Ways to support us
About The Art Story a 501(c)3 Non-Profit Org
Andreas Gursky Photo

Andreas Gursky

German Photographer

Born: January 15, 1955 - Leipzig, Germany
"It is not pure photography, what I do."
1 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"All my pictures are based on a direct visual experience from which I develop an idea for a picture, which is subjected to testing in the studio and eventually worked on and precised at the computer."
2 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"The American Abstract Expressionists fascinate me. The distinction between photography and painting is still that the viewer always reads photography as what is presented, whereas painting is about the presentation as such. That has always been a guidepost for me. It is interesting to me that someone looking at my work tends to be stunned initially by being first confronted with visual phenomena that cannot be immediately classified."
3 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"I think I'm a very slow worker, so I focus on one picture and the background of the original idea for why I choose this location or this space is always a reference to a picture that I did before, but then I change the content a bit."
4 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"My preference for clear structures is the result of my desire - perhaps illusory - to keep track of things and maintain my grip on the world."
5 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"I compare my work to that of a writer. He writes from what he remembers and his different impressions. In a way, a writer has the freedom to connect different thoughts, and this is the way I work with photography. It is not a straight documentary but the details that are going together, they come from the real world and they exist."
6 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"Even if a picture is completely invented or built, it's necessary that you could imagine that it's a realistic location or place. I am not happy if the picture looks completely surreal. Even if I am working with montage, I want that you don't see it."
7 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"I am never interested in the individual, but in the human species and its environment."
8 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"I only pursue one goal: the encyclopedia of life,"
9 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature
"My photographs are 'not abstract.' Ultimately, they are always identifiable. Photography in general simply cannot disengage from the object."
10 of 10
Andreas Gursky Signature

Summary of Andreas Gursky

Emerging from the renowned Düsseldorf School in the late 1980s, Andreas Gursky was pivotal in creating a new standard in contemporary photography, a pioneer who furthered the possibilities of scale and ambition. His massive, clinical, and distanced surveys of public spaces, landscapes, and structures contributed to a new art of picture taking in contrast to the Minimalism and Conceptualism of the 1970s. His use of large-format cameras, scanning, digital manipulation, the layering of multiple pictures to create a cohesive image, and technical postproduction positioned him as an important bridge between the old ways of shooting and presenting pictures and the current highly, technologically advanced era of photography.


  • Vast, large places are of particular interest to the artist such as stock exchanges, concert arenas, big box stores, sweeping landscapes, racetracks, and other locations, which engage in regular relationship with the human population. His monumental photographs of these environments have the effect of fully encompassing the viewer within the spaces they aim to portray.
  • Gursky's photographs are often shot from an elevated, aerial perspective. This allows viewers to experience a scene in its full proportions, which would ordinarily be impossible, allowing for a visual comprehension of scope, center, and periphery.
  • A straightforward and distanced observation informs Gursky's work, leaving us to formulate our own opinions and responses. We recognize his world as our own rather than one adorned with any personal messaging.
  • Aggregate space performs largely in the success of each work. Even though his subject matter exists prior to his encounter with it, he manages to masterfully reveal its inherently harmonious sum of individual parts where objects become elements such as strata, line, geometry, color, and form.
  • Gursky's photographs create a dialogue between painting and representation in that they go beyond merely capturing a piece of visual documentation - they in fact oftentimes conjure the look and feel borrowed from such movements as Abstract Expressionism and Minimalism.
  • Although Gursky refrains from social or political commentary with his work, he admits an overriding interest in capturing the existence of globalism and consumerism as it relates to modern man.

Biography of Andreas Gursky

Andreas Gursky Photo

Andreas Gursky was born in Leipzig, East Germany on January 15, 1955. An only child, he later moved with his family to the West German city of Essen followed by Düsseldorf in 1957. Both his grandfather and father were successful commercial photographers and although he at first "denied anything to do with photography," he changed his mind in high school. He dabbled in a few commercial shoots before moving in a more artistic direction.

Progression of Art


Gas Cooker

Gas Cooker (1980) is Andreas Gursky's first published photograph, depicting the lit gas stove in his Düsseldorf home. His consideration of form and texture in the piece reflects the burgeoning development of his signature style. Like his landscapes and interiors, he approaches the stove from a high vantage point in a way that is slightly unusual for the viewer. His choice of even light and a deadpan presentation of the scene emphasizes the milky fields of monotone color and causes the viewer to notice the geometry of squares, rectangles, and line within an otherwise ordinary, everyday object made further delightful by the circular rings of fire.

This image exists both in contrast and preface to the later work he is most known for. Gursky's mature work deals with globalism and capitalism in contemporary society, but this image was conceived from individual experience while cooking when "after a while I saw it as an image." Although this early photograph was not made upon complete impulse, his later work relies on extensive research and logistical planning. Gas Cooker is also one of his most 'simple' images as is a still life with a single object-as-subject instead of a scene exploring how the chosen subject interacts within its environment.

Although Gas Cooker may appear different than Gursky's later works, upon examination one can see a consistency of approach that weaves through his oeuvre.

Chromogenic Print - Private Collection


May Day II

May Day II depicts a crowd of people during a concert at Mayday, the oldest and most renowned German electronic music festival that draws thousands of people every year. This image is one in a series of photographs taken at various May Day festivals the Gursky created from 1997 through 2006. Gursky has a great passion for the electronic music scene.

Upon first glimpse, the piece resembles a painting as dots of yellow light swarm in from the right of the frame to illuminate a strip of the crowd while the rest of the frame remains in pitch-black darkness. By shooting from his signature perspective of elevated distance, Gursky first delivers to the viewer a scene of color juxtaposition and distinct fields of color, withholding actual clues about the true reality of the event and its participants. Instead, in true character, he fosters an (initially) aesthetic and atmospheric experience, which similarly mirrors the act of observing a concert. It provides the experience of an international community in a public space and showcases Gursky's love of capturing vast spaces frequented by the human species.

Chromogenic Print - Private Collection


99 Cent

This enormous photograph (over 6 by 11 feet) depicts the interior of a Ninety-Nine Cent store in Los Angeles. The shelves are filled with stacks of mass produced and widely recognizable branded items such as Kit Kat Bars, Reese's Peanut Butter Cups, and Colgate toothpaste, all sold below their normal market value. Six white poles in the middle and background break up the sea of color, moving the viewer's eye throughout the space and calling attention to the ".99 Cent Only" posters on the walls. As the assault of color dissipates the viewer discovers the presence of shoppers walking among the aisles.

Gursky says 99 Cent was inspired by an experience on his first trip to Los Angeles when he became "directly fascinated" by a dollar store window while driving at night. The result is this immersive and beautifully composed scene, in which he lends a critical eye to issues of manufacture and exchange. His manipulation of perspective combined with the reflection of merchandise in the mirrored ceiling radiates a sense of claustrophobia and forces the viewer to confront the details of an overwhelming number of brightly packaged objects. The piece is a great example of Gursky's use of parts to inform a whole, relying on the exorbitant amount of boxed products to inform the overall composition through both color and form and compiling a message about human beings' role in consumerism.

In 2001, he made a related piece, 99 Cent II, Diptych of two Ninety-Nine Cent store interiors. The layout and color palate of these interiors are so similar to each other and to those of this photograph that they could be the same store. Although the products displayed on shelves are different, the repetition of the architecture, color and signs shows little change in terms of the mass production and marketing in the years between the two.

Chromogenic Print - San Francisco Museum of Modern Art


The Rhine II

The Rhine II, (1999) is depicting a stretch of the river outside Düsseldorf. At first glance, the strips of creamy gray river, surrounding green grassy banks, and milky overcast sky appear like the painted strips of a Minimalist canvas, until our eyes begin to notice the details: the fluffy tufts of grass, the choppy waves, and the layers of clouds.

The Rhine II showcases Gursky's regular dialogue between painting and representation. In it we see his ability to create precieved simplicity and borderline abstraction with conceptual depth. The smooth strips of water and land move horizontally across the frame reminiscent of a Barnett Newman monochrome color field painting. This feeling caused by the abstraction touches on the ideas of the sublimity and the beauty of nature that were explored in the 18th and 19th century Romanticism period as well.

Although Gursky's work may draw comparison to painterly forebears in its visual acumen, he goes beyond these simple comparisons by making the ideas of photographic possibility a central, underlying motive in his work. For example, in making this image Gursky said that he "wasn't interested in an unusual, possibly picturesque view of the River Rhine, but in the most contemporary possible view of it" meaning he wanted to critically examine the river in the context of the current time period instead of focusing on an aestetically beautiful experience or idealized landscape. By removing "the elements that bothered me" through the use of progressive digital manipulation technology, such as buildings and people, Gursky calls attention toward recognizing those everyday spaces we populate without any remarkable narrative or distracting action. This type of innovation positioned Gursky as a forefather of the digital world, paving the way for today's influx of artists working in the medium.

Chromogenic Print - Tate Museum, London; Private Collection


Chicago, Board of Trade, II

This piece is a large color chromogenic print depicting the Chicago Board of Trade Building. Shot from Gursky's signature aerial viewpoint, the photograph lends a privileged birds-eye-view glimpse into the chaos and frenzy of an ordinary day on the trading room floor. Jam-packed figures bustle about a maze of railings, desks, televisions, and computer monitors as white pieces of paper litter the floor. The artist's choice of perspective, distance, double exposure and his layering of some areas visually flattens the scene, causing the figures to melt together in clusters of yellow, orange, and blue. As a whole, the scene brings to mind the frantic drips of color in a Jackson Pollock painting.

Chicago, Board of Trade, II is part of a series of related images of international stock exchanges including Singapore Simex and the Hong Kong Stock Exchange. The Chicago Board of Trade is one of the world's oldest options and futures exchanges. However, the viewer is kept at a distance that obscures details of the location, activity, and subsequent participants. Instead of examining the minute details involved in this particular business, the composition leads the eyes throughout the floor in a search of pattern, shape, and color. In this way, the image is captivating - a push/pull between comprehending the rush of activity depicted involving trade and currency and the detached aesthetic experience one gains from visually absorbing the scene.

Although actual physical space is undeniably important to Gursky, in this piece he is trying to present it in a more abstract way, attempting to understand, "not just that we are living in a certain building or in a certain location, but to become aware that we are living on a planet that is going at enormous speed through the universe...I read it more for what is going on in our world generally." With this in mind, this photograph is not simply an observation of the location, rather an investigation into two major themes of the artist's oeuvre: it is a microcosm of contemporary commerce in an epicenter of globalism.

Chromogenic Print - Museum of Contemporary Art Chicago


Bahrain I

Bahrain I, (2005) is a photograph depicting the motorsport racetrack that plays host to Bahrain's annual Formula One Grand Prix. It is a part of a larger body of work, the F1 Boxenstopp (F1 Pit Stop) series, consisting of photographs taken at Formula One tracks throughout the world. From a lofty viewpoint, the image reveals a wide scale section of the empty black track cutting through beige desert. There is a grandstand in the center upper third of the image and a cluster of buildings in the horizon below a gray, cloudless sky - these markers allow the viewer to get a sense of what is presented, while the rest of the image looks quite abstract.

A helicopter ride helped Gursky capture a large enough portrait of the track so that the resulting portrait becomes one the viewer is not ordinarily privy to. From this perspective, and through some photo manipulation, he succeeded in transforming a basic track into rich dark ribbons reminiscent of brushstrokes weaving through sand. The piece becomes a study of the riveting sinews of physical form; the juxtaposition between color, pattern, and landscape; and an exploration of how humans physically reshape their environment, in this case for sport and entertainment.

Chromogenic Print - Tate Museum, London



Amazon (2016) is a grand thirteen by eight-foot photograph depicting the inside of an Amazon distribution center in Phoenix, Arizona. Using an elevated platform to get the desired vantage point, Gursky captured a sea of books aligned in rows in front of storage shelves containing cardboard boxes. The wide depth of field and a distinct manipulation of pixels allow the entire scene to dwell in focus thus changing the natural foreground/background relationship into "a world without hierarchy, in which all the pictorial elements are as important as each other." Digital manipulation of the original image pushes it past simple observation to an aesthetic experience of rhythmic patterns, colors, and textures.

His images of repetitive (and endless) patterns of the world connect Gursky to the notion of the Sublime. The famous Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges wrote in his story The Library of Babel: "The universe (which others call the Library) is composed of an indefinite and perhaps infinite number of hexagonal galleries". Similarly, art critics have described Gursky's tableaux as infinite, and thereby almost beyond human comprehension.

Rhythm, in both obvious and subtle forms is an important element to Gursky's process and work. In an interview with his collaborator and friend Richie Hawtin, he draws parallels between their work - "you put the components into rhythm with each other, which is very related to my process as well. I follow a similar convention of composition in my latest works such as Amazon." Furthermore, he states, "my repetitive pictorial patterns and your minimalistic structures of sound overlap."

This center of e-commerce, Gursky says is, "a sign of our times. Amazon is a company that you can't ignore, and for me it doesn't matter if it's in Germany or the United States." Knowing that this massive quantity of books is for sale through one of the international powers of e-commerce speaks to societal patterns of the contemporary world.

Chromogenic Print

Similar Art

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Andreas Gursky
Influenced by Artist
  • No image available
    Candida Höfer
  • No image available
    Edward Burtynsky
Friends & Personal Connections
Movements & Ideas
Open Influences
Close Influences

Useful Resources on Andreas Gursky

video clips

Related Artists

Related Movements & Topics

Do more

Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo

Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Kimberly Nichols

"Andreas Gursky Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Hope Guzzo
Edited and revised, with Summary and Accomplishments added by Kimberly Nichols
Available from:
First published on 21 Sep 2017. Updated and modified regularly
[Accessed ]