books about Kurt Schwitters
In Search of Lost Art: Kurt Schwitters's Merzbau

Information on Maerzbau, and it's significance

Kurt Schwitters: Reconstructions of the Merzbau

Description of Tate Modern's attempt to re-create Merzbau

Some words to Kurt Schwitters' Ursonate Recomended resource

By Jaap Blonk
Published in a catalogue for the exhibition "Kurt Schwitters in Norway"
September 2009

Kurt Schwitters: the pop art pioneer who brought order to chaos Recomended resource

By Phillip Oltermann
The Guardian
January 19, 2013

The sorrows of Kurt Schwitters

By Hilton Kramer
The New Criterion
October 1985

Kurt Schwitters - Collages, Paintings, Drawings, Objects, Ephemera

By Grace Glueck
New York Times
April 18, 2003

Kurt Schwitters Interned | Animating the Archives

Video by Tate exploring Kurt Schwitter's time in Hutchinson Internment Camp (1940 - 41) featuring letters, pamphlets and sketches donated to the archive by fellow internee Klaus Hinrichsen and recollections from his widow.

TateShots: Kurt Schwitters' Portraits

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Caroline Igra

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Caroline Igra
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