Progression of Art
Puce Moment is a large-scale amalgam of multiple, sprawled human bodies depicted in an intense, orgiastic state. Typical of Brown's early work, this one is crowded with partially abstract fragments of genitals, thighs, arms, breasts, and heads with gaping mouths, all in lurid pinks and reds. In works such as this one, sexuality is rendered as grotesque; what might otherwise be construed as sensual because of the rich application of paint and glossy varnish becomes visceral and repugnant.
Brown's early repertoire comments on and challenges the traditional male gaze in the depiction of the nude female form. According to feminist theory, traditionally, representations of the nude female form provided an image of woman to be possessed by the male viewer via the gaze. In pictures such as Puce Moment, male and female bodies alike are grotesque mounds of flesh, parts assembled in a confusing hodgepodge in which male and female are indistinguishable from one another and sex is repugnant. In such a context, the gaze itself becomes repulsive and the possibility of possession is thwarted.
Oil on canvas - Saatchi Gallery
High Society is a chaotic mixture of erotica and money. Brown frequently titled her earlier works after classic Hollywood films, and this is no exception. The painting is teeming with an assortment of nude, muscle-bound males and high-society men attired in tailcoats and top hats suggestive of opulence and frenetic sensual engagement. Some of the male figures are seen ejaculating into the indiscernible fragments of bodies and penises. The background, a combination of luscious gold and blue, evokes an elaborate Baroque, Rubensian tableaux stretching across massive canvases or a Tiepolo fresco alive with the cavorting nude bodies of ancient gods gracing the ceilings of palatial dining rooms. Brown mocks the vulgarity of such imagery and the entire display in High Society reads as a frenzied mess of sex amidst a gossipy dinner party of the elite, an allusion to the writings of F. Scott Fitzgerald, which the artist cited as a source of inspiration. The colors and the composition of the scene can also be connected to the bright works of Cézanne and to the early abstract pieces by Pollack. As with many an artist, Brown was heavily influenced by the painters who came before her and frequently references them. "A great artist steals," she quipped.
Oil on linen - Saatchi Gallery
Trouble in Paradise
This particular painting recalls the bold color, dramatic brushwork, thick and furious application of paint, and sexualized subject matter of Willem de Kooning's paintings from the early 1950s. Trouble in Paradise marks Brown's shift away from her previous works' literal depictions of explicit sexual content to a more slippery and more elusive approach to representation. Objects seem to be in constant flux and the much looser brushwork succeeds in suggesting rather than the overtly describing body parts.
The left half of the picture offers portions of a woman's anatomy in disjointed pieces lying beneath a blanket of chaotic color. The woman's legs appear to be parted, while a man in the upper right hand corner with gaping mouth peers down at her, exemplifying the leering male gaze. Just to the right of center looms the disembodied nude back of a male turned away from the woman in complete self-absorption, perhaps representing her own erotic fantasy. The severe black background heightens a sense of drama in this piece, adding a sinister tone. Brown explains that her use of somewhat abstract, fragmented figures and objects pushes the viewer to fill in the gaps in order to reveal their own desires when confronted with such elusive narratives.
While, stylistically, still quite similar to her Abstract Expressionist predecessor, Brown makes a definitive thematic break from de Kooning in a kind of symbolic panning out from his almost obsessive, zoomed-in focus on lone female subjects who are rendered hideous by the male gaze. Instead, Brown's feminist pivot implicates the male objectifiers by including them in compositions that leave little question as to the dynamics of the sexual engagement playing out on her enormous canvases.
Oil on canvas - Tate Modern
Hard, Fast and Beautiful
This painting demonstrates the unremitting carnality of Brown's work despite her use of a somewhat muted, minimal palette. A dance of wispy, charcoal gestures mingles with white strokes on the canvas to depict a pair of lovers. The artist represents an erotic coupling as motion, with the lovers tumbling across the surface of the work, smudging and mixing the pigment while engaged in the act. This harkens back to the work of Yves Klein, whose models, covered in bright blue paint, were directed to roll upon and press their bodies to the canvas to create an abstracted impression.
Hard, Fast and Beautiful is a work that demonstrates Brown's transition away from the trademark grotesque images so distinctive of her early oeuvre. They have become abstracted to the point of near unrecognizability, taking on a conceptual quality as she has reconsidered how most effectively to represent the energy of sex. The figures are harder to discern here now and the flesh is no longer represented with the bright, lurid palette of works like Puce Moment. However, the effect is that the awareness of emotion and energy are only heightened.
Saatchi Gallery - Oil on canvas
Black Painting 1
This piece is part of a series of works Brown titled the Black Painting Series, which she named after Francisco Goya's series of the same name. Her series focuses on sex and death, and this particular piece contemplates the connection between the two. In the picture, a night scene, a lone male figure in repose is being tortured by evil spirits. The man is painted in whites and grays, which make him appear ghostly. The smudged body seems to be disappearing as we look on as though the spirits are pulling him into the dark abyss. At the same time, his arched back though and open, exclaiming mouth suggest that he may be in a state of orgasm. The flashes of white overhead are either emanating from the man's body or are closing in on him. The pleasure and torment are obvious and conflicting.
This painting as well as the series itself demonstrates once more Brown's obsession with the work of the Old Masters, whom she references with a frequency suggesting that such paintings are less homages than updates. Specifically, this picture calls to mind Goya's etching, The Sleep of Reason Produces Monsters (1799) (not a work from the Black Paintings series, however) as well as Henry Fuseli's The Nightmare (1782) and William Blake's Jerusalem (1820). Like Goya's works from the Black Paintings series, Brown explores dark, disturbing themes using a palette that is unmistakably anxiety inducing in itself.
Oil on linen - The Broad
Combing the Hair (Côte d'Azur)
This work pulses with sexuality, although the darker undertone of many of Brown's similarly themed and populous paintings is missing. Rather than a lurid and chaotic amalgam of whole and partial human bodies rendered in a sometimes heavy-handed amassing of paint and hostile brushwork, Brown depicts a sunny beach in the South of France teeming with nude and partially clad bodies here. The prominent penis on the right side of the canvas leaves little doubt as to the erotic nature of the work and the sweeping brushstrokes reference the title as does the scarcely noticeable crudely articulated blue hair comb in the upper right corner. However, the overall effect of the work in comparison to earlier paintings of similar scale and theme is of frivolity as though something significant has been resolved and sexuality is being celebrated rather than indicted.
As with so many of her works, Brown references her artistic predecessors, from Matisse's flamboyantly colored, sprawling nudes and Picasso's Demoiselles. The leering cat in the center of the canvas suggests Manet's Olympia, its symbolism: unadulterated carnality.
Gagosian Gallery - Oil on linen
Oh I do like to be beside the seaside
Known for her "bigger-is-better," large-scale works, Brown surprised the art world with a radical U-turn when she began making small-scale paintings around 2004. Even her approach to painting was a departure for, rather than the sometimes physically challenging activity of working on an enormous canvas on the wall or the floor, Brown used a ladder to create an easel at which she stood, literally zooming in while still endeavoring to keep her brushwork loose and gestural. She didn't begin showing these small works, which have been referred to as "jewel-like," until after leaving blue chip gallery, Gagosian in May of 2015.
The small works, most no larger than 17 inches, verge on complete abstraction, although Brown insists that she begins them with a figural concept in order to maintain control and to avoid rendering the works fully abstract and thus, in her view, merely "decorative."
Oh I do like to be beside the seaside takes its title from a popular, early-19th-century British music hall song. While reminiscent of the large-scale, brightly colored orgiastic images of her early career, the recognizable objects such as body parts -- often genitalia -- are absent and instead the canvas is alive with colorful brushwork that emphasize Brown's early association with Abstract Expressionist painters like Mitchell and de Kooning. A decidedly cheerful, picturesque landscape, the painting evokes the Fauves and Cézanne.
39 of the small works, which Brown began referring to as the "Neurotic paintings," appear in a book of her work, The English Garden, which Brown co-produced with American writer friend, Jim Lewis. Her exhibition at Maccarone had the same title. While the small works have been referred to as "a hesitation in the artist's trajectory," for Brown they seem to be explorations of self-control, challenges in containment.
Oil on linen - Maccarone Gallery