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Artists Carl Andre
Carl Andre Photo

Carl Andre

American Sculptor

Movements and Styles: Minimalism, Conceptual Art

Born: September 16, 1935 - Quincy, Massachusetts

Carl Andre Timeline


"Art is the exclusion of the unnecessary."
Carl Andre
"Settle for nothing less than concrete analysis of concrete situations leading to concrete actions."
Carl Andre
"My art will reflect not necessarily conscious politics but the unanalyzed politics of my life."
Carl Andre
"...art for art's sake is ridiculous. Art is for the sake of one's needs."
Carl Andre

"My art springs from my desire to have things in the world which would otherwise never be there."

Carl Andre Signature


During the 1960s and 1970s, Carl Andre produced a number of sculptures which are now counted among the most innovative of his generation. Along with figures such as Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt, Dan Flavin, Eva Hesse and Robert Morris, Andre played a central role in defining the nature of Minimalist Art. His most significant contribution was to distance sculpture from processes of carving, modeling, or constructing, and to make works that simply involved sorting and placing. Before him, few had imagined that sculpture could consist of ordinary, factory-finished raw materials, arranged into straightforward configurations and set directly on the ground. In fact, during the 1960s and 1970s many of his low-lying, segmented works came to redefine for a new generation of artists the very nature of sculpture itself.

Key Ideas

Andre is a sculptor who neither carves into substances, nor models forms. His work involves the positioning of raw materials - such as bricks, blocks, ingots, or plates. He uses no fixatives to hold them in place. Andre has suggested that his procedure for building up a sculpture from small, regularly-shaped units is based on "the principle of masonry construction" - like stacking up bricks to build a wall.
Andre claims that his sculpture is an exploration of the properties of matter, and for this reason he has called himself a "matterist." Some people have seen his art as "concept based," as though each piece is merely the realization of an idea. But for Andre, this is mistaken: the characteristics of every unit of material he selects, and the arrangement and position of the sculpture in its environment, forms the substance of his art.
Andre insists on installing all new work in person, and his configurations are always carefully attuned to the scale and proportions of their immediate surroundings. However, once installed, his sculptures can be dismantled and reconstructed in other locations without his direct involvement.
In 1966, Andre began to describe his work as "sculpture as place," a phrase which alludes both to the fact that his sculptures are produced simply by positioning units on the floor, and to their "place generating" properties. Andre defined "place" as "an area within an environment which has been altered in such a way as to make the general environment more conspicuous."


Carl Andre Photo

Early Years

After school, Andre briefly attended Kenyon College in Ohio, but soon dropped out. He spent the next few months working in Quincy, and between 1955 and 1956 he completed his military service at Fort Bragg in North Carolina. In 1957 he moved to New York with the intent of devoting more time to writing poetry and making art. Living in Lower Manhattan, his circle of friends included Hollis Frampton and the painter Frank Stella, both of whom had also attended Phillips Academy. Frampton introduced Andre to the poetry and essays of Ezra Pound, and it was through Pound that Andre became increasingly interested in the work of the sculptor Constantin Brancusi. Stimulated by the Romanian modernist, Andre began to experiment with found blocks of wood, sawing and carving them into simple geometric shapes.

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Carl Andre Biography Continues

Important Art by Carl Andre

The below artworks are the most important by Carl Andre - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Cedar Piece (1959 (destroyed), remade 1964)
Artwork Images

Cedar Piece (1959 (destroyed), remade 1964)

Artwork description & Analysis: Andre recreated this sculpture for the exhibition "Nine Young Artists" at the Hudson River Museum in 1964, and it became the first work of his to be exhibited in public. It consists of equal lengths of standard lumber, into which he has cut simple woodworker's joints so that the sculpture can be slotted together, and then detached for the purposes of portability. The initial version dates from 1959 when he was in close contact with Stella and was observing Stella complete his paintings using repeated, even brushstrokes. Cedar Piece can be understood as Andre's early attempt to construct sculpture in a similar fashion, also by building up a form from identical units. Andre liked this approach because once he had established the initial premise, he did not have to make any further decisions about the formal composition of the sculpture. In fact, it could be argued that the sculpture composes itself, in that the shape of the St Andrews cross formed by the ends of the beams results from the regular positioning of the joints.

Cedar - Oeffentliche Kunstsammlung Basel, Museum fur Gegenwartskunst, Switzerland

Equivalent I-VIII (1966)
Artwork Images

Equivalent I-VIII (1966)

Artwork description & Analysis: Andre frequently works in series, producing an entire exhibition of sculptures from different arrangements of the same material, as he did for his influential exhibition at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery in New York in 1966. Here, each work consists of an equivalent number of white sand-lime bricks (120), although the eight stacks are all arranged according to a different rectangular formation. These eight sculptures are arguably the first sculptures that clearly demonstrate Andre's definition of "sculpture as place." By spreading out the bricks over the floor of the gallery, Andre wanted to generate a sense of extreme horizontality, reminiscent of the level of water. This led him to consider the layer of space between the sculptures to be just as substantial as the bricks themselves, and to emphasise this feature of the sculpture he coined the aphorism: "a thing is a hole in a thing it is not." However, at the end of the exhibition this feature of the installation was lost, because each sculpture was sold individually. Perhaps for this reason Andre remade a version of this work in 1995 called Sand-Lime Instar, in which the entire installation is considered a single sculpture.

Sand-lime bricks - Different Museums and Private Collections

Spill (Scatter Piece) (1966)
Artwork Images

Spill (Scatter Piece) (1966)

Artwork description & Analysis: Andre has always claimed that he looks to the properties of an individual unit or module to determine how it should be combined with others, and since these small plastic counters were too light and too small to be set down one by one like tiles in a mosaic, he decided merely to empty a canvas bag of them over the floor. This work became extremely important for defining "process art", a term which artists and critics used in the late 1960s to distinguish recent works which did not seem to fit with definitions of Minimal art. Minimalism was often associated with sculptures which had rigid, clearly defined geometric forms, and yet artists were increasingly producing objects which appeared simply to have been scattered, or dropped, or were made from materials which had no fixed shape. These sculptures were consequently described in terms of "process," as a way of highlighting that the procedure deployed for the construction of the piece was more important than the finished form.

Plastic blocks and canvas bag - Kimiko and John Powers

More Carl Andre Artwork and Analysis:

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Carl Andre
Interactive chart with Carl Andre's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Ezra PoundEzra Pound
Ad ReinhardtAd Reinhardt
Robert MorrisRobert Morris
Constantin BrancusiConstantin Brancusi
Frank StellaFrank Stella

Personal Contacts

Hollis FramptonHollis Frampton
Constantin BrancusiConstantin Brancusi
Frank StellaFrank Stella



Influences on Artist
Carl Andre
Carl Andre
Years Worked: 1958 - Present
Influenced by Artist


Eva HesseEva Hesse
Sol LeWittSol LeWitt
Donald JuddDonald Judd
Walter de MariaWalter de Maria
Richard SerraRichard Serra

Personal Contacts

Michael FriedMichael Fried
Rosalind KraussRosalind Krauss
Leon GolubLeon Golub
Nancy SperoNancy Spero


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Landscape ArchitectureLandscape Architecture
Land ArtLand Art

Useful Resources on Carl Andre





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


About Carl Andre: Critical Texts Since 1965 Recomended resource

By Paula Feldman, Alistair Rider, Karsten Schubert

Carl Andre and the Sculptural Imagination

By Ian Cole

written by artist

Against Kandinsky

By Margarita Tupitsyn, Margartia Tupitsyn

Cuts: Texts 1959-2004

By Carl Andre, James Meyer

More Interesting Books about Carl Andre
Reopening a Minimalist Door: Carl Andre's 1976 'Uncarved Blocks,' part of a Newport Harbor collection show, offers richer meaning with the passage of time

The Los Angeles Times
By Cathy Curtis
May 23, 1995

Pedestal Art: Carl Andre aspires to be a 'matterist.'

By Jeff Bradley
May 26, 1999

Ana Mendieta and Carl Andre: duet of leaf and stone

By Laura Roulet
Art Journal
September 22, 2004

Carl Andre: Andrea Rosen Gallery

By Lisa Turvey
ArtForum International
June 22, 2007

More Interesting Articles about Carl Andre

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Alistair Rider

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Alistair Rider
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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