- Nancy Graves at Mitchell-Innes & Nash Exhibition Catalogue, 2015Our PickBy Christopher Lyon and Christina Hunter
- The Nancy Graves ProjectBy Brigitte Franzen and Annette Lagler
- Nancy Graves: A Survey 1969-1980, 1980By Linda L. Catheart
- The Sculpture of Nancy Graves: A Catalogue Raisonné with Essays, 1987By E. A. Carmean
Important Art by Nancy Graves
Nancy Graves' 1969 solo exhibition at the Whitney was critically and popularly acclaimed. Her life-size mixed media CAMELS sculpture was the star of this show, capturing the imagination of visitors and critics alike. These two specimens (Kenya Dromedary and Mongolian Bactrian) were made from a mix of wood, metal, polyurethane, wax, paint, burlap and real animal skin. They have a particular handcrafted, naturalistic, and haptic feel, and were displayed in a small space, meaning the viewer would be up close and personal with the towering synthetic animals and their oddly tactile fur.
Although they are sculpted with multiple art as well as natural media, these scientifically named CAMELS might easily be mistaken for taxidermy exhibits in a natural history museum. This work brings museum display techniques into the modern art gallery to challenge the conception that art should be displayed in ways completely different and separate to artefacts, natural specimens, and scientific information. Graves was one of the first artists to work in this way, and was hugely influential on later contemporary artists, such as Mark Dion.
In original and radical departure from the factory-like commercial sleekness of Pop Art and Minimalism, which dominated the art world of 1960s New York, Graves instead returns to the resonance and wonder of our exploration and documentation of the natural world. The camel, to her, was a perfect starting point in re-awaking our wonder at natural design; "Why camels? Because camels shouldn't exist. They have flesh on their hooves, four stomachs, a dislocated jaw. Yet with all of the illogical form the camel still functions. And though they may be amusing, they are still wonderful to watch."
In 1970, Graves travelled to Morocco to examine her muse, the camel, in the flesh. She made several films on this trip, including Izy Boukir, a 20-minute piece examining the movement of camel herds, their behavior, and interactions. The film is set to music by her friend and contemporary, Phillip Glass, and filmed in 16mm color film.
Following on from her 1969 sculptures, this film treads the line between viewing the camels from a scientific, natural history, documentarian gaze, and simultaneously concentrating on their extraordinarily alien, surreal presence. Graves said she wanted to "permit the animal motions to determine structure.... Through the edited sequential duration, camel morphology views with the viewer's inherent anthropomorphism. For me this film is the most successful in that the impression of these animals as primordial beings existing in barren yet awesomely beautiful surroundings far outweighs a consciousness of complicated editing and sound relationships".
Thus, Graves uses the biological form of the camels to determine the formal qualities of the film: speed, cuts, and edits, as well as Glass's original accompanying score. The film's narrative structure, multiple viewpoints, and focus on the natural world remain captivating to filmmakers and critics, and the work's complex relationship between form and content in the service of the humble camel means it remains an integral, original, and unusual piece of film history.
By the 1970s, Graves' sculptural output became looser and more abstract. In this 1971 piece she experiments with mimicking scientific processes of archaeological discovery, and also dissection, by breaking down the animal form even further into individual bones. This installation of seemingly beautifully preserved and scattered bones was actually handcrafted out of steel, gauze, acrylic, plaster, burlap and wax. Displayed in a naturalistic scatter pattern directly on the exhibition space floor, the installation encourages the visitor to navigate around the "bones", exploring and discovering as they go.
The work asks the viewer to engage different senses; of texture and movement as well as vision, in a shared process of scientific and natural observation. Rather than using a whole animal, now a single bone can be an entry point to unlock a feeling of the sublime artistry of nature. While Graves has often been labeled as dispassionate or objective in her art due to the way in which she uses motifs of documentation, museum display, and scientific study, in this piece we can see that she simultaneously sees every piece of nature through an artist's eye. While she sees art as scientific, science is also art. The work shows a sense of passion and wonder at the natural world we live in.
As Christina Hunter, director of the Nancy Graves Foundation, puts it "she was very interested in the ideas and the explorations that art could offer. That art could reveal and make one think about aspects of the world, aspects of psychology that had hitherto not been seen. So that art, in a way, could open people's eyes to looking way back into prehistory... art could also allow people to look way forward into the future, which is what she called outer space... science offered us ways of exploring the world that in a way were an extension of what artists were doing already.."