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Artists Henry Moore
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Henry Moore

British Sculptor

Movements and Styles: Surrealism, Primitivism in Art

Born: July 30, 1898 - Castleford, Yorkshire, England

Died: August 31, 1986 - Much Hadham, East Hertfordshire, England

Henry Moore Timeline

Quotes

"The artist works with a concentration of his whole personality, and the conscious part of it resolves conflicts, organized memories, and prevents him from trying to walk in two directions at the same time."
Henry Moore
"Now I really make the little idea from clay, and I hold it in my hand. I can turn it, look at it from underneath, see it from one view, hold it against the sky, imagine it any size I like, and really be in control, almost like God creating something."
Henry Moore
"The secret of life is to have a task, something you devote your entire life to, something you bring everything to, every minute of the day for the rest of your life. And the most important thing is, it must be something you cannot possibly do."
Henry Moore
"Sculpture is an art of the open air... I would rather have a piece of my sculpture put in a landscape, almost any landscape, than in, or on, the most beautiful building I know."
Henry Moore

"A sculptor is a person who is interested in the shape of things, a poet in words, a musician by sounds."

Henry Moore Signature

Synopsis

Henry Moore was the most important British sculptor of the 20th century, and the most popular and internationally celebrated sculptor of the post-war period. Non-Western art was crucial in shaping his early work - he would say that his visits to the ethnographic collections of the British Museum were more important than his academic study. Later, leading European modernists such as Picasso, Arp, Brancusi and Giacometti became influences. And uniting these inspirations was a deeply felt humanism. He returned again and again to the motifs of the mother and child, and the reclining figure, and often used abstract form to draw analogies between the human body and the landscape. Although sculpture remained his principal medium, he was also a fine draughtsman, and his images of figures sheltering on the platforms of subway stations in London during the bombing raids of World War II remain much loved. His interest in the landscape, and in nature, has encouraged the perception that he has deep roots in traditions of British art, yet his softly optimistic, redemptive view of humanity also brought him an international audience. Today, few major cities are without one of his reclining figures, reminders that the humanity can rebound from any disaster.

Key Ideas

The foundation of Moore's approach was direct carving, something he derived not only from European modernism, but also from non-Western art. He abandoned the process of modeling (often in clay or plaster) and casting (often in bronze) that had been the basis of his art education, and instead worked on materials directly. He liked the fierce involvement direct carving brought with materials such as wood and stone. It was important, he said, that the sculptor "gets the solid shape, as it were, inside his head... he identifies himself with its center of gravity."
Related to his commitment to direct carving was a belief in the ethic of 'truth to materials.' This was the idea that the sculptor should respect the intrinsic properties of media like wood and stone, letting them show through in the finished piece. A material had its own vitality, Moore believed, "an intense life of its own," and it was his job to reveal it.
During the 1930s, Moore's most fruitful and experimental decade, he was influenced by both Constructivism and, to a much greater extent, Surrealism. From the former he came to appreciate the importance of abstract form, from the latter he derived much of his interest in lending a human and psychological dimension to his sculpture. But Surrealism also shaped his mature style. It encouraged his love of biomorphic forms, and also suggested how the human figure could be fragmented into parts and reduced to essentials.
Moore's interest in non-Western art gave much of his early work a frontal character, yet as he matured he became more interested in utilizing three dimensions. It was this which led him to introduce 'holes' into his sculptures, so that the object almost seems to grow out of an absent center.
Just as the human body inspired Moore's forms, so too did the natural world. He often derived ideas from objects such as pebbles, shells and bones, and the way he evoked them in his sculpture encouraged the viewer to look upon the natural world as one endlessly varied sculpture, created continually by natural processes. Evoking both the natural world and the human body simultaneously in his work, Moore created a picture of humanity as a powerful natural force.

Biography

Henry Moore Photo

Childhood

Henry Moore was born in Castleford in Yorkshire, on July 30, 1898. The seventh of eight children of a mining engineer and homemaker, Moore was encouraged by his often financially struggling father to pursue higher education and a white collar career. And his father's strong opposition to the harsh physical lifestyle of mining created conflict when Moore later chose sculpting as his vocation, a job his father regarded as manual labor. Inspired by Michelangelo, Moore began modeling in clay and wood at his school in Castleford, where several of his siblings had attended and to which he had been granted a scholarship.

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Henry Moore Biography Continues

Important Art by Henry Moore

The below artworks are the most important by Henry Moore - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Reclining Figure (1929)
Artwork Images

Reclining Figure (1929)

Artwork description & Analysis: This was the first figure Moore sculpted in brown Hornton stone, and it was heavily influenced by an Aztec sculpture, the Chacmool figure, of which he saw a cast in a Paris museum. Moore said of the Chacmool figure that it was the most important work to influence his early career: "Its stillness and alertness, a sense of readiness - and the whole presence of it, and the legs coming down like columns." Moore's own Reclining Figure is emblematic of the influence of non-Western art on his earliest work, something that came to him in part though Roger Fry's book Vision and Design. The figure is also one of the earliest instances of Moore's use of the reclining figure, a motif that would be central to his mature style.

Brown Hornton Stone - Leeds City Art Gallery

Four-Piece Composition: Reclining Figure (1934)
Artwork Images

Four-Piece Composition: Reclining Figure (1934)

Artwork description & Analysis: Four-Piece Composition illustrates the enormous impact that Surrealism had on Moore in the early 1930s - displacing his earlier interest in non-Western art. Inspiration for the piece may have come from Alberto Giacometti's Woman with Her Throat Cut (1932), since this would have provided Moore with the idea of fragmenting the figure, and dispersing it horizontally across its base (rather than making it stand erect, like a traditional monumental sculpture). Moore's piece is incised with fine diagrammatic lines, a technique common in his work in the 1930s. He may have derived this idea from Joan MirĂ³, though it may also have come from the work of the British Constructivist Ben Nicholson, who was a friend of Moore. In this respect Four-Piece Composition demonstrates how Moore combined such seemingly opposed currents as Constructivism and Surrealism.

Cumberland Alabaster - Tate Gallery, London

Bird Basket (1939)
Artwork Images

Bird Basket (1939)

Artwork description & Analysis: It has been suggested that the influence for this piece may have come from non-Western art, in particular from friction drums made on the Oceanic island of New Ireland. However, it also demonstrates the way Moore combined aspects of Surrealism and Constructivism in the 1930s, since the biomorphic form of the sculptures clearly derives from the former, while the geometry of the strings might derive from the latter. The piece also points to Moore's interest in open and closed forms: he was intrigued by the way it was possible to perceive continuities between the mass of an object and the space around it - the way, perhaps, the space around the Bird Basket grips it, rather than the other way around. The strings serve to emphasize the space around the figure, even though our eye can still see through them to the hard mass of the sculpture's body.

Lignum vitae and string - Henry Moore Foundation

More Henry Moore Artwork and Analysis:



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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Henry Moore
Interactive chart with Henry Moore's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

MichelangeloMichelangelo
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Jacob EpsteinJacob Epstein
Henri Gaudier-BrzeskaHenri Gaudier-Brzeska

Personal Contacts

Barbara HepworthBarbara Hepworth
Ben NicholsonBen Nicholson
Herbert ReadHerbert Read
Roland PenroseRoland Penrose

Movements

ConstructivismConstructivism
SurrealismSurrealism
VorticismVorticism
Primitivism in ArtPrimitivism in Art

Influences on Artist
Henry Moore
Henry Moore
Years Worked: 1928 - 1980s
Influenced by Artist

Artists

William TurnbullWilliam Turnbull
Phillip KingPhillip King
Anthony CaroAnthony Caro

Personal Contacts

Barbara HepworthBarbara Hepworth
Herbert ReadHerbert Read
Ben NicholsonBen Nicholson

Movements

SurrealismSurrealism
Public SculpturePublic Sculpture

Useful Resources on Henry Moore

Books

Websites

Articles

Videos

More

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.

biography

Henry Moore

By Chris Stephens

written by artist

Henry Moore: My Ideas, Inspiration And Life As An Artist

Henry Moore: Writings and Conversations (Documents of Twentieth-Century Art) Recomended resource

More Interesting Books about Henry Moore
The Henry Moore Foundation Recomended resource

Henry Moore Institute

Henry Moore - Works in Public Recomended resource

All worldwide public artworks by Moore organized on a well-designed website

The Turbulent Reputation of Henry Moore

By Hilary Spurling
The Guardian
Feb. 27, 2010

The Last Primitivist Recomended resource

By Morgan Falconer
New Stateman
May 17, 2004

The Experience of Form Recomended resource

By Donald Hall
The New Yorker ($)
December 11, 1965

documentaries

Henry Moore

Directed by Julius Kohanyi

Henry Moore - A Life in Sculpture

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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