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Neo-Plasticism Collage

Neo-Plasticism

Started: 1917

Ended: 1944

Neo-Plasticism Timeline

Quotes

"Painting today is architectural because in itself and by its own means it serves the same concept as architecture - space and and the plane - and thus expresses 'the same thing' but in a different way."
Bart van der Leck
"To be white, red, yellow, or black is to be a painter. Today it is not sufficient for the painter to think of color; he should be color, feed on color and transform himself into painting. That is the essential thing."
Theo van Doesburg
"Increasingly, the work of art speaks for itself. Personality is displaced; each work of art becomes a personality instead of each artist. Each work of art becomes another expression of the universal."
Piet Mondrian
"Art - although an end in and of itself, like religion - is the means through which we can know the universal and contemplate it in plastic form."
Piet Mondrian
"All relations are dominated by a single primordial relation, which is defined by the opposition of two extremes."
Piet Mondrian
"Neo-plasticism is pure painting; the means of expression still are form and color, though these are completely interiorized; the straight line and flat color remain purely pictorial means of expression..."
Piet Mondrian
"Plastic vision implies action...The pure plastic vision should set up a new society...a society composed of balanced relationships."
Piet Mondrian
"While the expressive possibilities of Neo-Plasticism are limited to two dimensions (the plane), Elementarism realizes the possibility of plasticism in four dimensions, in the field of time-space."
Theo van Doesburg
"In the future, the realization of pure plastic expression in palpable reality will replace the work of art. But in order to achieve this, orientation toward a universal conception and detachment from the oppression of nature is necessary. Then we will no longer have the need of pictures and sculpture, for we will live in realized art."
Piet Mondrian

KEY ARTISTS

Piet MondrianPiet Mondrian
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Theo van DoesburgTheo van Doesburg
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Gerrit RietveldGerrit Rietveld
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Bart van der LeckBart van der Leck
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"Neo-Plasticism creates harmony through two extremes: the universal and the individual. The former by revelation, the latter by deduction. Art gives visible expression to the evolution of life: the evolution of spirit and - in the reverse direction - that of matter."

Piet Mondrian Signature

Synopsis

Neo-Plasticism, articulated most completely by Dutch artist Piet Mondrian, relied on the most basic elements of painting - color, line, and form - to convey universal and absolute truths. Mondrian advocated for the use of austere geometry and color to create asymmetrical but balanced compositions that conveyed the harmony underlying reality. As with many avant-gardes styles of the early-20th century, a utopian vision of society underlay Neo-Plastic theory. Embracing the elemental forms of composition and the merging of painting and architecture, Neo-Plasticism strove to transform society by changing the way people saw and experienced their environment.

Key Ideas

Instead of representations of natural forms, Neo-Plasticism relied on the relationships between line and color to emulate the opposing forces that structured nature and reality. Neo-Plastic compositions juxtapose horizontal and vertical lines along with the primary colors of red, yellow, and blue against the non-colors of black, white, and grey to produce timeless balance.
Neo-Plasticism abolished the figure-ground dichotomy by using an irregular grid structure that resisted arranging the pictorial elements into a hierarchy. This all-over composition created a unity that Mondrian felt underscored the disharmony of the surrounding environment.
Mondrian and other Neo-Plastic artists thought that the merging of painting, architecture, and design would hasten the coming of an ordered and harmonious society. They intended that this utopic vision, coming from the "dynamic equilibrium" sought out in Neo-Plastic paintings, would spread to the interior of the studio, to the home, the street, and the city, and eventually to all of the world.

Beginnings

Neo-Plasticism Image

Mondrian's Neo-Impressionism and Theosophism

From 1909-1910 Mondrian painted in a Neo-Impressionist style and carefully studied Georges Seurat's scientific methodology and color theory that emphasized the use of contrasting primary colors. During this time, he also joined the Dutch Theosophical Society and remained a member all his life. The writings of the theosophists Madame Blavatsky, Rudolph Steiner and M. H. J. Schoenmaekers's Beginselen der Beeldende Wiskunde (The Principles of Plastic Mathematics) both influenced and echoed the aesthetic theory that Mondrian was then developing. Particularly influential was Schoenmaeker's view that, "The two fundamental and absolute extremes that shape our planet are: on the one hand the line of the horizontal force, namely the trajectory of the Earth around the Sun, and on the other vertical and essentially spatial movement of the rays that issue from the center of the Sun...the three essential colors are yellow, blue, and red." The use of horizontal and vertical lines and primary colors became fundamental principles of Neo-Plasticism. Mondrian even borrowed one of Schoenmaeker's phrases, "de nieuwe beelding," which literally means "new image creation" or "new art," as the name for his new art style.

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Neo-Plasticism Overview Continues

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Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Movement Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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