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Artists Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau Photo

Gustave Moreau

French Painter

Movement: Symbolism

Born: April 6, 1826 - Paris, France

Died: April 18, 1898 - Paris, France

Gustave Moreau Timeline

Quotes

"I have never looked for dream in reality or reality in dream. I have allowed my imagination free play, and I have not been led astray by it."
Gustave Moreau
"I am dominated by one thing, an irresistible, burning attraction towards the abstract."
Gustave Moreau
"The expression of human feelings and the passions of man certainly interest me deeply, but I am less concerned with expressing the motions of the soul and mind than to render visible, so to speak, the inner flashes of intuition which have something divine in their apparent insignificance and reveal magic, even divine horizons, when they are transposed into the marvellous effects of pure plastic art."
Gustave Moreau
"No one could have less faith in the absolute and definitive importance of the work created by man, because I believe that this world is nothing but a dream..."
Gustave Moreau
"I love all ecstasies, all aspirations, all humanity's needs. Everything that makes me believe that man suffers and that in this vague suffering of the soul he seeks to raise himself up, delights and moves me. Religion, poetry, art in all its forms, prayer, meditation, love; all the varied forms of ideal love and the needs of the suffering soul."
Gustave Moreau
"The career of painter is a true Priesthood"
Gustave Moreau

"I believe neither in what I touch nor what I see. I only believe in what I do not see, and solely in what I feel."

Gustave Moreau Signature

Synopsis

Gustave Moreau's visionary paintings speak to an obsession with the otherworldly, the macabre, and the life of the imagination which resonates across the recent centuries, making him one of the most fascinating of 19th-century painters for modern audiences. Guided partly by his unusual religious faith - which has been called Neo-Platonist, stressing the imperfection and impermanence of the physical world -Moreau set about capturing the products of his imagination on canvas with photographic accuracy. He believed that by so doing, he was allowing divine vision to speak through his brush. Moreau's paintings, normally depicting moments from biblical or mythic narratives, are populated with ambiguous visual symbols - which he took to represent certain desires and emotions in abstract forms - with divine and mortal beings locked in conflict, and with strange visions of sex and suffering. His art predicts not only subsequent movements such as Symbolism (of which he was a forerunner) and Surrealism, but also the peculiar concerns of our own era, seen to have given free rein to the darkest and most submerged impulses of the human mind.

Key Ideas

By emphasising the importance of imagination to artistic creation, Moreau set himself against the two dominant currents in French painting when he began working in the 1850s: on the one hand, the Realism of Gustave Courbet, which stressed the depiction of real people and subject matter, and on the other, Naturalism, whose concern with capturing precisely what the eye saw culminated in the formal innovations of Impressionism.
Many of Moreau's paintings show Christian symbols and figures interacting with Classical and other pagan elements. In so doing, they express a synthetic - or syncretic - religious imagination which would be common to much art of the late-19th and early-20th centuries, and which also predicts the many cults and new-age religions that follow.
Moreau's paintings frequently depict two figures locking eyes, their faces and gazes mirroring one another. Often, these forms represent divine and earthly passion in conflict, and are presented as male and female respectively. This technique of mirroring two faces has been seen to predict early-20th-century psychoanalysis in stressing the duality of the human mind: the idea that multiple characters and impulses, some visible, some invisible, might inhabit the same body.
Moreau's interest in depicting femme fatale women and physically delicate, androgynous seeming men, was echoed in fin-de-siècle and Decadent aesthetics - we can see Moreau-type figures, for example, in the illustrations of Aubrey Beardsley - and in some ways resembles the unpicking of male and female archetypes in our own era.

Biography

Gustave Moreau Photo

Childhood

Gustave Moreau was born in Paris to a wealthy middle-class family in 1826. His father, an architect, ensured that Moreau received an education in the classics, while his mother, a talented musician, doted on him due to his poor health as a child. She later recalled that he drew incessantly from the age of 8. When he was 13, his sister Camille died, and Moreau was taken out of school because of illness. When he was 15, he visited Italy and quickly developed a keen interest in art, particularly that of Greco-Roman and Byzantine antiquity and the early Italian Renaissance. Later, at around the age of 18, he studied with François-Edouard Pico, the Neoclassical painter, and prepared for the entrance exam to the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris.

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Gustave Moreau Biography Continues

Important Art by Gustave Moreau

The below artworks are the most important by Gustave Moreau - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Oedipus and the Sphinx (1864)

Oedipus and the Sphinx (1864)

Artwork description & Analysis: This painting, which marks the beginning of Moreau's mature period, offered a daring new interpretation of a famous scene from Greek mythology. The tragic hero Oedipus is accosted en route from Corinth to Thebes - where, having just killed his father Laius, he will marry his mother Jocasta in unwitting fulfilment of divine prophecy - by a fabulous beast with the head and breasts of a woman, the ornate plumage of a bird of prey, the body of a lion, and the tail of a serpent. As the creature claws her way up his nude body, Oedipus and the sphinx hold each other's gaze.

The neo-classical painter Ingres had depicted the same subject in Oedipus Explaining the Enigma of the Sphinx (1808), and Moreau's version pays homage to the older artist while offering several points of formal and thematic departure. In contrast to Ingres's direct treatment of a key scene from the Oedipus narrative - the confident, muscled protagonist leaning forwards to solve the sphinx's riddle, thus saving his own life and liberating the citizens of Thebes from her curse - Moreau offers a density and obscurity of symbolic detail well beyond the inherited tropes of history painting. Through suggestive but ambiguous features such as the fig tree at bottom-left, the butterfly and chalice to Oedipus's right, and the snake twining around the pedestal, Moreau presents a scene which seems to exist outside the naturalistic, time-bound realm of historical and mythic narrative, instead occupying a strange and timeless dream-world.

In composing the piece, Moreau opted for a deliberately archaic effect, emulating early Renaissance painters such as Andrea Mantegna. Both the steep spires of rock in the background, for example, and what the critic Peter Cooke calls the "wiry, linear style" of the composition, suggest Mantegna's influence. Other critics have suggested biographical and sociological influences on the painting. Moreau's father had died a few months before he began the piece, just as Oedipus's father has died, shortly before the scene depicted. The dominant body language of the sphinx, meanwhile - clawing her way up the hero's chest - has been seen to express fears of the growing political and cultural influence of women in mid-19th-century France.

This work marks a new direction both for Moreau and for French painting in general. As well as rejecting the contemporary tropes of Realism and Naturalism, Moreau predicted, and in a sense established, some of the key concepts of Symbolist art, by presenting various seemingly allegorical but stubbornly enigmatic compositional motifs. The realistic representation of dream-like imagery, as well as the subject's later treatment by Sigmund Freud, made this an important work for Surrealist artists such as André Breton.

Oil on canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Orpheus (1865)

Orpheus (1865)

Artwork description & Analysis: This painting, composed a year after the appearance of Oedipus and the Sphinx at the Paris Salon, which brought Moreau sudden popular and critical acclaim, turns again to Greek mythology for its source-material. Orpheus was a legendary musician whose lyre could hypnotise and charm humans, animals, and gods. Killed and dismembered by Maenads - frenzied female worshippers of Dionysus - his head washes ashore on the Greek island of Lesbos, where it is discovered by a mysterious young woman.

The story of Orpheus is treated extensively in classical sources such as Ovid's Metamorphoses. It was also the subject of paintings by Moreau's contemporaries, including Pierre Puvis de Chavannes and Émile Lévy. But whereas a work like Lévy's Death of Orpheus (c. 1970), showing the hero attacked and floored by dangerous, voluptuous women, offers an emphatic and somewhat one-dimensional mood, Moreau's piece resists easy emotional or moral responses. Its ambiguities revolve around those of the female figure, who seems both respectfully mournful and subtly dangerous. As Symbolist scholar Rosina Naginsky states, "the girl's demure head, with its chaste hairstyle, is contradicted by the sensual, fetishistic appeal that her naked feet offered contemporary male viewers. Is she a Muse or a Maenad, a holy woman or a femme fatale?" That last reading is implied especially by the allusion to the story of Salome in the way she stares directly at the decapitated head. In incorporating this suggestion, Moreau demonstrated his ability to mix the tropes of classical and biblical narrative, while, by implying that Orpheus's mourner might also be his attacker, he rendered the moment depicted in the painting ambiguous, transgressing the typical narrative clarity of 19th-century historical and mythical painting.

Like Oedipus and the Sphinx, this painting represents something of a turning point both for French visual art and for Moreau's personal style. Aspects of the concept and composition - the depiction of a decapitated head, the focus on a 'femme fatale' - predict key elements of the Symbolist aesthetic. Later artists such as Odilon Redon would represent the disembodied head as an image of imaginative spirit freed from earthly constraint, while many Symbolist artists were engrossed with the idea of the powerful, dangerous female. Like Oedipus and the Sphinx, Orpheus depicts two faces, one male and one female, staring down and mirroring one another. This would become a key motif of Moreau's work.

Oil on canvas - Musée d'Orsay, Paris

The Apparition (1876)

The Apparition (1876)

Artwork description & Analysis: In this painting epitomising the Symbolist and fin-de-siècle obsession with the biblical story of John the Baptist, Moreau depicts the Judaean princess Salome, who danced provocatively for her father King Herod to win the head of the evangelist John for her mother, Herodias. However, as in many of Moreau's paintings, it is unclear what point in the story this work depicts. Is Salome experiencing a premonition of her seduction's grizzly outcome, or is this a ghostly reminder of a deed already committed?

The Apparition is, in biographical terms, the product of a period of isolation and creative crisis. After severe criticism of his two paintings Prometheus and Europe in the 1869 Salon, Moreau had retreated to the studio to reassess his work. At the same time, in composing the painting he was channelling his reading in orientalist literature, and treatments of the Salome story by writers such as Gustave Flaubert, whose descriptions of the princess in Salammbô (1862) might have influenced Moreau's choice of robes and head-dress. Representations of this archetypal 'femme fatale' in early Renaissance painting, and by contemporary painters such as Jean-Léon Gérôme and Henri Regnault, were probably also points of reference. Moreau enriched this meshwork of allusions with references to Indian and Asian art, dress and architecture and his characteristic surfeit of strange symbolic detail - notably in the weird iconography of Salome's jewellery - to generate the kind of mysterious, exotic mood typical of Symbolist painting.

The mystery of the scene is enhanced by elements of the formal composition, particularly the curious posture of the anti-heroine, which at once suggests her mid-dance and in a position of priestly stasis. The rest of the scene is populated by grave, static figures, which, in combination with the diverse cultural sources for the setting, adds to that mysterious sense so often conveyed by Moreau's painting that the scene depicted lies outside narrative history and linear time. The choice of watercolor was idiosyncratic but revelatory, allowing Moreau to portray features such as the dripping blood with mimetic accuracy.

This painting marks a movement away from the large, centrally placed figures of Moreau's first mature works such as Oedipus and the Sphinx and Orpheus, instead placing a larger number of small figures within a richly detailed architectural setting, an arrangement characteristic of his middle period. Once again, male and female protagonists lock gazes with an intensity suggesting an eternal battle between spirit and flesh, a key motif in Moreau's oeuvre. In terms of its wider impact, this painting caused a sensation when displayed in the 1876 Salon, and influenced the subsequent development of Symbolism in both art and literature, particularly after Joris-Karl Huysmans lavished praise on the painting in his genre-defining novel À Rebours (1884).

Watercolor - Musée d'Orsay, Paris

More Gustave Moreau Artwork and Analysis:

Galatea (1880-81) Orpheus at the Tomb of Eurydice (1891) Jupiter and Semele (1894-95)


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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Gustave Moreau
Interactive chart with Gustave Moreau's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

François-Édouard Pico
Jean-Auguste-Dominique IngresJean-Auguste-Dominique Ingres
Eugène DelacroixEugène Delacroix
Nicolas PoussinNicolas Poussin

Personal Contacts

Théodore Chassériau

Movements

SymbolismSymbolism
The Pre-RaphaelitesThe Pre-Raphaelites
RomanticismRomanticism
NeoclassicismNeoclassicism
RenaissanceRenaissance

Influences on Artist
Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
Years Worked: 1851 - 1898
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Odilon RedonOdilon Redon
Fernand Khnopff
Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí
André BretonAndré Breton

Personal Contacts

Edgar DegasEdgar Degas
Henri MatisseHenri Matisse
Georges Roualt
Georges Desvallières
René Piot

Movements

SymbolismSymbolism
Decadent MovementDecadent Movement
Aesthetic ArtAesthetic Art
FauvismFauvism
SurrealismSurrealism

Useful Resources on Gustave Moreau

Books

Articles

Videos

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Gustave Moreau: History, Painting, Spirituality and Symbolism Recomended resource

By Peter Cooke

Gustave Moreau: Between Epic and Dream

By Genevieve Lacambre

Gustave Moreau: The Assembler of Dreams

Paint is the Language of God: The Gospel According to Gustave Moreau Recomended resource

By Tim Keane
Hyperallergic
March 26, 2016

Stairway to Heaven: Life After Death for the Mysterious Gustave Moreau Recomended resource

By Allison Meier
Atlas Obscura
June 20, 2014

The Story in Paintings: Gustave Moreau and the Dissolution of History

The Eclectic Light Company
February 2, 2016

Dream House

By Adam Leith Gollner
The New York Times
19 March, 2006

More Interesting Articles about Gustave Moreau
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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Anna Souter

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Greg Thomas

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Anna Souter
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Greg Thomas
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