- Unspoken Spaces by Olafur Eliasson
- Olafur Eliasson: Contact by Olafur Eliasson
- Olafur Eliasson: Werke/Work 1994 -2015
Progression of Art
Since the beginning of his career, Eliasson has endeavored to conceive visually impactful work with sincerity rather than irony. Completed while still a student at the Royal Danish Academy of Art, Beauty consists of a single spotlight illuminating a section of perforated tubing. When water is pumped through the tube, thousands of tiny water droplets cascade out, producing a curtain of mist, which then reflects the light to produce a rainbow. The sublime work both glorifies and dissects an environmental wonder, revealing Eliasson's unique ability to poetically interpret a scientific process.
Interaction with the natural environment along with perception, movement, and personal experience has always been a driving force in Eliasson's work. In this particular work, viewers are encouraged to move around and engage with the piece. In using their bodies to control their perspective, viewers manipulate a manmade ethereal phenomenon, and become responsible for their own dialogue with the work. Eliasson aims to heighten perceptual awareness, compelling individuals to become more connected to the space around them.
Spotlight, water, nozzles and hose - Museum of Contemporary Art, Los Angeles
Like Beauty before it, Eliasson's early works were typically sculptural structures built specifically for a space within a museum or gallery. Ventilator, his most celebrated early work, was a subtle kinetic sculpture first shown at the Museum of Modern Art in New York. The simple, hypnotic piece consisted of a fan, hung from an electric cord and propelled haphazardly around the room in concordance with the ambient air currents. Its mesmerizing movement, sometimes zooming over head while other times hovering indecisively, emphasized the grandness of the museum's atrium, while also calling attention to the emptiness of the space.
The physical and perceptual disruption the work created was achieved by Eliasson's scientifically inclined intellect. "You start to wonder what on Earth makes it fly," explained Eliasson. "When we walk into a space, we tend to look at the walls and the floor as solids, and everything between as somehow not there. We know very well that air is thick enough for a jumbo jet to take off and float on it. There is something there, conceptually, to solidify." As the fan propelled itself around the room, the desire to understand how it maneuvered reinforced the viewer's own awareness of their presence within the space. For Eliasson, connecting to the work and the space it inhabited promoted a connection with one's self. As curator and art historian, Madeleine Grynsztejn explains, "in this increasingly technological, digital era, art often separates us from our bodies, from our senses, from the world. Here is somebody who constantly refuses that, and who constantly returns us to a visceral, present-tense experience."
Altered fan, wire, and cable - Museum of Modern Art, New York
In 1998, rather than reproducing natural phenomenon in an indoor setting, Eliasson began working with the environment directly. His first landscape intervention was Green river, a guerilla-style piece, in which he covertly changed the color of rivers in various cities by treating them with a harmless green dye used by biologists to track water currents. As Eliasson recalled, "what the green dye did, in my view, was it made people aware of their everyday surroundings in a new way - not just the river, which suddenly appeared different, but the town or landscape it was flowing through. We tend to see cities and spaces as static images, but in fact they are changing all the time. Sometimes it takes a radical shift to make us aware of this fact."
The radical visual effect of the dyed rivers lasted only a few hours, but it compelled viewers to reconnect with the urban spaces in which they lived. Unlike his previous sculptural work, which sought to inspire a relationship between participants and an irrelevant space; Green river sought to make a more meaningful connection between participants and the space they inhabit daily. The reaction to the dyed rivers varied from city to city, and in Los Angeles, where concrete viaducts mostly obstructed views of the river, hardly anyone noticed the change. While in Stockholm, Sweden, where the river flows through the center of the city, pedestrians were alarmed by the slime-colored hue and were convinced the city's water supply had been tainted.
Concerned they could incite panic, Eliasson abandoned these guerilla-art interventions in 2001. However, reimagining previous work is an integral part of Eliasson's artistic process, and in 2014 he fabricated a river to intervene with the space inside a museum. Riverbed, a site-specific installation for the Louisiana Museum of Modern Art in Denmark, blurred the boundaries between the natural world and the manmade one. The major intervention transformed the museum's gallery spaces into the rocky and rugged landscape of the Danish coast. A winding river flowed through the galleries, and as in nature, visitors were free to choose their own path as they explored the immersive environment. Through inviting visitors to take control of their experience, Riverbed eschewed the behavioral and intellectual conventions associated with museums.
Uranine and water - Moss, Norway
The weather project
Eliasson's ability to combine art, science, and natural phenomena to enhance the viewer's experience reached its apex when he began creating fully immersive installations on a grand scale. In his most celebrated large-scale installation, The weather project, Eliasson transformed the massive Turbine Hall at London's Tate Modern into a captivating artificial environment. Using a simple assemblage of 200 mono-frequency bulbs arranged in a semi circle and reflected onto a mirrored ceiling, Eliasson created a giant fake sun of dazzling pseudo-radiance. A misty fog that permeated the hall, accumulating into cloud-like formations before dissipating across the space, completed the alluring environmental effect. The ceiling of the space was covered by a large mirror in which visitors could see themselves as tiny black shadows on a sea of orange light. Many viewers of this exhibition were prone to lie on their backs and wave their hands and legs around in participation with the piece. And by bringing the sun indoors, people were encouraged to reconsider their relationship with an object of extraordinary beauty, which had otherwise become nonchalantly familiar. The awe-inspiring experience reportedly attracted two million visitors, evidence that Eliasson's mission to influence an individual's reconnection to the world around them was indeed successful.
While other artists would be criticized for pandering to the masses, Eliasson is praised and respected by critics and curators alike because of his intellectual rigor and integrity in regards to his work. When asked by the Tate to extend The weather project due to its popularity, the artist declined, fearful that the work would become a grotesque spectacle for the museum and himself. As Eliasson explains, "the media attention was very flattering, but it was also becoming very brutal. There was a danger that the project might slip from an artistic experience to mindless entertainment."
mono-frequency lights, projection foil, haze machines, mirror foil, aluminum, scaffolding - Tate Modern, London
New York City Waterfalls
In 2008, Eliasson constructed his most popular work in the United States, The New York City Waterfalls. When he was commissioned by New York City's Public Art Fund to create large-scale installations in direct dialogue with the area, Eliasson aspired to build structures that would be a reaction to the immense size of the city. He chose to construct waterfalls, a soothing icon of natural phenomena, which could promote a sense of ever-present, peaceful measurement for a place whose gigantic size might be otherwise disorienting. Recounting his own experience in New York, Eliasson explains, "In a city like New York, I have some difficulty feeling my body, placing myself physically. Is that building nearby or is it far away?... So for me the waterfalls are a way of putting a sense of scale back into Manhattan."
The temporary installation consisted of four enormous mechanical waterfalls erected at specific sites along the East River. As the water fell into the river, the blowing wind revealed the structures' scaffolding. Seeing the mechanics generating the waterfalls was not only intentional, but just as integral to the work as the illusion of the natural phenomenon. "You always see the man behind the curtain in Olafur's work," explains Grynsztejn. "He shows you something that moves you to the core, and then he shows you how that happened. So you are a participant both ways - intellectually and just in terms of wonder." This also brought home Eliasson's point to viewers that they could be responsible participants in manipulating their own experience, conjuring thoughts of how one might act with agency within their world to create their own realities within any circumstance.
Water, scaffolding, steel grill age and troughs, pumps, piping, intake filter pool frames and filter fabric, LED lights, ultra-violet filters, concrete, switch gears, electrical equipment and wiring, control modules, and anemometers
Your rainbow panorama
Eliasson's interest in immersive large-scale installations and fascination with structure and form naturally led his progression into architectural works, and Your rainbow panorama successfully blurs the lines between art and architecture. The piece is a permanent work set atop the ARoS Kunstmuseum in Denmark. Consisting of a circular walkway enclosed by multicolored transparent panels representing the full color spectrum, the large structure extends from one edge of the museum's façade to the other. The vivid rainbow hues invite visitors to walk around the structure, experiencing panoramic city views through the various tones. Slender columns holding up the structure make the static work seem as if it is floating above the building, further heightening the viewer's activity-driven experience. Eliasson said about the work, "I have created a space that can almost be said to erase the boundary between inside and outside - a place where you become a little uncertain as to whether you have stepped into a work of art or into part of the museum. This uncertainty is important to me, as it encourages people to think and sense beyond the limits within which they are accustomed to function."
With this work Eliasson also strives to enhance the viewer's experience by means of dramatic visual impact through a unique interpretation of light. In representing light by way of the color spectrum, he creates a space through which viewer's can see the city in an original way. His reason for doing so, as he explains, is because, "I am particularly interested in how the light of a space determines how we see that space and similarly, in how light and color are actually phenomena within us, within our own eyes."
Eliasson's fascination with light and color theory has led to a prolific subset of work exploring the subject, including One-way color tunnel, a site-specific sculpture in which participants walk through a kaleidoscope tunnel of triangular mirrors; and Turner color experiment, in which Eliasson created large color wheel paintings isolating the exact pigments famous 18th century landscape painter J.M.W. Turner used in his paintings.
glazed rainbow-colored glass, steel - ARoS Kunstmuseum, Aarhus, Denmark
At the beginning of the 21st century, when artists were becoming more aware of globalization's negative implications, Eliasson began seeing his art as a tool to counteract the consequences of a globalized society. He has stated that, "art is not just an object, it is a sense of community."
In this seminal project Little Sun, Eliasson worked with engineer Fredrick Otteson to develop a small, solar LED lamp shaped like a meskel flower - Ethiopia's symbol for positivity and beauty. The portable and affordable suns were devised to provide the 1.2 billion people worldwide living without electricity a clean and accessible light source as an alternative to the more often used toxic, fuel-based kerosene lanterns.
In conceiving the Little Suns, Eliasson created not only a useful work of art, but also a humanitarian one. When a Little Sun is sold within a country that has electricity, another one is automatically provided to an off-grid African community at a locally affordable price. By setting up a distribution system that connects disparate regions, Eliasson has turned art into a social business. His team encourages off-grid entrepreneurs to start their own small businesses selling Little Suns by providing them with starter kits and training. As a result, the suns create jobs and generate profits within local communities. In creating art to assist impoverished communities, Eliasson, along with other likeminded artists, is at the forefront of the Social Practice movement, which is transforming what it means to be an artist today for the cause of greater good.
high-grade polycarbonate plastic, solar panel, LED, and rechargeable battery
Eliasson's work often explores the relationship between humans and the natural world, and as his artistic practice has continued to veer toward the altruistic, he has become more concerned with mankind's impact on climate. Ice Watch is a recent work in which the artist called attention to a global environmental crisis with the hope of spurring the concepts of personal responsibility and positive change in viewers. With the assistance of longtime collaborator and geologist, Minik Rosing, Eliasson transported 100 tons of ice from a fjord in Greenland to Copenhagen's city square. The twelve blocks of ice were displayed in the formation of a clock, serving as a physical count down to rising global temperatures and sea levels. As the large ice blocks stoically sat melting, visitors were encouraged to touch them and feel the physical reality of time passing alongside climate change. Eliasson said the piece allowed for the ability to "reach people in a way that reports, graphs, and data cannot." He concluded, "I feel that this is an important step towards motivating people not just to know something but also to respond to it, to feel the urgency of it and to take action."
In an effort to transform feeling into action, Ice watch has become an ongoing project, having already been installed a second time at the Place du Panthéon, Paris in 2015 during the United Nation's Climate Conference.
12 Greenlandic inland ice blocks - Copenhagen City Hall Square
Glacial rock flower garden
In 2016, Eliasson was invited to create a site-specific installation at the Chateau de Versailles. He took the opportunity to further his Social Practice's spotlight onto climate change by including a triptych of water-related projects on the palace grounds.
The most seminal piece was Waterfall, in which an immense stream of water fell from a construction crane, constructed of yellow steel to emulate the gold in the nearby Apollo's garden. As in his New York waterfall works, the viewer witnessed not only the gorgeous waterfall, but also the machinations of man, which created it. It provoked reflection on our human impetus to use and manipulate natural resources for the pleasure of our egos. Another piece, Glacial rock flour garden, consisted of 150 tons of granite rock imported from Greenland, which had been ground down by glacial erosion. It was laid down around a statue of Persephone, the goddess of spring, to invoke reflection on the loss of nature. As visitors strolled through the gardens, they also experienced Fog assembly, an ethereal emission of white mist clouds, which lent an eerie, unsettling feel to the experience.
Inside the Chateau, Eliasson installed several space interventions using mirrors and light all designed to jostle a person's sense of reality. The curious museum (2010) was comprised of mirrors behind the windows of the Hercules Room, which reflected arches back at the viewer. In Your sense of unity (2016) visitors stood at the end of the Hall of Mirrors and looked into a reflective triangle bisected by a semi-circle, which created a perpetual pane of illuminated circles. In Solar compression (2016), a rotating, suspended mirror that was edged with orange light reflected the marquetry on the wooden floorboards and fireplace of the King's Guards' Room. Lastly, The gaze of Versailles (2016), was a simple pair of gold balls, a metaphor for eyeglasses, which sat on the windowpane in the Lower Gallery looking out over the gardens.
Eliasson accomplished the task of simultaneously respecting the heritage of Versailles and creating works that led viewers to contemplate issues of man's relationship to, and use of, the natural world. About this project he has said, "The Versailles that I have been dreaming up is a place that empowers everyone. It invites visitors to take control of the authorship of their experience instead of simply consuming and being dazzled by the grandeur. It asks them to exercise their senses, to embrace the unexpected, to drift through the gardens, and to feel the landscape take shape through their movement."
Although other artists such as Anish Kapoor and Jeff Koons also created site-specific installations for Versailles that bristled the hairs of more traditionalist audiences, Eliasson as the ninth artist commissioned for the deed, was highly praised for his atmospheric works that cohered seamlessly into the architecture and the grounds.
150 tons imported granite rock - Chateau de Versailles