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Artists Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly Photo

Ellsworth Kelly

American Painter and Sculptor

Movements and Styles: Minimalism, Hard-edge Painting

Born: May 31, 1923 - Newburgh, New York

Died: December 27, 2015 - Spencertown, New York

Ellsworth Kelly Timeline


"When I see a white piece of paper, I feel I've got to draw. And drawing, for me, is the beginning of everything."
Ellsworth Kelly
"Geometry is moribund. I want a lil and joy to art."
Ellsworth Kelly
"I'm constantly investigating nature - nature, meaning everything."
Ellsworth Kelly
"The form of my painting is the content. My work is made of single or multiple panels: rectangle, curved or square. I am less interested in marks on the panels than the "presence" of the panels themselves. In "Red, Yellow, Blue," the square panels present color. It was made to exist forever in the present; it is an idea and can be repeated anytime in the future."
Ellsworth Kelly
"I think that if you can turn off the mind and look only with the eyes, ultimately everything becomes abstract."
Ellsworth Kelly
"I am not interested in painting as it has been accepted for so long-to hang on the walls of houses as pictures. To hell with pictures-they should be the wall."
Ellsworth Kelly

"I have worked to free shape from its ground, and then to work the shape so that it has a definite relationship to the space around it; so that it has a clarity and a measure within itself of its parts (angles, curves, edges and mass); and so that, with color and tonality, the shape finds its own space and always demands its freedom and separateness."

Ellsworth Kelly Signature


Ellsworth Kelly has been a widely influential force in the post-war art world. He first rose to critical acclaim in the 1950s with his bright, multi-paneled and largely monochromatic canvases. Maintaining a persistent focus on the dynamic relationships between shape, form and color, Kelly was one of the first artists to create irregularly shaped canvases. His subsequent layered reliefs, flat sculptures, and line drawings further challenged viewers' conceptions of space. While not adhering to any one artistic movement, Kelly vitally influenced the development of Minimalism, Hard-edge painting, Color Field, and Pop art.

Key Ideas

Kelly intends for viewers to experience his artwork with instinctive, physical responses to the work's structure, color, and surrounding space rather than with contextual or interpretive analysis. He encourages a kind of silent encounter, or bodily participation by the viewer with the artwork, chiefly by presenting bold and contrasting colors free of gestural brushstrokes or recognizable imagery, panels protruding gracefully from the wall, and irregular forms inhabiting space as confidently as the viewer before them.
Real-life observations are the backbone of Kelly's abstraction works, which are replications of the shapes, shadows, and other visual sensations he experiences in the world around him. As did the early-20th-century Dadaists, Kelly delights in the spontaneous, the casual, and the ephemeral means of finding such "readymade" subjects.
The subtle fluctuation between the meditative, decorative and industrial in much of Kelly's work can be traced in part to this design training in art school. In this sense, Kelly continues Henri Matisse's lyrical and decorative ideal of creating an art of visual serenity, even as the painted motif is now reduced to its simplest and sometimes most mysterious configuration. The special camouflage unit of which Kelly was a part during his service in World War II, and the principles of visual scrambling he undertook, has also contributed greatly to Kelly's intense visual motifs.


Ellsworth Kelly Photo


Born in Newburgh, New York in 1923, Ellsworth Kelly was the second of three boys. He grew up in northern New Jersey, where he spent much of his time alone, often watching birds and insects. These observations of nature would later inform his unique way of creating and looking at art. After graduating from high school, he studied technical art and design at the Pratt Institute from 1941-1942. His parents, an insurance company executive and a teacher, were practical and supported his art career only if he pursued this technical training. In 1943, Kelly enlisted in the army and joined the camouflage unit called "the Ghost Army," which had among its members many artists and designers. The unit's task was to misdirect enemy soldiers with inflatable tanks. While in the army, Kelly served in France, England and Germany, including a brief stay in Paris. His visual experiences with camouflage and shadows, as well as his short time in Paris strongly impacted Kelly's aesthetic and future career path.

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Ellsworth Kelly Biography Continues

Important Art by Ellsworth Kelly

The below artworks are the most important by Ellsworth Kelly - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Colors for a Large Wall (1951)

Colors for a Large Wall (1951)

Artwork description & Analysis: The large-scale Colors for a Large Wall is one of Kelly's early forays into multi-panel paintings, a fundamental motif throughout his career. Colors for a Large Wall helped introduce his deeply held view of paintings as objects; not only was this painting an object in itself, but it was comprised of many smaller objects (panels) supposedly having come together in chance collision. In this work, Kelly covered each of the 64 square canvases in a single color and fused them together based on a collage study he had arbitrarily arranged. Much of Kelly's subsequent work stemmed from this painting, as he continued to juxtapose panels of differing sizes, shapes, colors and materials in innumerable variations.

Oil on canvas, mounted on 64 joined panels. Dimensions: 94 1/2 x 94 1/2 inches. Photo by courtesy of the artist. ©Estate of Ellsworth Kelly - The Museum of Modern Art, New York. Gift of the artist, 1969

Cite (1951)

Cite (1951)

Artwork description & Analysis: In Paris, artists such as John Cage and Hans Arp encouraged Kelly to experiment with the idea of chance in his artwork. For Cite, Kelly cut a black and white brushstroke drawing into twenty squares and randomly rearranged the pieces. He then turned this composition upside down and painted it onto twenty wood panels. After rearranging it once more, he connected the panels into the final painting. Although his artistic decisions ultimately dictate the final composition, Kelly's use of chance partially disconnects him from the resulting work. Such efforts to reduce the artist's emotions, influence, or individual marks have been important facets of Kelly's artwork, suggesting that all apparently "controlled" creativity is always partly a matter of an artist's making the most of chance collisions with unexpected and impersonal forces.

Oil on wood, twenty joined panels. Dimensions: 58 1/2 x 70 3/4 inches. Photo by Jerry L. Thompson, courtesy of the artist. ©Estate of Ellsworth Kelly - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art, The Doris and Donald Fisher Collection

Red Blue Green (1963)

Red Blue Green (1963)

Artwork description & Analysis: Kelly put great emphasis on the tensions between the 'figure' and the 'ground' in his paintings, aiming to establish dynamism within otherwise flat surfaces. In Red Blue Green, part of his crucial series exploring this motif, Kelly's sharply delineated, bold red and blue shapes both contrast and resonate with the solid green background, taking natural forms as inspiration. The relationship between the two balanced forms and the surrounding color anticipates the powerful depth that defined Kelly's later relief paintings. Therefore, these works serve an important bridge connecting his flat, multi-panel paintings to his sculptural, layered works.

Oil on canvas. Dimensions: 83 5/8 x 135 7/8 inches. Photo courtesy of the artist. ©Estate of Ellsworth Kelly - The Museum of Contemporary Art San Diego, gift of Dr. and Mrs. Jack M. Farris

More Ellsworth Kelly Artwork and Analysis:

Black over Blue (1963) Creueta del Coll (1987) Red Diagonal (2007)

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Ellsworth Kelly
Interactive chart with Ellsworth Kelly's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Paul CézannePaul Cézanne
Paul KleePaul Klee
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Constantin Brâncu?iConstantin Brâncu?i
Hans ArpHans Arp

Personal Contacts

Agnes MartinAgnes Martin
James RosenquistJames Rosenquist
Jack YoungermanJack Youngerman


Romanesque ArtRomanesque Art
Byzantine ArtByzantine Art

Influences on Artist
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
Years Worked: 1948 - Current
Influenced by Artist


Robert IndianaRobert Indiana
Richard SerraRichard Serra
Dan FlavinDan Flavin
Donald JuddDonald Judd

Personal Contacts

Roy LichtensteinRoy Lichtenstein
Agnes MartinAgnes Martin
James RosenquistJames Rosenquist


Color Field PaintingColor Field Painting
Post-Painterly AbstractionPost-Painterly Abstraction
Hard-edge PaintingHard-edge Painting
Pop ArtPop Art

Useful Resources on Ellsworth Kelly





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Ellsworth Kelly

By Christoph Grunenberg

Ellsworth Kelly

By John Coplans

written by artist

Ellsworth Kelly: 1954, Drawings on a Bus Recomended resource

More Interesting Books about Ellsworth Kelly
Classic Sleeper Recomended resource

September 17, 1973
By Robert Hughes

Dangerous Curves

November 4, 1996
The New Yorker
By Simon Schama

Ellsworth Kelly's Journey, From All Angles

May 4, 2003
The New York Times
By Jeffrey Kastner

From Paris to New York, Ellsworth Kelly is the king of colour Recomended resource

June 11, 2008
The Times of London
By Mark Rappolt

Discussion of Kelly's work

August 12, 2008 - Tate Shots Issue 7

Interview with Ellsworth Kelly

June 4, 2008 - Vernissage TV

Ellsworth Kelly on Abstraction

The artist discusses his approach in a SFMoMA short video

websites about artist

Matthew Marks Gallery

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Rachel Gershman

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Rachel Gershman
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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