Progression of Art
Demuth painted this self-portrait while he was studying at the Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts (PAFA). 23 years old, he depicts himself as a pensive, thoughtful young man. While the details of his face and hair are captured in painstaking detail and nuance, his clothing is less distinctive, and gives way to a looser, unfinished rendering of his jacket toward the bottom of the canvas. His eyes do not directly meet the gaze of the viewer, and instead look slightly downward and to the right. The style of the portrait demonstrates how the instructors at PAFA - among them Thomas Anshutz, William Merritt Chase, and Hugh Breckenridge - instilled within Demuth an early reverence for a traditional, European approach to art. This early self-portrait is somewhat reminiscent of the work of John Singer Sargent, though Demuth would go on to develop his own distinct style. This painting was the only work ever exhibited in his hometown of Lancaster, Pennsylvania, during his lifetime.
Oil on Canvas - Demuth Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
During his regular visits to New York, Demuth would meet with friends at jazz clubs, basement bars, and hotel cafés. This sketchy, impressionistic watercolor depicts an evening he spent listening to jazz in the bar of the Marshall Hotel in the company of fellow artists Marcel Duchamp, Edward Fisk, and Marsden Hartley. It captures the energy of a night on the town: the men are smartly dressed, the room is smoky, and their faces are flushed with drink.
The Marshall Hotel, a black-owned hotel on West 53rd Street, was an important gathering place for New York's black elite, and among the first establishments where white, bohemian New Yorkers could come to experience the culture, music, and performances that would come to be known as the Harlem Renaissance. Demuth and his friends witnessed jazz in its infancy on nights like the one depicted here, and his images of these Manhattan hotspots were among the first to capture this pivotal period in America's cultural development. Jazz played a critical role in the development of American modernism, inspiring many of the nation's artists and writers to experiment and develop new forms of creative expression outside long-established European traditions.
Watercolor and Graphite on Paper - Demuth Museum, Lancaster, Pennsylvania
Turkish Bath with Self Portrait
This watercolor sketch offers an illuminating depiction of the gay subculture in postwar New York. The setting is likely the Lafayette Baths, a Turkish bathhouse in the East Village. The artist, with dark hair and mustache, appears nude in the center of the frame. He talks with two other men: a blonde man swaddled in a towel, who faces away from the camera, and a fully undressed red-headed man who strikes a confident pose. Behind the trio, a man with indistinct features stands in a pool, water waist high, while a duo in the upper right corner of the canvas seem to be caught up in an intimate moment.
Demuth was likely open about his sexuality with his friends, and frankly depicted the evolving, underground gay scenes in New York and Paris. This image is striking in its open, candid depiction of desire and attraction between men. It was not intended for public exhibition during Demuth's lifetime and historically it has great significance, visualizing the emergence of a sexual subculture organized along very different lines than male/female courtship. Since his death, Demuth's watercolors of early-20th-century gay life have proven to be sources of inspiration and fellowship to later generations of American artists, including Andy Warhol, another Pennsylvania native.
Graphite and Watercolor on Paper - Private Collection
Incense of a New Church
Here, the vagueness of the city skyline is brought about not by any sort of physical blurriness, but by the use of simple, almost cartoonish patches of color that suggest darkness and obscure detail - even the plumes of industrial smoke are depicted geometrically. The cluster of clear shapes and colors depicts a dark, misty reality. This painting is a masterpiece of Precisionism, projecting form and structure onto organic and ambiguous phenomena, showing the influence of Cubism.
Critics tend to believe that the title Incense of a New Church holds self-evident meaning - the plumes of industrial smoke reminiscent of incense, the factories replacing the churches that once dominated the American cultural landscape. As a child Demuth could look up from his own backyard to see Lancaster's Evangelical Lutheran Church of the Holy Trinity, and would have had every reason to compare the factory town's shift from a landscape dominated by churches to one dominated by industry. Critics sometimes suggest that the title is meant to imply protest and a desire to return to the way things used to be, but there is little in Demuth's other work to suggest that he was in any way displeased with the emerging iconography of a more urban, secular world.
Oil on Canvas - Columbus Museum of Art, Columbus, Ohio
Just as Demuth's Precisionist style brings out an organic character in industrial imagery, it teases the music of industrial geometry out of the organic. Note here the naked sharp boundaries of the leaves and branches, the minimal attention given to secondary light, the absence of any natural background, and the clinical, almost stark focus on the structure of the plum branch itself. It is not (and clearly does not aspire to be) photorealistic, but the painting's crispness conveys an essential shape, indigenous to the subject itself, that a photograph could not achieve. Demuth's flower paintings brought him commercial and critical success during his lifetime, but they receive relatively little critical attention today and unlike his well-known contemporary Georgia O'Keeffe, he did not become famous for them.
Watercolor on Paper - Addison Gallery of American Art, Andover, Massachusetts
This enigmatic painting, one of seven in Demuth's final major series, depicts a concrete and steel grain elevator in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. The massive structure looms over the smaller, red buildings nearby - perhaps barns or family homes - almost shoving them out to the sides and corners of the canvas. Several intersecting beams of light illuminate the grain elevator like an actor on stage, reiterating its importance while adding a geometric fracturing reminiscent of Cubism to the composition.
The painting has been interpreted as both a critique of modernization and a celebration of it. The title suggests that industrialization is a pinnacle of American achievement equivalent to the great monuments of the ancient world, evoking the pyramids of Egypt and their symbolic association with life after death, which may have been a compelling idea to Demuth, who was bedridden by illness at numerous points throughout his life. At the same time, the painting may also allude to the slave labor that built the great monuments to the pharaohs. Thus serving as a critique of the dehumanizing effect of industry on American workers.
Oil, Chalk, and Graphite on Board - Whitney Museum of American Art
I Saw the Figure 5 in Gold
Painted in homage to his friend the poet William Carlos Williams, this painting has become one of Demuth's best-known works. It references Williams' poem The Great Figure, which describes a fire engine speeding through the streets on a rainy night. The intersecting lines, planes of color, and round forms of the streetlights and the fire engine's blaring siren infuse the painting with a vibrant, urban energy.
The painting's title is a phrase from the poem. Williams and Demuth met as students in Philadelphia in their early twenties, and were close friends throughout their lives. An iconic work of Precisionism - the geometric planes of light and color that overlap various elements of the composition suggest European Cubism and Futurism, yet their sense of scale and directness of expression are entirely American.
Oil on Board - Metropolitan Museum of Art
This amusing watercolor depicts a small crowd: a woman in a bold, low-cut dress on the right, two men at the center, and a man and woman at the right. Inspired by a scene from a short story by the American writer Robert McAlmon, which takes place in a "queer café" in Berlin, the onlookers view a sculpture by Constantin Brancusi, Princess X (1915-16). Demuth humorously accentuates the phallic form of Brancusi's bronze sculpture, which caused quite a scandal on its debut. While both women appear to be blushing and staring at the statue with open mouths, the man in the brown suit on the left is clearly more interested in appreciating the aesthetic charms of the sailor, who himself appears to be looking at his companion instead of the sculpture, or perhaps scrutinizing the woman in red. The painting evokes the underground culture of sexual freedom and expressiveness within Europe's artistic and bohemian circles during the First World War, and gives the viewer a glimpse of Demuth's witty personality and fondness for blue humor.
Watercolor and Graphite on Paper - Whitney Museum of American Art