Progression of Art
Vuillard is pictured here with his mother, grandmother, and sister, Marie. In this work the artist contrasts the idea of dinnertime, which is usually a coming together of human solidarity and communication, with the scene pictured here, where each silent family member occupies a separate space, symbolizing their separate inner thoughts. There is bread and wine, but no one is eating or drinking. Madame Vuillard dominates at the left with her massive lateral, and compact silhouette, as she hunches over her task of lighting a flame, her bent elbow and head shrunken down into the neck both shutting out all proximate figures. A highlight of candlelit negative space separates Mme. Vuillard from the grandmother, who likewise shrinks down into herself, her face depicted only with an area of dark shadowing. Marie assumes a frontal stance toward the viewer, but seems to withdraw into a tightened facial expression and magisterially clutching, as if for protection, a sturdy baguette. The artist occupies a separate physical space as he peers from the background through an open doorway. In a subtle bit of irony, typical of Vuillard, a peaceful and idyllic painted landscape leans in toward the scene from above, only serving to underscore the tensions below it. This is a fine example of Vuillard's unique ability to transform cozy domesticity so as to reveal the underlying psychological drama.
Oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, New York
Vuillard painted many pictures of women sewing because his mother (shown at the right) ran a corset-making shop and presumably also worked as a dressmaker, given the presence of so many patterned fabrics in the workspace. It has been pointed out that Vuillard's paintings often show the influence of his familiarity with the theater, as in this work with the figures' postures, gestures, and positioning in space. Sewing - an intense, quiet, and inward activity - is here interrupted by the theatrically timed "entrance" of the centrally placed male figure (Ker-Xavier Roussel, who was to marry Vuillard's sister Marie, shown here gazing toward him as he opens the door).
The figures seem locked into the shapes of their flattened forms or the patterns of their attire and surroundings, particularly the women, who are also depicted with the least individuality. They are symbols of the work they perform: the color and pattern of Marie's dress, for example, is reiterated several times in the blocks of space that surround her. Her patterned dress and surroundings call to mind her everyday work of sewing patterned dresses from patterned bolts of fabric. This work is an example of Vuillard's unique ability to use color and pattern to symbolize states of being such as the repetitiveness of work and/or the loss of individuality through work.
Oil on millboard panel - Smith College Museum of Art, Northhampton, MA
Interior, Mother and Sister of the Artist
This painting depicts Vuillard's sister Marie and his mother Mme. Vuillard. The figures merge and interact with the space. Through pattern, Marie blends into her surroundings; through pattern, the artist is able to suggest that she is what she does. There is a struggle between figure and space, creating an uneasy symbiosis between figure and environment that instills a feeling of psychological disturbance as her form bends to fit the space and suggests ambivalent human relationships. The interior of the space is a burden to Marie, while Mme. Vuillard dominates it.
This work is also an example of the Nabi credo of respecting the overall pattern, the two-dimensional surface, and decorative schema. Although gender and class issues may be subtlety alluded to here, Vuillard's work also alludes to that time of transition when women were entering the workforce. Mme. Vuillard seems perfectly comfortable with, in fact in charge of, her surroundings, while the younger generation, personified by Marie, struggles against the confinement.
This painting of the artist's mother and sister is not an example of portraits in the traditional sense. Here Marie's physiognomy (and posture) is as a puppet/marionette with the upturned and slightly pinched nose and solid black dot of an eye as if a sewn-on piece of felt. This aspect of a puppet, while mildly humorous, can elicit pathos as well. Mme. Vuillard's face, on the other hand, is more like a mask atop a stalwart black silhouette - both entrenched and immovable. Because he is able to generalize, Vuillard's portraits are amongst his most communicative means, and are all the more psychologically intense. In Vuillard's work, the facial features - even when they are altered - become the very symbols of all intense feeling. Vuillard has created his own more modern version of a portrait: the artist combines the specific features of the actual person with non-human and generalized features and thus can refer symbolically to all humanity.
Oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, New York
Vuillard received the comission for this large-scale, five-paneled work (approximately 26 x 80 inches) from Thadee and Misia Natanson. The title derives from the album that serves as the focal point in the center of the picture. The painting has a warm, tapestry-like effect, with contemplative and dreamy female figures and floral motifs woven into patterns and subtly adjusted tonal values. Vuillard decided upon the scale of the piece based on Natanson's actual apartment on the rue Saint-Florentin, just off the Place de la Concorde. The apartment served as a meeting place for the various artists, writers, and musicians, including Claude Debussy, Stéphane Mallarmé, and André Gide, who were part of Thadeé Natanson's avant-garde journal La Revue Blanche. The space for which the painting was intended was large and open, while the space of the painting is said to reflect Misia's interest in the English arts and crafts movements. In this work Vuillard reconciled the private and intimate subject and treatment of the theme with a view toward a more public display.
Art historian Karen Kuenzli has described Vuillard's decorative panels as "... a series of oppositions between the individual and the collective, sensation and ornament, private and public spheres ... [that] point to larger dynamics that define 1890s modernism." Advanced artists in the 1890s valued individualistic artistic creation at the same time that they realized that art, if it were to be sustainable, needed to be grounded in collective practices and ideals.
Oil on canvas - Metropolitan Museum of Art
Repast in a Garden
Vuillard painted this work with oil that soaked into the brown cardboard, which was left unpainted in spots, creating an unprecedented degree of flatness. Formally, it shows a great economy of means and a feeling for abstraction in the use of negative space, as the figures become identified with their surroundings. It is also very understated. As in Claude Debussy's opera Péleas et Melisande or the works of the French Symbolist poets and playwrights, there is a tendency to generalize the figures or characters, in which the setting (or the orchestra in the case of the opera) helps to provide the symbolic quality. Symbolist art, music, and literature sought freshness and simplicity, and was bolstered by suggestions and nuances that could imply rather than depict outright. Like the poet Paul Verlaine, Vuillard here paints the "picture" in gray, nuanced half-tones, as if in a minor key. Although figural, it is the style of tightly woven space that creates the content. Vuillard was singular in his ability to use the manipulation of the surface elements to suggest a psychological underpinning to a seemingly idyllic scene.
Oil on cardboard - Washington National Gallery
The Salon of Mme. Aron
This painting provides a good example of Vuillard's late work. The subject - a quiet interior with figures - is much the same, and the colors are sumptuous, but the painting features members of the upper class, and is much more conservative in its formal elements. Here we can see his use of time-honored "repoussoir" elements (diagonally-positioned objects like the seated figure reading a newspaper at the left and the dresser at the right that direct and lead the viewer into the picture space). The space of the picture is no longer a flat, patterned surface, but has been inflated once more into a more traditional, three-dimensional box-like space into which the figures and objects are placed. The use of a more traditional space has been linked to Vuillard's increasing use of photographs from which to paint. Vuillard's late work is generally regarded as having less dramatic and psychological impact than his earlier work. Indeed, he stopped exhibiting his work after 1914.
Oil on board - Private Collection