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Allan Kaprow Photo

Allan Kaprow

American Performance Artist and Theoretician

Born: August 23, 1927 - Atlantic City, New Jersey
Died: April 5, 2006 - Encinitas, California
Movements and Styles:
Happenings
,
Performance Art
"The integration of all elements -- environment, constructed sections, time, space, and people -- has been my main technical problem..."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"Not only does art become life, but life refuses to be itself."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"Once the task of the artist was to make good art; now it is to avoid making art of any kind."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"I am convinced that painting is a bore. So is music and literature. What doesn't bore me is the total destruction of ideas that have any discipline. Instead of painting, move your arms; instead of music, make noise. I'm giving up painting and all the arts by doing everything and anything."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"You reveal something and its oddness by removing it from its normal usage."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"Experimental art is the one kind of art that can affirm and deny art at the same time. It's the one kind of art that can claim as value no value, ... the one caveat is that it must be called art."
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Allan Kaprow Signature
"There are two directions in which the legacy could go. One is to continue into and develop an action kind of painting, which was what he was doing, and the other was to take advantage of the action itself, implicit as a kind of dance ritual."
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Kaprow writing on Pollock

Summary of Allan Kaprow

Allan Kaprow was a pivotal figure in the shifting art world of the 1960s; his "happenings," a form of spontaneous, non-linear action, revolutionized the practice of Performance Art. While Kaprow began as a painter, by the mid 1950s his interest turned to the theoretical, based primarily on the shifting concepts of space as subjectively experienced by the viewer. Kaprow emerged from the group of artists known as the Rutgers Group, based out of Rutgers University where Kaprow taught art history and studio art. Kaprow was among the many artists and critics who focused on an intellectual and theorized view of art, rejecting the monumental nature of Abstract Expressionist works and instead focusing on the act of their production. In particular, his influential essay, "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," (1956), called for an end to craftsmanship and permanence in art and instead demanded that artists shift their attention to "non-concrete," or ephemeral, modes of production.

Accomplishments

  • Kaprow's happenings changed the definition of the art object. "Art" was no longer an object to be viewed hanging on a wall or set on a pedestal; rather, it could now be anything at all, including movement, sound, and even scent. Kaprow stated, "The everyday world is the most astonishing inspiration conceivable. A walk down 14th Street is more amazing than any masterpiece of art."
  • Kaprow was very clear that his works were connected with art and not theater. He stressed that his happenings were in the same category as the Action Painting of Abstract Expressionists and not with scripted scenes involving actors playing parts. Kaprow's pieces involved spaces he physically altered, with sights and sounds as deliberately composed as any canvas by Pollock or Rothko.
  • Kaprow rebelled against the prescriptions of Clement Greenberg, both in his art and in his writings: formal aesthetics, Kaprow believed, were no longer relevant when the art left the canvas. Kaprow's work was based on an "aesthetic of regular experience," a transient and momentary experience felt by the viewer being as significant as a painting on canvas.

Biography of Allan Kaprow

Allan Kaprow Photo

Allan Kaprow was born in 1927 in New Jersey. During his early years, he experienced chronic illness that forced him to move from New York to Tuscon, Arizona where he spent the rest of his childhood. There, separated from his Jewish, middle-class roots, he experienced life on a ranch, giving him a sense of the communal activity that came to dominate his later artistic career. Ill and often bed-bound, Kaprow began to develop an interest in arts and crafts, and eventually returned to New York to attend New York University and study Philosophy and Art History.



Progression of Art

1957

Baby

Baby is an action collage, made from randomly assembled objects juxtaposed with cut-up pieces of Kaprow's own paintings. The only coherent and ordered element in the composition is in the formal arrangement of the elements into vertical strips. Kaprow produced the work in a frenzied, ritualistic process, influenced by the gestural quality of Pollock's action painting. Kaprow echoes the "combines" of Robert Rauschenberg in his synthesis of Pollock's technique with Cage's influence. Kaprow had moved toward an "unbound," three dimensional form, and was increasingly using found objects and everyday materials in an attempt to reconcile art with everyday experience, which would end up being his ultimate goal.

Paper, metal foil, pieces of carpet, oil and plastic paint, chalk, linen on hardboard - Museum Moderner Kunst Ludwig Vienna

1957-9

Rearrangeable Panels

This 1957 work represents a shift from the art object to the surrounding environment. Kaprow began to investigate the effect on space through the incorporation of three-dimensional and found objects into his work. Each time Rearrangeable Panels was exhibited, the curator or artist would be forced to make choices about how to configure the panels, foreshadowing Kaprow's use of audience participation. Kaprow challenges the notion of artistic authorship through this collaborative element of construction and in its unique response to each site in which it is placed.

Wood, mirror, paint, oak leaves, aluminum, textile, bitumen, electric lamps - Musée National d'art Moderne Centre Pompidou, Paris

1959

18 Happenings in 6 Parts

In this happening, the public was invited to complete a number of tasks using instructions outlined in a score. Kaprow used music theory with new developments in electronic music, theatre, and dance, all combined within a pioneering structure that demanded participatory involvement. 18 Happenings in 6 Parts was performed at the Reuben Gallery in New York and is one of his earliest and most important Happenings, often cited as a turning point for performance art. Kaprow authorized a reinvention of this piece just a few weeks before his death and it was performed in Munich's Haus der Kunst in November of 2006.

A gallery divided into three rooms, semitransparent plastic sheets painted and collaged with references to Kaprow's earlier work, panels with words roughly painted, rows of plastic fruit, artist's hand-lettered instructions and programs, vintage posters, photographs, and videotapes - Photos and archives: Allan Kaprow Archives, the Getty Research Institute

1961

Yard

Kaprow created Yard for the Martha Jackson Gallery’s sculpture garden exhibition, Environment - Situations - Spaces. In this seminal work he recreated a junkyard, an immersive environment with which the audience interacted. This work contained a high element of play, but within the boundaries Kaprow had prefixed. The piece illustrates sculpture's expansion in scale and the increasingly blurred boundaries between a "life like" and an "art like" art. In Kaprow's determination, there was no distinction between the viewer and the artwork; the viewer became part of the piece.

Rubber auto tyres, backyard of a Manhattan town house - Photos and archives: Allan Kaprow Archives, the Getty Research Institute

1962

Words

Words, exhibited at the Smolin Gallery in New York in 1962, takes the audience on a journey through two rooms, encouraging them to contribute to written and verbal components as they progress. Through this interactive environment, Kaprow denotes "urban text" referencing graffiti, billboards, newspapers, overheard conversations, and a lecture, engaging the viewer in a multi-sensory experience that literally brings "words" to life. The importance of this piece is based in the responsibility of the viewer to become part of the creative process beyond passive involvement.

2 small rooms, stencilled roles of canvas with hand letters, record players with words recorded by Kaprow, red and white light bulbs, dark blue smaller room - graffiti, hanging colored chalk, strips torn from bed sheets, phonograph playing recorded whispers - Photos and archives: Allan Kaprow Archives, the Getty Research Institute

1967

Fluids

Fluids is one of Kaprow's most ambitious works. In it, he recruited groups of local residents to build huge ice structures in various locations in Pasadena, CA during a mid career retrospective. The original "score" for the piece was displayed on a poster. The idea of collective action resulting in the inevitable melting of the ice was a comment on the obsolete nature of human labor - a "dystopian allegory of capitalist production and consumption," refuting the permanence of the art object. Documentation of the event includes photographs, film, the billboard score, the artist's notes and drawings, letters and press clippings. This seminal work was reinvented in 2005 and as Overflow by the LA Art Girls in 2008 as part of Allan Kaprow - Art as Life posthumous retrospective at the Geffen Contemporary's space in LA MOCA.

30 walls of ice - Photos and archives: Allan Kaprow Archives, the Getty Research Institute

1967

Grandma's Boy

This wall construction consists of various found elements with a mirror placed in the center. The name suggests a personal connection with Kaprow, though the photographs, found in a rented farmhouse, were of the Rubin family who owned the house. When catching their reflection, the viewer is unwittingly implicated in a participatory role, completing the piece. Grandma's Boy uses participation to give meaning to its form and illustrates Kaprow's move towards a more personal focus in his work.

mixed media assemblage - The Collection of the Newark Museum. Gift of Rhett and Robert Delford Brown

1983

Trading Dirt

Kaprow produced the extended piece, Trading Dirt, when studying at the Zen Center of San Diego. He began by trading the soil in his garden for the "Buddhist dirt" of the center. This was then traded with various types of dirt collected by Kaprow. This sequence of events went on sporadically for three years, each exchange accompanied by an anecdote, recorded on film. Kaprow presents dirt as a metaphor that only gains meaning as it is exchanged or "traded." The work integrates storytelling with playful humor and illustrates a shift toward a more private, intimate participatory exchange. A film, Trading Dirt with Simon Rodia and Allan Kaprow by Rosie Lee Hooks and Paul S. Rogers, was created for the Allan Kaprow: Art as Life exhibition at MOCA Geffen Contemporary in Spring 2008 in addition to a reinvention of the piece.

Soil, dog dirt, anecdotes, video recording - Photos and archives: Allan Kaprow Archives, the Getty Research Institute


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Content compiled and written by Sarah Jenkins

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

"Allan Kaprow Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Sarah Jenkins
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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First published on 21 Nov 2011. Updated and modified regularly
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