Progression of Art
Rice/Tree/Burial with Time Capsule
This piece, first realized privately in 1968 and then performed on a larger scale in 1977-79, consisted of four events. First, Denes planted a rice field in the Niagara Gorge on the border between the United States and Canada. This symbolized beginnings and growth. Secondly, she chained the trees of a sacred Indian forest. This symbolized human interference with the natural world. Thirdly, she buried a time capsule consisting of her own haiku poetry, of which she kept no copies. This symbolized the abstract and humanity's power of thought and creation. Lastly, Denes ventured out onto a ledge above Niagara Falls where she lived and filmed alone for eight days. This was a statement of intent, an acknowledgment of the fact that her art would exist on the perilous edge with nature, and would be dedicated to environmental concerns.
During the burial process the land was managed, thanks to agricultural knowledge, to harness nature's life-giving properties, with the intention of producing further sustenance for the future rice. In a strange, unforeseen twist, however, the soil Denes used to fertilize the ground was contaminated with radioactive waste and the rice plants remained stunted in growth, producing beautiful, yet inedible, red rice. The site on which the rice was grown sat not only on a human territorial border but also on the original starting point of the life-giving Niagara River. The interplay between human knowledge and natural science remained continuous.
After chaining the trees, Denes described, "The texture of the forest, having been interrupted by the reordering of its elements, yielded unique structures of isolated or combined sculptural forms. The chains became additional limbs and blended into their surroundings to become visible only in certain lights, angles, and perspectives, conveying the conflicting and interdependent aspects of art and existence, illusion and reality, imagination and fact."
The burial represented a submission on the part of humanity, one of returning to the earth, which had equally provided the sustenance of the rice and the inspiration and opportunity of the trees. It became the ultimate resignation of human thought, bowing before nature.
The richness of interplay between these three aspects illustrated a sensitivity that pervaded all of Denes' work, separating her from the bullish nature of much of the Land Art that would follow.
Rice/Tree/Burial was so significant because it was the first piece of site-specific Environmental Art. It took Conceptual Art's use of metaphor and symbolism out into the far more delicate realm of nature. As with many of Denes' installations, there was a cyclical notion of balance at its heart; the earth produces life, we manipulate and control it, and ultimately the earth reclaims everything once again. The delicate nature of the interdependence of man and nature is constantly bought to the fore.
Commissioned by Artpark, Lewiston, New York
Isometric Systems in Isotropic Space - Map Projections Series (The Doughnut and The Hot Dog pictured)
This series consisted of many different drawings and a book of the same name. Though the exact materials vary between the different versions of the drawings, all depict the earth's globe manipulated into different mathematical shapes: cube, ovoid, torus, spiral etc. The drawings comprise of two layers. The first, often on graph paper, reflects different maps of the earth in Denes' transformed shapes. These are made by hand, often in watercolor, charcoal, or gouache. Above this sheet lies a sheet of mylar or similar material onto which the structural lines of the shape are drawn, again by hand, normally in ink.
The scientific theory behind this series is incredibly specialized and complex, taking Denes' work out of the realm of art and into abstract scientific philosophy. Each drawing is a correct rendering of how the geographical coordinates of the earth would sit on these different shapes. They are mathematically identical versions of the earth; the only thing that has changed is the formula for the shape.
Though the math behind these works is often not evident to the viewer, the way in which Denes represents complex philosophical and scientific ideas is significant. The delicate aesthetic to the precise layered drawings speaks to how theoretical reality and experienced reality intertwine. Philosophy Professor Mark Daniel Cohen suggests that the drawings encourage us to "explore the range of available protocols and to recognize that none is literally correct, or rather that literal accuracy is accidental and immaterial."
Despite being unrealizable these technical sketches are nonetheless still inherently sculptural in the same way that many of Denes' later large-scale installations were. They are inherently preoccupied with space and in her book of the series she explores how the physical properties of our home planet would, theoretically, change due to her manipulations: the effect these new forms would have on currents and gravity for example.
In 2009, drawings from this series were exhibited at The Whitney in New York. They sat alongside drawings from other site-specific artists from the 1960s and 70's. Most of the artists presented work that reflected preparatory exercises to large sculpture or land art but others such as Robert Morris showed drawing as a method to explore unrealizable ideas. Still others, such as the wall drawing Ghoster by Gary Simmons made in 1997, also dealt in the realm of the mind, collating different fragments of memories. Denes' Map Projections series dwells within a canon of artists that use drawing as a direct link to the more intangible areas of our communal thought processes, documenting the journey from thought to final artwork.
Museum of Modern Art, New York
Wheatfield - A Confrontation
For Denes' most iconic work, she planted and harvested a field of wheat on two acres of New York City's Battery Park landfill, which sat mere blocks from Wall Street and the World Trade Center, facing the Statue of Liberty. Upon this land, which was worth 4.5 billion dollars, and with the help of a $10,000 grant from the Public Art Fund, Denes and her volunteers ploughed the cluttered dirt and sowed the seeds by hand. They then cared for and maintained the crop for four months before harvesting 1000 pounds of golden wheat on the 16th of August 1982. The wheat was then exhibited in The International Art Show to End World Hunger and travelled with the exhibition to 28 international cities. Visitors to the exhibition acquired the wheat seeds and planted them around the globe. Today, luxury offices and apartment complexes occupy the site of Wheatfield.
In this piece, the "confrontation" of the title is not, as per usual with Denes' work, between the differences and similarities of nature and humanity but rather directly between their opposing aspects with the goal of drawing attention to the damage being caused. This piece was altogether more strident in its activism than some of her other work. Originally commissioned to create a piece in the quieter area of Queens, Denes insisted upon the Battery Park Landfill. The immediate and dramatic metaphor of this alternative placement cut straight to the point: the wheat field referencing the forgotten fertility of the soil beneath New York and the potential nutrition it could create. Produced within a global environment, which was experiencing pockets of severe world hunger and rapidly depleting natural resources, Wheatfield stood in stark contrast to the excesses of the financial industry it neighbored.
Two acres of wheat planted and harvested by the artist - Battery Park Landfill, Downtown Manhattan
Tree Mountain - A Living Time Capsule
For this piece, Denes composed a plan to plant and spur a manmade virgin forest on a Finnish mountain composed of wasteland from a nearby gravel pit. She worked with 11,000 people to plant 11,000 fir trees according to a carefully mapped out design derived from the Golden Ratio. She was able to secure protection for her project for 400 years, enough time for the forest to grow lush and self-contained. Each of the 11,000 people involved were issued a certificate declaring them custodian of one tree. These entrusted roles of guardianship were inherited for the next 400 years or 20 generations and did not designate ownership but personal responsibility.
The significance of this project lies in its forethought. Not only is it impressive in sheer physical scale and ambition but its continuing impact stretches far out into the future. It is not simply an aesthetically appealing creation; it is an act of eco-safeguarding for continual generations. It comprises the delicate conversation between humanity and nature for which Denes is famous. It also represents a uniquely common cycle of intent from her overall oeuvre in which land made barren by human interference becomes repopulated with nature by humans. The repopulation itself follows a dictated pattern inspired by mathematics that incurs within nature itself and then is left to flourish and evolve, relinquished back to the organic rhythms of time.
Executive Director of The Urban Arts Institute, Ricardo D. Barreto talks about the "vocabulary of tools to sculpt time and history" which Denes draws upon to create her work. Tree Mountain is an excellent example of this, in which she uses math and science to carve a fruitful future for a segment of earth.
11,000 Trees, 11,000 People, 400 Years - Ylöjārvi, Finland
The Crystal Fort/Glass Fortress
Still in proposal stage, The Crystal Fort is a plan for a full scale, perfectly symmetrical glass fort to be built in line with a string of 70 stone forts and fortifications from the 16th century to the 19th century of central Holland. The Crystal Fort will act as a tourist attraction, which will in turn fund the regeneration design for the whole Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie. This ecological public project will see the installation of bike paths, new water and flood management systems, a wildlife reserve, and windmills along with a considerable amount of tree planting.
With this proposal, Denes references a recurring theme in art history of a shimmering, transparent castle or fort. Piero Della Francesca's Ideal City from 1470 is a good example. The image of a defensive structure that we recognize as heavy and durable being represented as fragile and ethereal brings a kind of magical purity with it. Embedded within the waterline's history it will represent the idealized, mathematical thought behind the existing architecture and become a shimmering beacon of distilled, human intellect sitting amongst, and funding the existence of, the environmental development of the surrounding landscape.
Part of The Fort Asperen Project proposal for the Nieuwe Hollandse Waterlinie in Holland