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Artists Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington Photo

Leonora Carrington

British Painter

Movements and Styles: Surrealism, Proto-Feminist Artists

Born: April 6, 1917 - Clayton Green, Lancashire, England

Died: May 25, 2011 - Mexico City, Mexico

Leonora Carrington Timeline

Quotes

"Painting is a need, not a choice."
Leonora Carrington
"Reason must know the heart's reasons and every other reason."
Leonora Carrington
"Dawn is the time when nothing breathes, the hour of silence. Everything is transfixed, only the light moves."
Leonora Carrington
"The duty of the right eye is to plunge into the telescope, whereas the left eye interrogates the microscope."
Leonora Carrington
"I am as mysterious to myself as I am to others."
Leonora Carrington
"like talking dogs - we adored the master and did tricks for him"
Carrington on Surrealist women artists

"I didn't have time to be anyone's muse... I was too busy rebelling against my family and learning to be an artist."

Leonora Carrington Signature

Synopsis

Leonora Carrington established herself as both a key figure in the Surrealist movement and an artist of remarkable individuality. Her biography is colorful, including a romance with the older artist Max Ernst, an escape from the Nazis during World War II, mental illness, and expatriate life in Mexico. In her art, her dreamlike, often highly detailed compositions of fantastical creatures in otherworldly settings are based on an intensely personal symbolism. The artist herself preferred not to explain this private visual language to others. However, themes of metamorphosis and magic, as well as frequent whimsy, have given her art an enduring appeal.

Key Ideas

Carrington shared the Surrealists' keen interest in the unconscious mind and dream imagery. To these ideas she added her own unique blend of cultural influences, including Celtic literature, Renaissance painting, Central American folk art, medieval alchemy, and Jungian psychology.
Carrington's art is populated by hybrid figures that are half-human and half-animal, or combinations of various fantastic beasts that range from fearsome to humorous. Through this signature imagery, she explored themes of transformation and identity in an ever-changing world.
Carrington's work touches on ideas of sexual identity yet avoids the frequent Surrealist stereotyping of women as objects of male desire. Instead, she drew on her life and friendships to represent women's self-perceptions, the bonds between women of all ages, and female figures within male-dominated environments and histories.

Biography

Leonora Carrington Photo

Childhood

Leonora Carrington was born in 1917 to Harold Carrington, an English, self-made textiles magnate, and his Irish-born wife, Maurie Moorhead Carrington. Carrington spent her childhood on the family estate in Lancashire, England. There she was surrounded by animals, especially horses, and she grew up listening to her Irish nanny's fairytales and stories from Celtic folklore, sources of symbolism that would later inspire her artwork. Carrington was a rebellious and disobedient child, educated by a succession of governesses, tutors, and nuns, and she was expelled from two convent schools for bad behavior.

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Leonora Carrington Biography Continues

Important Art by Leonora Carrington

The below artworks are the most important by Leonora Carrington - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

The Meal of Lord Candlestick (1938)
Artwork Images

The Meal of Lord Candlestick (1938)

Artwork description & Analysis: Completed shortly after her escape from England and the beginning of her affair with Max Ernst, this painting captures Carrington's rebellious spirit and rejection of her Catholic upbringing. "Lord Candlestick" was a nickname that Carrington used to refer to her father. The title of this work emphasizes Carrington's dismissal of her father's paternal oversight. In this scene, Carrington also transforms the ritual of the Eucharist into a dynamic display of barbarism: gluttonous female figures devour a male infant lying on the table. The table itself is a representation of one used in the great banquet hall in her parent's estate, Crookhey Hall. Carrington intentionally inverts the symbolic order of maternity and religion as a statement of her own subversive move towards personal freedom in France.

Oil on canvas - Private Collection

Portrait of Max Ernst (1939)
Artwork Images

Portrait of Max Ernst (1939)

Artwork description & Analysis: This early painting by Carrington was completed as a tribute to her relationship with the Surrealist artist Max Ernst. In the foreground, Ernst is shown enshrouded in a strange red cloak and yellow striped stockings holding an opaque, oblong lantern. A white horse, a symbol Carrington frequently included in her paintings as her animal surrogate, is shown poised and frozen in the background, observing Ernst. The two are alone in a frozen and desolate wasteland, a landscape symbolic of the feelings Carrington experienced while living with Ernst in occupied France.

Oil on canvas - Private collection

Self-Portrait (ca. 1937-38)
Artwork Images

Self-Portrait (ca. 1937-38)

Artwork description & Analysis: This painting perfectly summarizes Carrington's skewed perception of reality and exploration of her own femininity. The artist has painted herself posed in the foreground on a blue armchair, wearing androgynous riding clothes, facing outward to the viewer. She extends her hand toward a female hyena, and the hyena imitates Carrington's posture and gesture, just as the artist's wild mane of hair echoes the coloring of the hyena's coat. Carrington frequently used the hyena as a surrogate for herself in her art and writing; she was apparently drawn to this animal's rebellious spirit and its ambiguous sexual characteristics. In the window in the background, a white horse (which may also symbolize the artist herself) gallops freely in a forest. A white rocking horse in a similar position appears to float on the wall behind the artist's head, a nod to the fairytales of the artist's early childhood. Carrington had been raised in an aristocratic household in the English countryside and often fought against the rigidity of her education and upbringing. This painting, with its doublings, its transformations, and its contrast between restriction and liberation, seems to allude to her dramatic break with her family at the time of her romance with Max Ernst. The distorted perspective, enigmatic narrative, and autobiographical symbolism of this painting demonstrate the artist's attempt to reimagine her own reality.

Oil on canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

More Leonora Carrington Artwork and Analysis:



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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Leonora Carrington
Interactive chart with Leonora Carrington's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

Hieronymus BoschHieronymus Bosch
André BretonAndré Breton
Max ErnstMax Ernst
Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí

Personal Contacts

Carl JungCarl Jung
Sigmund FreudSigmund Freud

Movements

CubismCubism
SurrealismSurrealism

Influences on Artist
Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington
Years Worked: 1936 - 2011
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Frida KahloFrida Kahlo

Personal Contacts

Edward JamesEdward James

Movements

Feminist ArtFeminist Art

Useful Resources on Leonora Carrington

Special Features

Videos

Books

Websites

Articles

More

artist features

Carrington and Fashion

Entry on Art Story Blog

Carrington and Hieronymus Bosch

Entry on Art Story Blog #2

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Leonora Carrington Recomended resource

By Dawn Ades, Alyce Mahon, Sean Kissane, and Sarah Glennie

Leonora Carrington: Surrealism, Alchemy and Art Recomended resource

By Susan L. Alberth

Leonora Carrington: The Mexican Years

By Leonora Carrington

In Wonderland: The Surrealist Adventures of Women Artists in Mexico and the United States

By Ilene Susan Fort, Tere Arcq, Terri Geis, Dawn Ades, and Maria Buszek

More Interesting Books about Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington

By Kris Wilton
Art+Auction
June 2012

Nobody's Muse Recomended resource

By Edward M. Gomez
Art & Antiques
September 2011

Leonara Carrington Recomended resource

The Telegraph
May 26, 2011

Leonora Carrington Obituary

By Joanna Moorhead
The Guardian
May 26, 2011

More Interesting Articles about Leonora Carrington

in pop culture

The Flowering of the Crone: Leonora Carrington, Another Reality on IMDB Recomended resource

Documentary on Carrington, directed by Ally Acker


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Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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