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Artists Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon Photo

Odilon Redon

French Painter and Printmaker

Movements and Styles: Symbolism, Les Nabis

Born: April 20, 1840 - Bordeaux, France

Died: July 6, 1916 - Paris, France

Odilon Redon Timeline

Quotes

"My drawings inspire, and are not to be defined. They place us, as does music, in the ambiguous realm of the undetermined."
Odilon Redon
"My originality consists in bringing to life, in a human way, improbable beings and making them live according to the laws and probability, by putting - as far as possible - the logic of the visible at the service of the invisible."
Odilon Redon
"While I recognize the necessity for a basis of observed reality... true art lies in a reality that is felt."
Odilon Redon
"The artist ... will always be a special, isolated, solitary agent with an innate sense of organizing matter."
Odilon Redon
"If the art of the artist is the song of his life, a grave or sad melody, I must have sounded the note of gaiety in color".
Odilon Redon
"The Artist submits from day to day to the fatal rhythm of the impulses of the universal world which encloses him, continual center of sensations, always pliant, hypnotized by the marvels of nature which he loves, he scrutinizes. His eyes, like his soul, are in perpetual communion with the most fortuitous of phenomena."
Odilon Redon
"Everything in art occurs through voluntary submission to the advent of the unconscious."
Odilon Redon
"Nothing can be created in art by the will alone. All art is the submission of the will to the unconscious."
Odilon Redon
"All of my prints...were nothing but the fruit of curious, attentive, anxious, and impassioned analysis; of what power of expression could be contained in a greasy lithograph crayon, with the aid of paper and stone."
Odilon Redon
"With pastel I have recovered the hope of giving my dreams greater plasticity...Colors contain a joy which relaxes me; besides, they sway me toward something different and new."
Odilon Redon

"I have often, as an exercise and as a sustenance, painted an object down to the smallest accidents of its visual appearance; but the day left me sad and with an unsatiated thirst. The next day I let the other source run, that of imagination, through the recollection of the forms and I was then reassured and appeased."

Odilon Redon Signature

Synopsis

Redon is one of the most important and original of all the Symbolist artists. His visionary works concern the world of dreams, fantasy, and the imagination. He first became famous for his noirs series, monochromatic compositions that exploit the expressive and suggestive powers of the color black. His lithographs, which often reworked earlier drawings, became a means to broaden his audience, as well as to explore in series specific themes or literary texts - he was particularly drawn to the Romantic and Symbolist works of Poe, Flaubert, and Mallarmé. Later, Redon began to slowly adopt a more colorful palette, so that his pastels and oil paintings are riotous with color, consisting largely of portraits and floral still lifes. His encounter with the Nabis introduced him to a more decorative aesthetic, and his late works incorporate Japonism as well as an attention to flat, abstract patterns, and decorative ensembles. Redon would have an enormous impact on the art of his contemporaries, such as Paul Gauguin, as well as later modern artists like Marcel Duchamp. His lithographs and noirs in particular were admired by the Symbolist writers of the day but also by later Surrealists for their often bizarre and fantastical subjects, many of which combine scientific observation and visionary imagination.

Key Ideas

Redon worked almost exclusively in black and white during the first half of his career. In both charcoal drawings and lithographic prints, the artist relied on the expressive and suggestive possibilities of black in his monochromatic compositions called noirs. These are some of his most famous works, and typify Symbolism in their mysterious subjects and bizarre, dreamlike inventions.
Redon's use of non-naturalistic color in his late pastels and oil paintings prefigure the later development of Expressionism and abstraction. In portraits, still lifes, and decorative ensembles, Redon explored the expressive and suggestive powers of color. Many of these works include passages that are purely nonobjective, often seen in the ethereal chromatic backgrounds that he coupled with figurative subjects.
One of the main themes in Redon's oeuvre is the decapitated or disembodied head. Often shown free-floating, and sometimes reduced to a mere eyeball, the severed head encapsulates the Symbolist desire to free oneself from the shackles of the ordinary, mundane world, and achieve a higher state of consciousness through the exploration of dreams and subjective vision.
When asked in an interview about his favorite artistic subjects, Redon replied, "My monsters. I believe that it is there that I have given my most personal note." While Redon's depictions of "monsters" - often hybrid human-plant or human-animal creatures - were the product of his vivid imagination, they also owed a great deal to his knowledge of the natural sciences, and especially new theories of evolution put forth by Charles Darwin, which for the first time established a connection between humans and our animal ancestors.

Biography

Odilon Redon Photo

Childhood

Odilon Redon was born Bertrand Jean Redon to a prosperous family in Bordeaux. His nickname was a derivation of his mother's first name, Odile, who was a French Creole woman from Louisiana. Because of his ill health, perhaps due to epilepsy, Redon was entrusted to his uncle's care and grew up in Peyrelebade in the Medoc region of France on the family's winemaking estate. His childhood was solitary, and he described days spent "watching the clouds pass, following with infinite pleasure the magical brightness of their fleeting variations." However, Redon also characterized himself as a "sad and weak child," who "sought out the shadows." He recalled, "I remember taking a deep and unusual joy in hiding under the big curtains and in the dark corners of the house." This note of melancholy and pessimism would find its expression in his mature art, particularly in his noirs and mysterious Symbolist works.

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Odilon Redon Biography Continues

Important Art by Odilon Redon

The below artworks are the most important by Odilon Redon - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Guardian Spirit of the Waters (1878)

Guardian Spirit of the Waters (1878)

Artwork description & Analysis: A large head held aloft by wings floats above a tranquil sea, gazing upon a small sailboat with enormously expressive eyes. Seagulls flit through the air and skim the water's surface, while the water stretches out toward the distant horizon. A delicate halo surrounds the head, giving the strange creature a benevolent, divine aura despite its brutish features. With its realistic depiction of dreamlike imagery, The Guardian Spirit of the Waters anticipates 20th-century Surrealism.

When the artist's father, Bernard Redon, was a young man, he travelled from France to Louisiana in order to try and recoup the family's lost wealth. While there, he met and married Redon's mother. On their later return to France, Odile was pregnant with Odilon, who was subsequently born in Bordeaux. The artist often regretted that he was not born at sea, "a place without a country on an abyss," which he perhaps felt would have better corresponded to the origins of his visionary sensibility, This work could thus be seen as representing a kind of alternative birth for Redon, signifying his awakening artistic consciousness.

The drawing is typical of Redon's noirs, in which he manipulated the charcoal medium in order to achieve a rich array of tones and textures. The artist employed wiping, stumping, incising and added touches of chalk on cream-colored treated paper, and often allowed untouched areas of the sheet to shine through for highlights.

Charcoal and chalk on paper - Art Institute of Chicago

Cactus Man (1881)

Cactus Man (1881)

Artwork description & Analysis: A man's head emerges from a flowerpot, his neck rising upward like the stalk of a strange hybrid plant. Delicate thorns cover his skin and head, giving him a cactus-like appearance while also conjuring Christ's crown of thorns, or other similar martyrs. With large dull eyes, a flattened nose, and wide lips, the head has an expression that is both observant and indifferent. The vase is decorated with an image of an Amazon slaying a man, referring to the Greek myth of women warriors whose conflation of feminine and masculine traits echoes the conflation of human and plant forms in the drawing.

The drawing may be related to an exhibition Redon saw in Paris in 1881 featuring the inhabitants of the Tierra del Fuego. The native South Americans on display, which Redon described as "haughty, cruel and grotesque," had a profound if complicated impact on the artist: on the one hand he admired the purity and simplicity of the so-called "primitive" people, while on the other he recognized in them the fearsome barbarity of man's origins. Growing out of a square planter - a symbol of Western culture and containment - Redon's hybrid man-plant can thus be understood as an attempt to reconcile the two poles of human existence, nature and culture, wild and civilized.

Charcoal on paper - Museum of Modern Art, New York

The Eye, Like a Strange Balloon Moves Towards Infinity (1882)

The Eye, Like a Strange Balloon Moves Towards Infinity (1882)

Artwork description & Analysis: An eyeball has morphed into a strange balloon, its gaze directed toward the heavens as it rises above the horizon. Instead of a basket containing passengers, the balloon carries a severed head on a platter, much like that of St. John the Baptist in the Biblical story of Salome. In the lower left, the fronds of a palm-like plant can be seen, and the sky is full of thick clouds.

Severed heads appear with great frequency in Symbolist art and literature, whether in stories of Salome or in more mysterious images such as this one. The head or eyeball dissociated from the physical body is a symbol for freedom from the constraints of everyday life, and the attainment of a higher plane of consciousness. As scholar and curator Jodi Hauptman writes, "floating up 'towards infinity', let loose from the limitations of body and mind, Redon's eyes are free to really see, beyond reality, beyond nature, beyond the visible."

This work was included in Redon's portfolio of six lithographs, To Edgar Poe, and is the most famous image from the series. The prints were not meant as illustrations of Poe's poems, but rather as "correspondences," to use Redon's term. A similarly evocative approach characterizes the poetry of Mallarmé and other Symbolists, who believed suggestion, rather than description, to be the highest goal of art. Meanwhile, the print's giant eyeball prefigures the extreme close-up of the sliced oculus in Luis Bunuel's Surrealist film, Un Chien Andalou.

Lithograph - Los Angeles County Museum of Art, Los Angeles, CA

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Odilon Redon
Interactive chart with Odilon Redon's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

Henri Fantin-LatourHenri Fantin-Latour
Francisco GoyaFrancisco Goya
Eugène DelacroixEugène Delacroix

Personal Contacts

Émile BernardÉmile Bernard
Stéphane MallarméStéphane Mallarmé
Paul GauguinPaul Gauguin

Movements

RomanticismRomanticism
SymbolismSymbolism
JaponismJaponism

Influences on Artist
Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon
Years Worked: 1865 - 1915
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Pierre BonnardPierre Bonnard
André BretonAndré Breton
Maurice DenisMaurice Denis
Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp

Personal Contacts

Movements

SymbolismSymbolism
Les NabisLes Nabis
SurrealismSurrealism

Useful Resources on Odilon Redon

Books

Websites

Videos

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Odilon Redon: Prince of Dreams Recomended resource

By Douglas W. Druick and Odilon Redon

Odilon Redon

By Odilon Redon

The Dark Side of Nature: Science, Society, and the Fantastic in the Work of Odilon Redon (Refiguring Modernism) Recomended resource

By Barbara Larson

The Brush and the Pen: Odilon Redon and Literature

By Dario Gamboni (Author), Mary Whittall (Translator)

More Interesting Books about Odilon Redon
Explorations in Darkness and Light: Odilon Redon

By Courtney Wilder

Around Redon Recomended resource

By Musée d'Orsay

Spotlight Essay: Odilon Redon

By Orin Zahra

Evolution and Degeneration in the Early Work of Odilon Redon

By Barbara Larson

More Interesting Websites about Odilon Redon
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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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