Progression of Art
Arthur Rimbaud in New York (Times Square)
In Arthur Rimbaud in New York, the artist photographed several friends wearing a mask of the French Symbolist poet Arthur Rimbaud in locations around the city. Across the series the Rimbaud figure is shown standing on the street, masturbating, shooting up and riding the subway in distinctive environments, such as Coney Island's Luna Park and Times Square. The image used to make the mask comes from the only photograph depicting the poet, taken by the renowned 19th photographer Etienne Carjat and used on the cover of the collection Illuminations, which Wojnarowicz owned. In 1980 some of these images were published in the SoHo Weekly News, before being later released as an artist's book. They are considered by many historians to be Wojnarowicz's first sustained visual arts project.
Wojnarowicz identified with Rimbaud as a fellow queer artist with experiences of homelessness. The series of images implies that were Rimbaud alive in the late 1970s, he would be in New York engaging in the same activities Wojnarowicz and his friends were at the time, including experimentation with drugs, bohemian living on the Lower East Side, and cruising. They suggest that late 1970s New York City is not too different from Rimbaud's Paris - a city filled with ruins, debt, and violence, whilst also experiencing a creative boom. The anachronism of the series (late 19th century Rimbaud in late 1970s New York) hints at Wojnarowicz's dark sense of humor. The sexual images are also evocative of gay male identity in the city, after Stonewall but before the AIDS crisis began to decimate communities.
Art historian and critic Lucy Lippard notes, whilst "the Rimbaud images are, almost incidentally beautifully composed and shot. (...) they also constitute a kind of objective autobiography, permitting Wojnarowicz simultaneously to be himself and to step outside himself. The masked man records and perhaps exorcises a life his creator was gradually abandoning." Later in his life Wojnarowicz articulated that his work functions as "a compression of historical time and activity".
Gelatin silver print
Gagging Cow at Pier
Gagging Cow at Pier is a cartoonish painting of a cow, completed early in Wojnarowicz's career. Cows were a recurring image in Wojnarowicz's street art, and one that occasionally reappeared in his later, more formal paintings. This mural is representative of his early street work, and foreshadows many of the heavily symbolic representations of political issues (often using animal imagery) that characterized his later period. Wojnarowicz explained the image as a cow 'exploding with fear' as though being led to the slaughter. This suggests that the motif relates to the inevitability of death, and a slow industrial march towards destruction (as in a slaughterhouse). It's cartoon-like rendering also highlights the conventions of mass-produced American culture, which as a largely self-taught artist, Wojnarowicz was more familiar with than other 'high-art' precedents.
Gagging Cow at Pier was painted at the Ward Line Pier, an abandoned industrial building on the Hudson River. Wojnarowicz, together with Mike Bidlo and Louis Fragella, created and collaborated across this pier and others. Wojnarowicz began to make work here alongside his early gallery shows, as both an intervention in the city and a repudiation of the idea that art happens only in assigned spaces. Although these buildings, now often collectively referred to as 'the piers,' are seen today as a site of artistic freedom and experimentation, it was also a dangerous area. The piers were the ideal site for cruising, illegal parties, and the use of drugs. Wojnarowicz first visited the piers whilst cruising, and the sexual charge of the space was an important motivating factor in his artworks there. When talking about this area, Wojnarowicz recalled "What I loved about them was that they were about as far away from civilization as I could walk, and I really loved that sense of detachment. It was like sitting with the entire city at your back and looking across the river." The remaining piers were demolished by the mid-1980s.
Industrial paint on walls/photograph: archival pigment print from slide - NYU Downtown Fales Library
A Fire in My Belly
A Fire in My Belly may refer to several unfinished films by the artist, or several versions of a film that was not totally completed. Two cuts by Wojnarowicz exist (a six and thirteen-minute edit), along with several other repurposings of the same footage. These include its use in the live performance ITSOFOMO, photographic stills taken directly from the Super 8 film in the Ant Series (1988-89) and it's appearance in Rosa Von Praunheim's documentary SILENCE=DEATH (1990).
The footage includes images from Wonarowicz's 1986 trip to Mexico, in which scenes of violence are juxtaposed with puppets, tarot cards, toys and other ephemera. Amongst those scenes are bull and cock fights, lucha libre, and people fist fighting on the streets. The footage also includes beggars on the streets of Mexico city, Aztec ruins and tourists. Wojnarowicz appears sewing two halves of a loaf of bread together, as well as his mouth, an image which would later become one of the strongest images linked to ACT-UP's Silence = Death campaign. Although often seen within the context of Wojnarowicz's later activism in relation to the AIDS crisis, the original edits of the film predate both his diagnosis and Hujar's death. Wojnarowicz himself suggested the film 'deals with ancient myth and it's modern counterpart. It explores structures of power and control'. It expresses his dissatisfaction with societal control (emblemized by the clocks and money also pictured swarmed with ants) and harkens back to an earlier ways of living before industrialization and capitalist structures dominated people's lives. Mexico stands in as a 'primitive' (as Wojnarowicz described it) civilization, one that whilst harsh is not estranged from the natural world, and human anger and aggression.
A new edit of this footage (one which foregrounded its resonance to the AIDS crisis) was presented at the exhibition Hide/Seek at the National Portrait Gallery in 2010, igniting another censorship scandal almost twenty years after the artist's death. The Catholic League, a religious lobbying organization, objected to the image of ants crawling over a cheap plastic crucifix placed on the ground, which they claimed was anti-Catholic 'hate speech'. Despite the support of many artists and the curators, A Fire in My Belly was removed from Hide/Seek exhibition due to political pressure, with accusations of censorship played out in the arts media. Many influential art world figures came out against the removal of the film, with the artist AA Bronson demanding that his work was removed from the exhibition in solidarity. Several board members resigned, and both the Robert Mapplethorpe and Andy Warhol foundations announced they would no longer support exhibitions at the Smithsonian.
Super 8mm film - NYU Downtown Fales Library
Fire belongs to a series of paintings each relating to one of the four elements: fire, water, earth, and air. The paintings incorporate printed material found by the artist such as maps and flyers. In the case of Fire, a few Spanish words can be seen of the poster that forms its base. Many of the elements in this work (volcanos, maps, devils and hearts) recur in Wojnarowicz's work. By tearing maps, for example, Wojnarowicz attempted to "erase borders; borders create ownership and wars." Wojnarowicz found inspiration in his dreams, writing them down almost every morning. Fire is a painting of free and associative symbolism, not bound to formal conventions of the art market or academia. In Wojnarowicz's own words "I am beginning to believe that one of the last frontiers left for radical gesture is the imagination." Echoing fellow East Village artists, its visual vocabulary is one grounded in comic books and advertising, whilst its background on posters and flyers suggests graffiti, as though the work has been painted on a wall. Although grouped into four quadrants, symbols interact with the other imagery around it, the hand, heart and brain forming a triangle of body parts across the center of the painting. The use of animal images like the gorilla, snake and beetle, are again also part of the artist's personal imagery, reflecting his interest and collection of small plastic toys collected on his travels.
Wojnarowicz had travelled to Mexico before starting this painting with his collaborator Tommy Turner. As also embodied in other works he was fascinated by Mexico, seeing it as free from the restrictions of 1980s America - "Going south of the border I found myth to still be very much alive and with it the sense of connection to the ground people walked on... Popular culture still carries the most spiritual reverberation. As adults we are pressured to leave myth and thus spirituality behind..."
Acrylic and pasted paper on wood, two panels - Museum of Modern Art, New York
This photograph is a tightly framed close up of a diorama at the National Museum of Natural History in Washington D.C. It was taken during one of Wojnarowicz many road trips across the country, and the image depicts a herd of buffalo falling off a cliff to their deaths. This image was later used as the cover artwork for the single 'One' by Irish rock band U2.
In its original context, the image illustrates the Native American hunting method of driving buffalo over a cliff edge in order to collect the meat below. However for the artist it was a metaphor for the "impeding collision contained in this acceleration of speed within the structures of civilization." The uniqueness of this work relies in how the artist appropriates the didacticism of a diorama to confront death in a tragic manner. The photograph was taken in the year of Wojnarowicz's diagnosis, giving an added resonance to the inevitable tumble off the cliff shown. It might be interpreted as both a general and a personal symbol of hopelessness, with both the buffalo's and artist's fate already defined. It also relates once again to a pre-industrial civilisation, a form of living off the land, required only to do what was needed to survive that was now no longer possible.
Untitled (Peter Hujar)
One of Wojnarowicz's most painfully raw works, Untitled (Peter Hujar) portrays the artist's friend and mentor immediately after his death. Hujar, who was a photographer, died of AIDS-related illness in 1987. Wojnarowicz took 23 photos of Hujar in the moments after his death, with the number a symbolic gesture. Wojnarowicz later wrote on the envelope containing the contact sheets "23 photos of Peter, 23 genes in a chromosome, Room 1423." As noted by Wojnarowicz biographer, Cynthia Carr "he associated that number with the evolution of consciousness." These photographs include Hujar's lifeless feet, prematurely-aged hand, and unresponsive face. Hujar's open mouth and half-closed eyes suggest the moment in which life and death meet. Like many of his later paintings, the images are arranged in a grid, the layout almost suggesting a narrative - a pan from head, to hands to feet. Hujar's gauntness and wasted appearance is in sharp contrast to Wojnarowicz's other depictions of him in his work, such as the painted portrait Hujar Dreaming/Yukio Mishima: St Sebastian (1982).
These uncanny images became a sad yet iconic portrait of the AIDS crisis, ones with strong similarities to other deathbed portraits of those who died due to AIDS. AA Bronson's Felix Partz, June 5, 1985 is similar in execution, for example. Bronson would later publicly support Wojnarowicz in censorship struggles. There is also a resemblance between Untitled (Peter Hujar), and later works such as Andres Serrano's Blood Transfusion Resulting in AIDS (1992) from his Morgue series and Therese Frare's David Kirby on his deathbed, Ohio (1990). This not only underscores the destructive power of AIDS, but also signifies the totemic power of the deathbed portrait to artists responding to the AIDS crisis, forcing those previously ignoring or attempting to discount the realities of the pandemic to confront the realities of death. Several instances of ACT-UP activity similarly sought to foreground the corporeal significance of death to a society not used to it.
Hujar's death triggered Wojnarowicz's activism, and in the five years that separated their deaths, Wojnarowicz was able to use his rage to successfully raise awareness for the AIDS crisis. French Philosopher and Psychotherapist Felix Guattari writes, "his is revolt against death and the deadly passivity with which society deals with this phenomenon gives a deeply emotional character to his life work, which literally transcends the style of passivity and abandon of the entropic slope of fate which characterizes this present period."
Gelatin silver print triptych - The Estate of David Wojnarowicz, P.P.O.W. Gallery
Untitled (One day this kid...)
Untitled (One day this kid...) is a work in which Wojnarowicz's writings and visual art work appear alongside each other. The boy depicted is the artist at around ten years old. The image of this pre-pubescent freckled boy comes from his school photo and evokes a sense of nostalgia, whilst the text is divided in two columns and written in future tense. It discusses the challenges he will face as a homosexual in America, repeatedly opening with 'One day'. Statements like 'One day politicians will enact legislation against this kid', culminate in a list of condemnatory punishments meted out to people who are homosexual, concluding with the explanation that it will all happen because 'he desires to place his naked body on the body of another boy'.
The work is a powerful condemnation of homophobia. The viewer is confronted with the idea that this innocent child's fate will be filled with suffering due to society's prejudice and ignorance. Untitled (One day this kid...) is also a reminder to people indifferent to the suffering of those affected by the AIDS epidemic that victims were children, like anyone else. After encountering the work for the first time, critic Maurice Berger wrote: "the juxtaposition of freckle-faced, jug eared kid with the poisonous reality of homophobia moved me deeply. And while I have been 'out' for almost a decade, the work helped me to accept a part of my queer self that I had never before owned; the gay bashed, self-hating kid that struggled to survive." Although this biographical work is distressing, it might also be read as heroic, highlighting the boy's fight for his right to speak up and his martyrdom.
A reinterpretation of this work by later queer artist Jason Wooden extends the narrative, suggesting that mainstream gay culture is insufficiently attentive to the issues it raises and has largely forgotten the anger Wojnarowicz channels here. Wooden's critique suggests that Wojnarowicz laid down his life 'so that their [mainstream gay culture] pride will be signified by the sound of a thousand shrill whistles as they push and step over the unconscious bodies of their brethren'.
Photostat (edition of 10) - At various collections, including Jersey City Museum, Art Institute of Chicago, Wadsworth Athenaeum, Smith College, and Whitney Museum of American Art