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Artists Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud Photo

Lucian Freud

British Painter

Movements and Styles: Expressionism, Neo-Expressionism, Realism, School of London

Born: December 8, 1922 - Berlin, Germany

Died: July 20, 2011 - London, England

Lucian Freud Timeline

Quotes

"My work is purely autobiographical. It is about myself and my surroundings. It is an attempt at a record. I work from people that interest me and that I care about, in rooms that I live in and know. I use the people to invent my pictures with, and I can work more freely when they are there."
Lucian Freud
"Full, saturated colours have an emotional significance I want to avoid."
Lucian Freud
"The paintings that really excite me have an erotic element or side to them irrespective of subject matter."
Lucian Freud
"The only way I could work properly was by using the absolute maximum of observation and concentration that I could possible muster."
Lucian Freud
"A painter must think of everything he sees as being there entirely for his own use and pleasure."
Lucian Freud
"What do I ask of a painting? I ask it to astonish, disturb, seduce, convince."
Lucian Freud
"I want paint to work as flesh...I know my idea of portraiture came from dissatisfaction with portraits that resembled people. I would wish my portraits to be of the people not like them. Not having a look of the sitter, being them. I didn't want to just get a likeness like a mimic, but to portray them, like an actor. As far as I am concerned the paint is the person. I want it to work for me just as flesh does."
Lucian Freud
"Painters who use life itself as their subject-matter, working with the object in front of them, do so in order to translate life into art almost literally, as it were. The subject must be kept under closest observation: if this is done, day and night, the subject - he, she or it - will eventually reveal the all without which selection itself is not possible: they will reveal it through movements and attitudes, through every variation one moment from another. It is this very knowledge of life which can give art complete independence from life, an independence that is necessary because the picture in order to move us must never merely remind us of life, but must acquire a life of its own, precisely in order to reflect life..."
Lucian Freud
"All portraits are difficult for me. But a nude presents different challenges. When someone is naked, there is in effect nothing to be hidden. You are stripped of your costume, as it were. Not everyone wants to be that honest about themselves. That means I feel an obligation to be equally honest in how I represent their honesty. It's a matter of responsibility. I'm not trying to be a philosopher. I'm more of a realist. I'm just trying to see and understand the people that make up my life. I think of my painting as a continuous group portrait."
Lucian Freud
"[Freud's portraits are] prophecies [rather than] snapshots of the sitter as physically captured in a precise historical moment."
Caroline Blackwood - 2nd wife

"Looking at humans with light streaming down on them is something I terribly liked."

Lucian Freud Signature

Synopsis

Lucian Freud, renowned for his unflinching observations of anatomy and psychology, made even the beautiful people (including Kate Moss) look ugly. One of the late twentieth-century's most celebrated portraitists, Freud painted only those closest to him: friends and family, wives and mistresses, and, last but not least, himself. His insightful series of self-portraits spanned over six decades. Unusual among artists with such long careers, his style remained remarkably consistent. Perhaps inevitably, the psychic intensity of his portraits, and his notoriously long sessions with sitters have been compared with the psychoanalytic practice of his famous grandfather, Sigmund Freud.

Key Ideas

Unapologetically self-absorbed, Freud embodied a notion that comes to us from the Renaissance, and which has been attributed to Leonardo da Vinci: "Every artist paints himself." Freud remained aloof from his sitters, a rapport that comes through in his work, referring to the work as "purely autobiographical" and the people he painted as merely the vehicle for figurative innovations: "I use the people to invent my pictures with, and I can work more freely when they are there."
Freud was one of the founders of the so-called School of London, a group of artists dedicated to figurative realism, considered somewhat reactionary at the time because it eschewed the presence of avant-garde movements at the time, such as Minimalism, Pop, and Conceptual art. Compared with David Hockney, or even Francis Bacon, his contemporaries, Freud is stylistically conventional. The subject matter, however, is anything but.
While life drawing classes had long included nude models, the expressive detail with which Freud paints genitals sets him apart from other artists in the history of portraiture. With the analytic scrutiny and detail a botanical illustrator might devote to a rare flower, Freud paints primary and secondary sex characteristics.
Freud owes much to the early-20th-century Expressionists. His pronounced, expressive strokes recall Egon Schiele and Edvard Munch, and the tilted perspective and anthropomorphic depictions of chairs, shoes, and other inanimate objects bring to mind Vincent van Gogh.
Freud was one of the great self-portraitists of the 20thh century. He painted himself obsessively. While it may lack the range of Rembrandt, Van Gogh, or Schiele, Freud's self-portraits form one of the most complete visual autobiographies of any painter, yielding insight into the self-absorption and relentless drive that fueled the artist.

Biography

Lucian Freud Photo

Childhood and Education

Lucian Freud was born into an artistic middle-class Jewish family. His father Ernst was an architect, his mother Lucie Brasch studied art history, and his grandfather was the paradigm-shifting psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud. In 1933, Freud and his family left Berlin to escape Hitler and settled in London.

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Lucian Freud Biography Continues

Important Art by Lucian Freud

The below artworks are the most important by Lucian Freud - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Girl with a White Dog (1950-51)
Artwork Images

Girl with a White Dog (1950-51)

Artwork description & Analysis: Typical of Freud's early period, Girl with a White Dog was created using a sable brush, which he used to apply the paint with linear precision, almost like a drawing. The subtle shading evokes a host of textures exuding softness, warmth, and the absence of immediate tension. The robe has slipped off the sitter's shoulder, exposing her right breast. Coupled with the absent stare of the woman and the dog, the muted colors and faint contours give this composition an overall flatness.

The sitter is Kitty Garman, Freud's first wife, and a noted beauty whose father was artist Jacob Epstein. The dog was one of two bull terriers they were given as a wedding gift.

Freud painted many portraits of Kitty during their brief marriage, which ended in divorce in 1952, due to his chronic infidelities. A weariness in the sitter's expression, the deep hollows under her eyes and the self-supporting gesture of the hand under the left breast hint at her discontent, despite this moment of calm. The analytic distance that came to characterize Freud's brilliance as an observer is reinforced by the absence of a name in the title, despite his intimate connection to the subjects. He was able to see certain things better because he remained aloof.

Oil on canvas - Tate, England

Hotel Bedroom (1954)
Artwork Images

Hotel Bedroom (1954)

Artwork description & Analysis: Settling in Paris in 1952, Freud painted many portraits, including Hotel Bedroom (1954), which features a woman lying in a bed with white sheets pulled up to her shoulders. Her left hand rests on her cheek, and her gaze is fixed on a faraway place. In sharp contrast, a standing man is standing behind her and staring at her. His dark form looms over her menacingly, silhouetted against the sunlight. Other windows in the building across the street are visible in the background.

The man is Freud himself, and the woman is Lady Caroline Hamilton Temple Blackwood, the Guinness ale heiress with whom he eloped in 1952 after the divorce from his first wife. At the time they were staying at the Hotel La Louisiane, and the work reflects the anxiety and tension in their relationship, which had already begun to unravel. She would soon leave him, and the distraught Freud, while having many more relationships, would never marry again. This painting is among the works that Freud exhibited it at the Venice Biennale when he was invited to serve as the representative of Britain in 1954, a great honor. Like this and other early portraits by the artist, the work has a flat, drawing-like quality. Here, however, the body of the artist is a black hole, threatening to suck the light out of the rest of the picture. The artist's standing pose also seems to predict a turning point in his working method. This is the last portrait he completed while sitting down. From that point on, he chose to stand while painting. One of his more narrative works, it exemplifies the autobiographical self-absorption and detachment associated with his later work.

Oil on canvas - Beaverbrook Art Gallery, Canada

Red Haired Man on a Chair (1962)
Artwork Images

Red Haired Man on a Chair (1962)

Artwork description & Analysis: This is one of the earliest examples of Freud's mature style. Unconventional poses were one of Freud's specialties. The subject matter is conventional, but the pose is one rarely, if ever, seen in traditional Western portraiture. The subject is Tim Behrens, a friend and student at Slade School of Art, where Freud was a visiting teacher. The work's generic title, giving no hint of the specifics of the sitter or the setting, reflects the consistent, clinical detachment with which Freud approached all subjects, no matter what their relationship to him. Red Haired Man on a Chair (1962) depicts Behrens perched with his knees tucked under him, dressed in a gray suit, and with his brown shoes resting on a chair that appears to tilt toward us. The wooden post and discarded pile of cloths behind him indicate that the environment is the painting studio. At this point in his career, Freud made a transition from sable to hog-hair brushes which allowed both greater control and an ability to apply broad strokes in the heavily impastoed style one sees here.

It is clear that Freud has reached a new level of sophistication. Witness, for example, the linear tension between the figure and the post inches away, giving the appearance that if he leans a little more to the left he might actually touch it. Witness, too, the relationship between the vertical figure and the horizontal line of rags in the background, which forms a cross. Freud was not remotely religious, and certainly not Catholic, so this is a clever reference to the pose his student was holding, which was wildly uncomfortable and underscores his student's position as a martyr for the cause of great art. The observation, more sadistic than empathetic, characterizes Freud's approach to the human form, in particular his ability to suspend empathy with the sitter in order to observe him or her more closely. It is also one of the first examples of the appearance of rags strewn about in loose piles, a common compositional device in Freud's later portraits.

Oil on canvas - Private Collection

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Lucian Freud
Interactive chart with Lucian Freud's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

Gustave CourbetGustave Courbet
Otto DixOtto Dix
Alberto GiacomettiAlberto Giacometti
George GroszGeorge Grosz

Personal Contacts

Francis BaconFrancis Bacon
William AcquavellaWilliam Acquavella

Movements

ExpressionismExpressionism
Neo-ExpressionismNeo-Expressionism
New ObjectivityNew Objectivity
RealismRealism

Influences on Artist
Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud
Years Worked: 1940 - 2011
Influenced by Artist

Artists

John CurrinJohn Currin
Eric FischlEric Fischl

Personal Contacts

Francis BaconFrancis Bacon
Martin GayfordMartin Gayford

Movements

ExpressionismExpressionism
Neo-ExpressionismNeo-Expressionism
RealismRealism
School of LondonSchool of London

Useful Resources on Lucian Freud

Books

Articles

Videos

More

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Lucian Freud: Eyes Wide Open Recomended resource

By Phoebe Hoban

Man with a Blue Scarf: On Sitting for a Portrait by Lucian Freud Recomended resource

By Martin Gayford

Man with a Blue Scarf: On Sitting for a Portrait by Lucian Freud Recomended resource

By Martin Gayford

Breakfast with Lucian: The Astounding Life and Outrageous Times of Britain's Great Modern Painter

By Geordie Greig
A frank account of Freud's life. Greig became a friend and confidant in Freud's late years.

More Interesting Books about Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud, Figurative Painter Who Redefined Portraiture, Is Dead at 88 Recomended resource

By William Grimes
The New York Times
July 21, 2011

Lucian Freud: marathon man Recomended resource

By Martin Greyford
The Telegraph
September 22, 2007

Freud, Interrupted Recomended resource

David Kamp
Vanity Fair
January 16, 2012

Naked Punch: Tate Britain celebrates Lucian Freud

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
July 8, 2002

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein
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