SynopsisMichael Fried is one the most established and reputable art critics and historians alive today. His approach to criticism is closely linked with that of his mentor, the late Clement Greenberg, who Fried first encountered while an undergraduate at Princeton. Much like Greenberg, Fried was suspicious of academics and critics who insisted on critiquing modern art within a historical and/or cultural context, instead of formally examining the work of art on its own terms. Another of Fried's notable contributions was his staunch opposition to what he observed as the lack of differentiation between the work of art itself and the experience of viewing it, a phenomenon he described as "theatricality."
Key Ideas / Information
Education and Meeting Clement GreenbergMichael Fried grew up in New York City and at an early age began painting using watercolors and oils. While attending Forest Hills High School, he drew cartoons for the school newspaper. Fried first became interested in art criticism while attending Princeton University as an undergraduate (class of '59). There he met and befriended Frank Stella and Walter Darby Bannard who later became prominent artists in their own right. While poetry and English literature were Fried's intended studies at Princeton, it was the writings of critic Clement Greenberg in Partisan Review and Art News that drew Fried into the world of art and art criticism.
Through some correspondence, Greenberg agreed to meet with the young Fried in 1958, and reportedly Greenberg was very impressed with Fried's views on art. According to Fried's account of the meeting some years later, "At one point [he] asked my opinion of Theodore Roszak's sculpture. I said I didn't like it, which impressed him .. He also said that art criticism as usually practiced was a pitiful activity and went on to warn me against the dangers of studying art history." Fried identified this moment as a key stage in his development as an art critic and historian.
In late 1958, Fried was awarded a Rhodes Scholarship and began studying at Oxford University. Before departing for England, Fried and Frank Stella socialized with artists Jasper Johns and Robert Rauschenberg in New York. Fried's experiences at Oxford, however, were less than favorable. When he expressed an interest in studying history, he was turned down because he lacked any prior academic training in historical studies. This reasoning puzzled him, and began his occasionally antagonistic relationship with the strict academic constraints of art history.
Middle YearsWhile studying at University College London from 1961-62, Fried began visiting more galleries and writing art criticism pieces with increasing frequency. He also traveled often to Paris and Rome, familiarizing himself with the many galleries and museums available in Europe. It was also during this time that his friend Frank Stella was gaining notoriety in New York City.
By 1961, Clement Greenberg had published Art and Culture to wide acclaim, and some of Frank Stella's works had been shown at The Museum of Modern Art. Through these high-profile acquaintances, Fried was able to establish other connections in the art world that eventually earned him the steady job, at age 22, as the London correspondent for the New York based Arts magazine.
In 1962 Fried returned to the U.S. to pursue a Ph.D. in art history at Harvard. By this time he was also writing regular criticism pieces for the journal Arts International. While at Harvard he curated an exhibition at the Fogg Art Museum entitled, "Three American Painters: Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, and Frank Stella."
In 1967, Fried published an essay entitled "Art and Objecthood," arguably one of the most important pieces of art criticism in the 20th century.
Later CareerMichael Fried abandoned art criticism in 1977, and steered his writing toward pinpointing the trajectory and overall meaning of Modernism in art, from the 19th century to the present day.
He has devoted much of his time to writing long monographs of individual artists such as Édouard Manet and Gustave Courbet. Currently he teaches the Humanities and Art History at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, MD.
LegacyThroughout his career, Fried has been far more preoccupied with concepts of Minimalism and Modernism in art than the idea of Abstract Expressionism. He has described the 1960s as the "last great moment in Modernist art."
The critical work of Michael Fried has raised several questions about the role of theatricality, mass culture and kitsch in Modern art, and has questioned whether Modern art has suffered from these phenomena.
In justifying his emphasis on formalism, Fried noted that throughout history there have been several specific types of relationships between art and spectator, whereas in the modern era, artists produced works that invited the spectator to actively participate in the viewing experience. Perhaps Fried's greatest contributions to art criticism were his thoughts on the specific effects that art, particularly sculpture, provoked in the viewer.
MOST IMPORTANT ESSAYS:
Fried on Theatricality, Minimalism and ObjecthoodIn his 1967 essay "Art and Objecthood", Fried posited that Minimalism (what he referred to as "literalism") was compromising the quality of art because such technique was too literal in its meaning, too theatrical, and ultimately an impure practice. In the essay he wrote, "..the literalist espousal of objecthood amounts to nothing other than a plea for a new genre of theatre; and theatre is now the negation of art."
Fried objected to the work of Minimalist sculptors like Donald Judd, Sol LeWitt and Dan Flavin, because of their clear love for the fundamental materiality of the work, which resulted in an interactive experience for the viewer. This was, according to Fried, a form of mixed media, in which art and theater commingled to the point where the work ceased to be art, and ultimately was revealed to be merely an object. This "theatricality" in Minimalist sculpture, Fried believed, relegated the work of the literalists to the realm of "anti-art." Such installations, as they eventually became, failed to achieve purity because they failed to properly distinguish between the art and the object.
One Minimalist sculptor who was in Fried's favor was Anthony Caro, whose work Fried believed maintained that ever-important differentiation between art and object. According to Fried, Caro's work sustained an internal coherence between art and media. Caro achieved this by painting his sculptures with a flat, non-reflective coat of monochromatic paint, both uniting the discrete parts of the piece and asserting a self-sufficient autonomy from its surroundings. Unlike the literalists, Fried believed, Caro did not draw attention to the objecthood (the materiality) of his works.
Fried on Post-Painterly AbstractionIf it can be said that Pollock made Greenberg's career and de Kooning made Rosenberg's, then the works of Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski and Frank Stella made Fried's. The chief aspect of abstract painting was its stark two-dimensionality; in these three artists Fried saw the neutralizing effect of flatness and "a new illusionism [that] both subsumes and dissolves the picture-surface."
Fried saw Noland, Olitski and Stella as drawing from the paintings of Pollock, Newman and Louis. These older artists were crucial practitioners in expanding the two-dimensional surface, resulting in the visual illusion of depth. The new generation of post-painterly artists took this one step further: "the development of modernist painting during the past six years [1960-66] can be described as having involved the progressive assumption by literal shape of a greater - that is, more active, more explicit - importance than ever before, and the consequent subordination of depicted shape." In other words, the post-painterly artists used literal shapes on a flat surface in order to bring together canvas, shape and color into one unified whole, where each entity ceased to be independent. Put most simply, these artists achieved a complete flatness by eliminating the illusion of depth
Fried on Clement GreenbergNo other art critic had a more profound influence of Fried's writing than Clement Greenberg. Fried perceived Greenberg's writing as the equivalent of painting with a broad brush: Greenberg's contribution was to focus on the essentialness of Modern painting in general. Instead of continuing in this vein, Fried used Greenberg's writing as a platform from which to delve into the specific cultural and social effects of Modern painting and sculpture.
However broad and formal, Fried established that Greenberg's writing was as crucial to the craft of criticism as the work of Modern artists was to abstract painting. Fried wrote, "One may deplore the fact that critics such as Fry and Greenberg concentrate their attention upon the formal characteristics of the works they discuss; but the painters whose work they most esteem on formal grounds - e.g. Manet, the Impressionists, Seurat, Cézanne, Picasso, Braque, Matisse, Léger, Mondrian, Kandinsky, Miró - are among the finest painters of the past hundred years." There had to be, in Fried's view, the establishment of formal examination of these artists' works before anyone attempted to write a deeper theoretical analysis.
Writing StyleFried's writing can be somewhat difficult to read. His approach is very much a Hegelian one: he constantly focuses on the dialectic (oppositional forces) in art, hence his most famous essay, "Art and Objecthood," which attempts to establish the two categorical imperatives of making and viewing art.
Despite Fried's tendency to write with overly complex prose, there are constant traces of irony and self-effacement in his essays. He writes in a serious tone without taking himself - or his craft - too seriously. He once wrote that "there is nothing binding in the value judgments of formal criticism. All judgments of value begin and end in experience, or ought to and if someone does not feel that Manet's Dejeuner sur l'herbe..[is a] superb painting, no critical arguments can take the place of feeling it." No matter how much praise a formal critic may bestow upon a certain artwork, if the viewer was not captivated by the experience of viewing it, then that was the only perspective that mattered in that given moment.
Below are Fried's major influences, and the people and ideas that he influenced in turn.
Years Worked: 1961 - 1977
Quotes"The formal critic of modernist painting..is also a moral critic: not because all art is at bottom a criticism of life, but because modernist painting is at least a criticism of itself."
"In some ways I was virtually apprenticed to him. I sought him out when I was 19, and was reading him from my teens on. I looked at a lot of art with him. He had a great eye. He's arguably the foremost art critic of the 20th century, and I learned a tremendous amount." (Discussing the influence of Clement Greenberg)
"It's the most polemical of all these essays. It champions the art that I admired, but it also comes out against Minimalism at a crucial early moment. Some people absolutely hate it. It's an essay that almost no one agrees with." (Discussing his essay, "Art and Objecthood")
"There's very little patience today for the kind of art I was talking about. I feel that most people aren't interested in art at all, in a demanding sense. I don't care whether it's painting or poetry or music or film. The idea of caring whether something is good, for how it works, the kind of involvement that art characteristically demands and rewards, has really gone out. For me that's a loss."
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Written by FriedArt and Objecthood: Essays and Reviews (in Google Books)
Absorption and Theatricality: Painting and Beholder in the Age of Diderot
Why Photography Matters As Art As Never Before
Essays by Fried
The Fallen Jockey
The Threepenny Review
Essays about Fried
Looking back on "the buzz"
Johns Hopkins Magazine
Written by Joanne P. Cavanaugh and Dale Keiger
An Evening with Michael Fried
Arma Virunque, a weblog of The New Criterion
January 7, 2006
By Roger Kimball
Photography and the Eyes of the Beholder
January 16, 2009
|A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and 1950s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraces the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the post-war mood of anxiety and trauma. |
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism Page
|Formalism is an approach to interpreting art that emphasises qualities of form - color, line, shape, texture and so forth. Formalists generally argue that these are at the heart of art's value. The belief that form can be detached from content, or subject matter, goes back to antiquity, but it has been particularly important in shaping accounts of modern and abstract art. In recent decades formalism has met with resistance, and a range of other approaches, including social and psychoanalytic, have gained popularity.|
ArtStory: Formalism Page
|Édouard Manet was a French painter and a prominent figure in the mid-19th-century Realist movement of French art. Manet's paintings are considered among the first works of art in the modern era, due to his rough painting style and absence of idealism in his figures. Manet was a close friend of and major influence on younger artists who founded Impressionism such as Monet, Degas and Renoir.|
ArtStory: Édouard Manet Page
|Barnett Newman was an Abstract Expressonist painter in New York who painted large-scale fields of solid color, interrupted by vertical lines or "zips." His sometimes narrow or boxy canvases, part painting and part sculpture, were influential for Minimalism.|
ArtStory: Barnett Newman Page
|Morris Louis was an American painter and an original member of the so-called Washington Color School. Along with Noland, Frankenthaler and others, Louis pioneered the color-field school of painting, using a technique of soaking heavy oil paints into unprimed canvases. Louis's paintings in part inspired his friend Clement Greenberg to dub the second-generation Abstract Expressionism artists Post-painterly abstraction.|
ArtStory: Morris Louis Page
|Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop Art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos. His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation.|
ArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg Page
|Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.|
ArtStory: Jasper Johns Page
|Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet and art critic during the mid-19th century. His poetry depicted the harsh realities of urban poverty in 19th-century Paris, and often focused on the flanuer (one who wanders the city to experience it). The Baudelarian idea of the flâneur is a lasting legacy of the modern era.|
|Karl Marx was a German philosopher, historian, economist and revolutionary who along with Frederick Engels founded modern Communism. Although Marx's belief that socialism would one day replace capitalism did not come true, he is considered one of the modern era's most influential thinkers.|
|Clement Greenberg was one the leading American art critics during the 20th century. Best known as the ideological counterpart to Harold Rosenberg, Greenberg was a formalist who coined the terms "American-type painting" and 'Post-painterly abstraction.' He was a staunch champion of pure abstraction, including the work of Pollock, Still and Hofmann.|
ArtStory: Clement Greenberg Page
|Maurice Merleau-Ponty was a 20th-century French phenomenological philosopher. Highly influenced by the writings and theories and Marx, Heidegger and Edmund Husserl, Merleau-Ponty examined the structures of human consciousness, and how things such as art, literature and the sciences affect these structures. Essentially an existentialist, Merleau-Ponty believed the human body, consciousness and the world around us were all intertwined entities.|
|A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs. |
ArtStory: Impressionism Page
|Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.|
ArtStory: Post-Impressionism Page
|Expressionism is a broad term for a host of movements in early twentieth-century Germany, from Die Brücke (1905) and Der Blaue Reiter (1911) to the early Neue Sachlichkeit painters in the 20s and 30s. Many German Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city.|
ArtStory: Expressionism Page
|Action Painting was a term coined by art critic Harold Rosenberg to refer to the gestural mode of Abstract Expressionism, characterized by drips, flung paint, and rapid, spontaneous strokes. In this view the painting is a record of the artist's activities over time.|
ArtStory: Action Painting Page
|Frank Stella is an American artist whose geometric paintings and shaped canvases underscore the idea of the painting as object. A major influence on Minimalism, his iconic works include nested black and white stripes and concentric, angular half-circles in bright colors.|
ArtStory: Frank Stella Page
|Kenneth Noland was an American painter who helped pioneer the Color Field movement in the 1960s. His most famous works consist of circular ripples of paint poured directly onto the canvas.|
ArtStory: Kenneth Noland Page
|Jules Olitski was a Russian-born American painter and key figure in the mid-century movements of color-field painting and Post-painterly abstraction. Olitski is most famous for his innovation of painting using multiple spray guns, applied to unprimed and unstretched canvases.|
ArtStory: Jules Olitski Page
|Sir Anthony Alfred Caro is an English abstract sculptor whose work famously incorporates found industrial objects, or what has been called "junk sculpture." Caro's non-objective sculpture was heavily influenced by the work of David Smith in the 1950s. Caro showed at the 1966 Primary Structures exhibition at the Jewish Museum. His work has also been categorized as Minimalist and Conceptual.|
|Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic and philosopher. Originally a disciple of formalist critic Clement Greenberg, Krauss later founded the radicalist journal October, and became an important proponent of postmodern art theory.|
ArtStory: Rosalind Krauss Page
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|Barbara Rose is an American art historian. Her 1965 article "ABC Art" was an important early study of Minimalism.|
|Post-painterly abstraction was a term developed by critic Clement Greenberg in 1964 to describe a diverse range of abstract painters who rejected the gestural styles of the Abstract Expressionists and favored instead what he called "openness or clarity." Painters as different as Ellsworth Kelly and Helen Frankenthaler were described by the term. Some employed geometric form, others veils of stained color. |
ArtStory: Post-Painterly Abstraction Page
|British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society. |
ArtStory: Pop Art Page
Color Field Painting
|A tendency within Abstract Expressionism, distinct from gestural abstraction, color field painting was developed by Barnett Newman, Mark Rothko, and Clyfford Still in the late 1940s, and developed further by Helen Frankenthaler and others. It is characterized by large fields of color and an absence of any figurative motifs, and often expresses a yearning for transcendence and the infinite.|
ArtStory: Color Field Painting Page
|Combine painting is a modern artistic medium that joins painting and sculpture. By incorporating non-art objects into a flat painterly surface, "combine" artworks assume a three-dimensional form, and directly challenge ideas of medium purity. The term "combines" was coined by Robert Rauschenberg in the 1950s to describe his own work.|