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The Art Story Homepage Artists Juan Gris
Juan Gris Photo

Juan Gris

Spanish Painter, Illustrator, and Sculptor

Movements and Styles: Cubism, Purism

Born: March 23 1887 - Madrid, Spain

Died: May 11 1927 - Boulogne-sur-Seine, France

Juan Gris Timeline

"Cézanne made a cylinder out of a bottle. I start from the cylinder to create a special kind of individual object. I make a bottle out of a cylinder."

Juan Gris Signature

Summary of Juan Gris

One of Gertrude Stein's favorite artists, and the only Cubist talented enough to make Picasso uncomfortable, Juan Gris built upon the foundations of early Cubism and steered the movement in new directions. A member of the tight-knit circle of avant-garde artists working in Paris, Gris adopted the radically fragmented picture spaces of Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque, imparting to his works a bold, graphic look. Gris's paintings are immediately distinguishable from theirs, informed by his background as an illustrator, with a slick, almost commercial appearance, and crisp design elements throughout.

Key Ideas

Whereas Picasso and Braque delighted in destroying the conventions of painting, Gris's chief aim was to please the eye. As the artist himself put it, 'I prefer the emotion that corrects the rule'. Despite his radical treatment of the picture space, his well-balanced compositions, saturated colors, and traditional subjects popularized the avant-garde movement.
Like Picasso and Braque, he incorporated newsprint and advertisements into his work. Whereas they tended to snip these elements into smithereens, however, he leaves more of the original pieces of ads and newsprint intact, as if to preserve the integrity of the originals. In lifting popular culture into the realm of high art, he is an important forerunner of Dada and Pop artists, among them Marcel Duchamp, Stuart Davis, and Andy Warhol.
He was among the visionaries (poets, choreographers, musicians and visual artists) who built pathways among the arts. His costumes for the Ballet Russes show his commitment to interdisciplinary collaboration, an idea that gathered momentum and became central to contemporary art.
Juan Gris Photo

The man who would become Juan Gris, one of the leading figures in Cubist painting, was born José Victoriano Carmelo Carlos González-Pérez in Madrid in 1887. The thirteenth of fourteen children, he attended Madrid's Escuela de Artes y Manufacturas from 1902 to 1904, where he studied mathematics, physics, and mechanical drawing. Though he was a strong student, the rigidity of academic life did not appeal to him, and his natural ability in drawing encouraged him to shift his focus to the study of art.

Important Art by Juan Gris Important Art and Analysis

The below artworks are the most important by Juan Gris - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Portrait of Picasso (1912)
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Portrait of Picasso (1912)

Artwork description & Analysis: Gris idolized Picasso. A clever tribute to his mentor, his portrait depicts Picasso (founder of Cubism) in the Cubist style. Palette at the ready, Picasso is literally larger than life (taking up most of the space on the canvas). Working primarily in cool hues of blue, gray, and brown, he fractures the sitter's face into a prism of planes and geometric shapes that resolve into the parallel lines in the background. All parts of this picture seem to be in motion. While he and his fellow practitioners produced many more chaotic images, elements of formal portraiture, such as the legibility of the sitter's features, symmetry of the pose, and high-collared jacket (as opposed to a painter's smock), indicate his respect for the subject. It is entirely in keeping with the Cubist mission, however, in its divergence from traditional representation and effort to capture the dynamism of modern life.

Oil on Canvas - Art Institute of Chicago

Flowers (1914)
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Flowers (1914)

Artwork description & Analysis: Around this time, Gris and other Cubists began incorporating collage elements, such as newspaper and wallpaper, into their paintings. Flowers represents a woman's marble-topped vanity table with a vase of roses, a coffee cup, and the morning paper. A tilting oval mirror reflects wallpaper printed with stylized Art Nouveau orchids. Newspaper and wallpaper (literal scraps of everyday life) force us to consider the subject through the lens of modernity. Once owned by the American writer Gertrude Stein, Flowers. Gris was particularly fond of rewarding close viewers with hidden messages. Upon close inspection, we glimpse a second coffee cup and pipe camouflaged by the table - evidence that the lady is not alone.

Crayon, Oil, Gouache, Wallpaper, Woven Paper, and Newspaper on Canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art

Still Life with Checkered Tablecloth (1915)
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Still Life with Checkered Tablecloth (1915)

Artwork description & Analysis: Think of this painting as the masculine compliment to Flowers. Here, a small bistro table with a checked tablecloth almost overflows with an assortment of objects: a bottle of red wine, bunch of grapes, coffee cups, beer bottle, a stout ceramic pot of preserves, coasters, and a French newspaper. Like Flowers, it too contains a hidden message, this time, in reference to his native Spain: a bull's head. The snout is the coffee cup toward the bottom of the canvas, the ear is the bottle of Bass ale to the right, and the "bull's eye" is the black-and-white coaster to the left. It is a poignant reminder that the artist's homeland remained on his mind, though he would never be able to return there. Flagrantly breaking the rules, and combining "low art" (design elements such as the beer bottle logo and newspaper typography) with "high art" (the traditional still life elements), Still Life with Checkered Tablecloth illustrates his brilliance in furthering the goal of Cubism: making something new out of the connections between life and art.

Oil and Graphite on Canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art

More Juan Gris Artwork and Analysis:

The Man from Touraine (1918) Harlequin with a Guitar (1918) Woman with a Basket (1927)

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Juan Gris
Interactive chart with Juan Gris's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart
Show influences

Artists

Jean MetzingerJean Metzinger
Robert DelaunayRobert Delaunay

Personal Contacts

Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Georges BraqueGeorges Braque
Henri MatisseHenri Matisse

Movements

CubismCubism
Influences on Artist
Influences on Artist
Juan Gris
Juan Gris
Years Worked: 1906 - 1927
Influenced by Artist
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Joseph CornellJoseph Cornell
Diego RiveraDiego Rivera
Andy WarholAndy Warhol

Personal Contacts

Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí
Sergei DiaghilevSergei Diaghilev

Movements

CubismCubism
SurrealismSurrealism
Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Pop ArtPop Art

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Ruth Epstein
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First published on 07 Dec 2015. Updated and modified regularly. Information
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