About us
Artists Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani Photo

Amedeo Modigliani

Italian Painter and Sculptor

Movement: Expressionism

Born: July 12, 1884 - Livorno, Italy

Died: January 24, 1920 - Paris, France

Amedeo Modigliani Timeline


"When I know your soul, I will paint your eyes."
Amedeo Modigliani
"What I am searching for is neither the real nor the unreal, but the subconscious, the mystery of what is instinctive in the human race."
Amedeo Modigliani
"With one eye you are looking at the outside world, while with the other you are looking within yourself."
Amedeo Modigliani
"The function of art is to struggle against obligation."
Amedeo Modigliani
"Always speak out and keep forging ahead. The man who cannot find new ambitions and even a new person within himself, who is always destined to wrestle with what has remained rotten and decadent in his own personality, is not a man."
Amedeo Modigliani

"Every great work of art should be considered like any work of nature. First of all from the point of view of its aesthetic reality and then not just from its development and the mastery of its creation but from the standpoint of what has moved and agitated its creator."

Amedeo Modigliani Signature


A central participant in the Ecole de Paris, Modigliani modernized two of the enduring themes of art history: the portrait and the nude. Characterized by a sense of melancholy, elongated proportions, and mask-like faces influenced by such sources as Constantin Brancusi and African art, Modigliani's portraits are both specific and highly stylized, each uniquely revealing its sitter's inner life, while at the same time unmistakably "Modiglianized," to use the words of one critic. Modigliani's nudes scandalized audiences with their depiction of features such as pubic hair and their frank, unadorned sexuality. The subject of three biographical movies, Modigliani's legacy is inextricably bound up with his tragic and bohemian life: his fragile health, which plagued him since childhood; his perpetual pennilessness; and - most famously - his over-the-top, self-destructive lifestyle, which included sexual debauchery and overuse of drugs and alcohol.

Key Ideas

Modigliani upended the tradition of the nude. Modern in their candid sensuality, his works in this genre are noticeably devoid of the modesty and mythological subtext present in many earlier depictions of nude figures. Because of these qualities - along with the artist's notorious womanizing - Modigliani's nudes were scandalously received at the time they were created.
Modigliani's portraiture achieves a unique combination of specificity and generalization. His portraits convey his subjects' personalities, while his trademark stylization and use of recurring motifs - long necks and almond-shaped eyes - lends them uniformity. Modigliani's portraiture also serves as a vital art historic record, comprising a gallery of major figures of the Ecole de Paris circle, to which he belonged following his move to Paris in 1906.
The work of the Romanian sculptor Constantin Brancusi was perhaps the single most important influence on Modigliani's creative development. Although Modigliani is best known as a painter, he focused on sculpture early on in his career, and, some writers have argued, may have regarded his true calling as that of sculptor. The sculptures Modigliani created in 1909-14, of which twenty-five carvings and one woodcut survive, were highly influential on his work as a painter, helping him arrive at the abstracted and linear vocabulary of his painting.


Amedeo Modigliani Photo


Amedeo, or "Dedo," Modigliani was the youngest of four children born to Jewish parents, Flaminio and Eugenia, in Livorno, Italy, home to a large Jewish community. Shortly before his birth, the family businesses had fallen onto hard times, forcing the Modiglianis to declare bankruptcy. Amedeo's timely arrival may have resulted in the rescue of many valuable heirlooms; according to family legend, soldiers were forced to avoid Eugenia in childbirth as they came to repossess the furniture, in accordance with an old Italian custom that forbade the seizure of any possessions in the bed of a woman in labor.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Amedeo Modigliani Biography Continues

Important Art by Amedeo Modigliani

The below artworks are the most important by Amedeo Modigliani - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

The Jewess (1908)

The Jewess (1908)

Artwork description & Analysis: The Jewess was the first painting Modigliani sold after settling in Paris in 1906. It was purchased by his friend and patron, Paul Alexandre, who was so taken with the work that he had Modigliani paint it into the background of three additional commissioned portraits. Although wearing a composed expression, the stark whiteness of the sitter's face contrasts harshly with her dark apparel, giving the composition and inner tension and suggesting strong emotions lying beneath the surface. The painting's melancholic overtones have invited comparison with the work of Picasso's Blue Period. The painting is also one of the few Jewish-themed works by Modigliani, who was of Sephardic Jewish descent and publically embraced his Jewish identity.

Oil on canvas - Re Cove Hakone Museum, Kanagawa

Head (c. 1910-12)

Head (c. 1910-12)

Artwork description & Analysis: Although inspired by Brancusi's marble work, Modigliani's sculptures were often made from softer, less expensive limestone, as in this work. Head's graceful contours and abstracted features suggest Brancusi's influence, while the elongated proportions - specifically, the swan-like neck - is reminiscent of ancient Egyptian busts, among the non-Western art forms that influenced Modigliani's work. The subject's elongated neck and nose, and slit-like eyes also closely resemble the artist's handling of these features in his portraits and nudes, suggesting the close connection between his work in sculpture and two-dimensional media.

Limestone - Private collection

Portrait of Pablo Picasso (1915)

Portrait of Pablo Picasso (1915)

Artwork description & Analysis: Althought insecure about his own work, Modigliani had mixed feelings about Picasso. Modigliani was envious of his rival's success, but drawn to his charismatic personality and artistic talent. These competing feelings emerge in this portrait: this ambivalence is suggested in the two-toned face, while the overall gestural, uneven application of paint hints at inner conflict. Yet, the round face and facial features resemble Southeast Asian depictions of Buddha, showing Modigliani's respect for Picasso's wisdom and experience. This is literally spelled out on the lower right side of the painting with the French word savoir ("to know").

Oil on paper mounted on card - Private collection

More Amedeo Modigliani Artwork and Analysis:

By submitting the above you agree to The Art Story privacy policy.

Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Amedeo Modigliani
Interactive chart with Amedeo Modigliani's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


Paul CézannePaul Cézanne
Henri de Toulouse-LautrecHenri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso

Personal Contacts

Paul AlexandrePaul Alexandre
Constantin BrancusiConstantin Brancusi
Max JacobMax Jacob



Influences on Artist
Amedeo Modigliani
Amedeo Modigliani
Years Worked: 1901 - 1920
Influenced by Artist


Frida KahloFrida Kahlo
Henry MooreHenry Moore

Personal Contacts

Diego RiveraDiego Rivera
Chaim SoutineChaim Soutine


Modernism and Modern ArtModernism and Modern Art

Useful Resources on Amedeo Modigliani







The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Modigliani: A Life (2006) Recomended resource

By Jeffrey Meyers

Modigliani: A Life (2011) Recomended resource

By Meryle Secrest

Modigliani: Man and Myth

By Jeanne Modigliani

Modigliani: The Pure Bohemian

By June Rose

More Interesting Books about Amedeo Modigliani
Modigliani's Recipe: Sex, Drugs and Long, Long Necks Recomended resource

By Peter Plagens
New York Times
May 21, 2004

Look Him in the Face

By Suzanne Muchnic
Los Angeles Times
June 22, 2003

in pop culture

Modigliani (2004) Recomended resource

An excellent film starring Andy Garcia based on the life Modigliani and his Paris circle

Les amants de Montparnasse (Montparnasse 19)

1958 Film

If you see an error or typo, please:
tell us
Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Tracee Ng

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Tracee Ng
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
Available from:
[Accessed ]

Did we succeed in explaining the art to you?
If Yes, please tell others about us: