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Artists Chris Burden
Chris Burden Photo

Chris Burden

American Sculptor and Performance Artist

Movements and Styles: Performance Art, Conceptual Art

Born: April 11, 1946 - Boston, Massachusetts

Died: May 10, 2015 - Topanga, California

Chris Burden Timeline


"It's about trying to frame something. And draw attention to it and say, 'Here's the beauty in this. I'm going to put a frame around it, and I think this is beautiful.' That's what artists do. It's really a pointing activity."
Chris Burden
"I never thought of my things as theater. They were like scientific experiments. There's no second time. The first time you do something only happens once."
Chris Burden
"I also set up those unexpected, dreaded situations as an attempt to control fate. Instead of letting things happen to me, I made them happen."
Chris Burden
"Early on, people were saying that I was doing performances impromptu, which is kind of insane actually. They were very thought out. Even though it seemed minimal, they were thought out very carefully. I spent a lot of time trying to hone them to a minimal standard in my head before I performed them."
Chris Burden

"I had an intuitive sense that being shot is as American as apple pie. We see people being shot on TV, we read about it in the newspaper. Everybody has wondered what it's like. So I did it."


Chris Burden has produced some of the most shocking works in the history of 20th century American art, including spending five days and nights in the fetal position inside a locker, having a spectator push pins into his body, being "crucified" to a Volkswagen Beetle, being kicked down two flights of stairs, and even having himself shot. The challenge for viewers is to try to understand such troubling and seemingly "inartistic" gestures. Such an understanding is made possible by seeing these works within the context of Conceptual art during the 1970s, where artists concerned themselves with art based on ideas and action rather than objects created for an elite art market. Additionally, the violent images of the war in Vietnam and the television media in general provided a background setting for Burden. His work further challenges viewers to take stock of their own moral compasses and widen their understanding of the ways in which it is possible for art to serve humanity.

Key Ideas

Chris Burden's seemingly outrageous performances were in fact authentically intentioned. His art explores the nature of suffering by setting up extreme situations that he, himself, has to endure. Theoretically, a viewer can interrupt the work at any point, but usually they do not; thus, his work challenges viewers themselves to act - both within the sphere of his art and within the larger context of humanity in general.
The artist wanted to portray the reality of pain to the audience at a time when people had become desensitized to the plethora of television images of injured and dead American soldiers in Vietnam and the general dominance of violence in media imagery.
Burden also questioned the role of art itself. Can art be more than something precious, elite, and distant? To what extent can the artist be the work of art and how far can the artist go in leading viewers to think and respond?


Chris Burden Photo


Burden, the son of an engineer and a biologist, was born in Boston in 1946 and grew up in France and Italy. When he was 12, Burden was involved in a motorcycle accident in Italy that required his foot to be operated on without anesthesia. This traumatic event seemed to be the catalyst for his future works that focused on self-inflicted physical pain. Burden moved back to the states and finished high school in Cambridge, Massachusetts.

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Chris Burden Biography Continues

Important Art by Chris Burden

The below artworks are the most important by Chris Burden - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Shoot (1971)
Artwork Images

Shoot (1971)

Artwork description & Analysis: Shoot is the piece for which Burden is infamously known. He asked a friend to shoot him with a .22 rifle from a distance of 15 feet. The bullet was originally supposed to nick the side of Burden's arm, but the shooter was slightly off target and the bullet went through the arm instead. This piece presented exactly what happens when a person is shot so that the audience could experience it in person, and not just in a detached setting such as watching the television while sitting comfortably on the couch. The viewer can only recoil in shock at realizing that an actual person was just shot in front of them. In describing the piece, Burden stated that "it was really disgusting, and there was a smoking hole in my arm." This work also poses questions about the nature of power and following orders, a theme especially indicated by the imperative of the title Shoot, itself. To what extent are we required to follow orders? What are the boundaries between rules and responsibility to fellow human beings? Burden's work was also a way of re-sensitizing people to the violence that had become less and less shocking due to its prevalence in the news. Finally, in addition to challenging the art world's traditional preference for the "fine art" of painting, for example, what Burden really seemed to be challenging was himself and his own dedication to his art. One cannot argue that someone who so consistently put himself in physical and mortal danger for his work was not completely dedicated to his art: in fact, Burden said that one of the reasons he performed Shoot was so that he would be taken seriously as an artist.

.22 rifle and bullet - N/A

Through the Night Softly (1973)
Artwork Images

Through the Night Softly (1973)

Artwork description & Analysis: The action of the poetically and ironically titled Through the Night Softly consisted of Burden slithering across broken glass in his underwear with his hands bound behind his back. This raw performance put the audience in discomfort by having to view the pain felt by Burden as shards of glass shredded the bloodied front of his body. Burden wanted it to be clear to the viewers how real pain is, and emphasized this by performing live so that the audience had to experience it in person. In contrast to the use of commercials to advertise for upcoming events, Burden purchased late night commercial spots on a local television station, running a ten-second clip of this piece so viewers would get to see it in the detached setting of their homes, thus placing the artwork on the level of our increasingly detached reception of horrific events.

Broken glass - N/A

Trans-Fixed (1974)
Artwork Images

Trans-Fixed (1974)

Artwork description & Analysis: Trans-Fixed involved the literal transfixion of Burden to a Volkswagen via nails through the palms of his hands. After he was nailed to the car it was rolled out of a garage and displayed to an audience. The engine was revved at full throttle to represent the sound of screaming in pain. The parallels between the Crucifixion of Christ and Trans-Fixed are obvious. Here again, Burden took the audience out of their comfort zone. An image of the crucified Christ is commonplace in society and no one puts much thought into the fact that many people were crucified in Roman times and it was an agonizing and lengthy way to die. However, Burden reminded the audience of the reality of pain that we so often dismiss or do not even notice. The title of the work contributes further to the content of the piece. The fact that the title is hyphenated into two words would seem to suggest that through (trans) the work of art, society itself might somehow be fixed. Furthermore, in some sense, it is the ultimate goal of art to transfix the viewer: to render motionless, as with terror, amazement, or awe - all physical and emotional devices employed by Burden. In the end, however, the artist would like us to move beyond the state of transfixion and, instead, act.

Volkswagen and nails - N/A

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Chris Burden
Interactive chart with Chris Burden's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
Robert MorrisRobert Morris
Vito AcconciVito Acconci
Yoko OnoYoko Ono
Joseph BeuysJoseph Beuys

Personal Contacts

Robert IrwinRobert Irwin



Influences on Artist
Chris Burden
Chris Burden
Years Worked: 1969 to Present
Influenced by Artist


Gina PaneGina Pane
Marina AbramovićMarina Abramović
Dennis OppenheimDennis Oppenheim
Carolee SchneemannCarolee Schneemann

Personal Contacts

Peter SchjeldahlPeter Schjeldahl


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Body ArtBody Art
Performance ArtPerformance Art
Installation ArtInstallation Art

Useful Resources on Chris Burden

Special Features





artist features

Extreme Acts of Chris Burden

Entry on Art Story Blog

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Chris Burden Recomended resource

By Fred Hoffman, John Berger, Paul Schimmel, Chris Burden

Chris Burden: Extreme Measures

By Lisa Phillips and Massimiliano Gioni

Chris Burden: When Robots Ruled the Air

By Frances Morris

Chris Burden: Beyond the Limits

By Donald Kuspit, Chris Burden, and Lothar Schroder

Everything You Need to Know About Chris Burden's Art Through His Greatest Works Recomended resource

By Emily Anne Kuriyama
October 2, 2013

Public Offering: Sculptor Chris Burden, a Cult Figure on the L.A. Art Scene, Unveils Monumental Projects on Both Coasts

By Kevin West
W Magazine
May 2008

Chris Burden and the Limits of Art Recomended resource

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
May 14, 2007

2 Artists Quit UCLA Over Gun Incident Recomended resource

By Mike Boehm
Los Angeles Times
January 2005

More Interesting Articles about Chris Burden
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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Tracy DiTolla

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Tracy DiTolla
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
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