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The Hudson River School Collage

The Hudson River School

Started: 1826

Ended: 1870

The Hudson River School Timeline


"I believe . . . that it is of the greatest importance for a painter always to have his mind upon nature, as the star by which he is to steer to excellence in his art."
Thomas Cole
"Amid those scenes of solitude... the mind is cast into the contemplation of eternal things."
Thomas Cole
"To walk with nature as a poet is the necessary condition of a perfect artist."
Thomas Cole
"The magnificent beauty of the natural world is a manifestation of the mysterious natural laws that will be forever obscured from us."
Albert Bierstadt
"Let me earnestly recommend...one studio which you may freely enter and receive in liberal measure the most sure and safe instruction...the Studio of Nature."
Asher B. Durand
"If your subject be a tree, observe particularly wherein it differs from those of other species...Every kind of tree has its traits of individuality - some kinds assimilate, others differ widely - with careful attention, these peculiarities are easily learned, and so, in a greater or lesser degree, with all other objects."
Asher B. Durand


Thomas ColeThomas Cole
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Asher B DurandAsher B Durand
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George InnessGeorge Inness
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Frederic Edwin ChurchFrederic Edwin Church
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Albert BierstadtAlbert Bierstadt
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"Truly all is remarkable and a wellspring of amazement and wonder. Man is so fortunate to dwell in this American Garden of Eden."

Albert Bierstadt Signature


Searching for a national style of art, the American landscape itself - large and untamed - was the primary focus of the Hudson River School painters. American expansion and Manifest Destiny imbued the untamed countryside with the symbolism of the country's promised prosperity and limitless resources. The terrain provided an alternative to European culture and history; it became a picturesque, patriotic, and inspirational theme. This loosely connected group of painters explored the nation, returning to their New York studios to paint large-scale works that thrilled audiences and celebrated the awesome power of nature and the progress of man.

Key Ideas

Long considered a profitable, but lowly, subject for serious artists (since it involved merely copying what was seen), landscape painting received new attention in the mid-19th century. Like Romantic painters in Britain and Germany, Hudson River School artists embraced the landscape as a meaningful subject, precisely as industrialization began to change terrains and reshape man's connection to his environment. The Americans both championed these forces of modernization and lamented what was lost in the name of "progress."
Generations of American painters had returned to Europe for training and adopted the styles and subjects of Old World artists. The Hudson River School painters desired a more native tradition, painting recognizably American scenes. Personally and professionally, they formed networks with writers and philosophers to create a distinct American culture.
Artists like Thomas Cole invested the landscape with symbolism, suggesting that these natural scenes could be transformed into meaningful allegories, as well as immersive and transformative experiences for the viewer. With their careful attention to realism and precise illusionism, as well as complex messaging and awe-inspiring vistas, the resulting canvases could be appreciated on both intellectual and emotional levels.
The second generation of Hudson River School painters left the New York area to explore more far-flung regions of America. Their painting documented westward expansion and reinforced the concept of Manifest Destiny. During the Civil War, their majestic images of an unspoiled West provided hope for post-war reconciliation and the promise of expanses of wild country, full of promise and unscarred by battle.

Most Important Art

The Hudson River School Famous Art

The Falls of Kaaterskill (1826)

Artist: Thomas Cole
Kaaterskill Falls cascades through the center of the painting, while shafts of sunlight illuminate a rocky ledge, framed by red and gold autumnal trees. A single figure, a Native American, stands on top of an outcrop, profiled against the dark caverns in the cliff behind him. The effect feels spontaneous and timeless, capturing the beauty of the scene as a natural resource. Yet, trouble looms. The painting is composed as an inverted triangle: its apex sits at the break of the falls with diagonals along the rising slopes on either side to lead the viewer to the higher falls in the upper right. Beyond this, a dense row of pines stretches along the horizon, along with an anvil-shaped thundercloud that creates a sense of impending doom.

Cole revisits a subject that had previously gained him fame with his Kaaterskill Upper Fall, Catskill Mountains (1825), painted after his first visit to the area. The region, known for its natural beauty, was viewed as a kind of natural Eden, yet, at the time of Cole's first visit, railings and a bridge had already been installed for the safety of the many tourists. In his depiction, however, Cole erased these manmade elements and included a Native American (even though the indigenous people had been driven from the area by this time) in an attempt to reverse time and preserve the original landscape for posterity.
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The Hudson River School Artworks in Focus:


The Hudson River School: The Group and Term

The Hudson River School was neither a school nor art movement in the contemporary sense of the term, but a group of landscape painters who began working in the Hudson River Valley of New York State. The name for the group has been variously attributed to either the art critic Clarence Cook or the artist Homer Dodge Martin, but, in any case, it was coined as a disparaging term in the 1870s to suggest that the group's style and subject matter were passé and provincial.

Early Leadership

The earliest works that could be categorized as Hudson River School paintings were by Thomas Doughty, one of the first American landscape artists, who painted quiet lyrical scenes of the region. The most famous and influential of the group, however, was Thomas Cole; it was under his leadership that the group became well-known and respected and thus, he is most often credited as the group's founder.

Asher B. Durand's Romantic <i>Portrait of Thomas Cole</i> (1837) depicts the artist as towering above the landscape in the background
Asher B. Durand's Romantic Portrait of Thomas Cole (1837) depicts the artist as towering above the landscape in the background

Cole was largely self-taught, only receiving some basic training as a painter and youthful experience as a wood engraver. When he began painting and sketching outdoors, taking an excursion to the Catskill Mountains in 1825, he had no academic training. Yet, when he displayed three landscape paintings (based on his outdoor sketches) at William Colman's bookshop and picture gallery in New York, they were discovered by John Trumbull, William Dunlap, and Asher B. Durand. (Trumbull purchased Kaaterskill Upper Fall, Catskill Mountains, Dunlap bought Lake with Dead Trees (Catskill), and Durand acquired View of Fort Putnam). The discovery of Cole's groundbreaking mix of realism and idealism was notable enough to be covered in the New York Evening Post. Trumbull (regarded as the painter of the American Revolution due to works like his Declaration of Independence (1819)), and Dunlap (a pioneer of American theatre and history) brought Cole's work to the attention of important patrons. Durand became close friends with Cole, and an early member of the Hudson River School himself. Other artists, including Martin Johnson Heade and Jasper Cropsey, soon followed in Cole's footsteps, hoping to repeat his success by painting the landscapes of the Adirondacks, the White Mountains, and the Catskills in upstate New York. Most of these artists worked outdoors to create preliminary oil and pencil sketches, then returned to their studios in New York City to complete the paintings. The resulting landscapes were often composites, creating an imagined and idealized landscape to achieve a stronger emotional effect.

Bread and Cheese Club and the Sketch Club

The Bread and Cheese Club, also called the Lunch Club, was an intellectual and artistic group created by the writer James Fenimore Cooper. Running from 1822 until 1827, its members included American writers, scholars, and professionals interested in the arts, such as Cole and Durand. With its regular meetings in New York City, the group was a gathering place for the latest ideas about American art and culture. When it disbanded, the Sketch Club, formed by Durand in 1827, carried on the tradition.

A number of influential connections formed within this circle. Cooper was one point of focus; as one of the most famous American novelists, many artists illustrated or painted scenes taken from his works. In particular, Cooper considered Cole "one of the very first geniuses of the age," and Cole was deeply influenced by Cooper's writing. Cole would eventually paint four scenes from Cooper's The Last of the Mohicans (1826).

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The Hudson River School Overview Continues

Other connections promoted more classicizing and idealizing influences on the Hudson River School artists. William Cullen Bryant, best known for his poem, "Thanatopsis," had close personal and professional relationships with Durand and Cole. Indeed, Durand's Kindred Spirits (1849) depicts Bryant and Cole as paired explorers. When Durand helped found the National Academy of the Arts of Design in 1836, Bryant was elected as its "Professor of Mythology and Antiquities." Durand paid homage to Bryant in his Scene from Thanatopsis (1850), taking to heart the poem's exhortation: "Go forth under the open sky and list/ to nature's teachings."

These associations shaped and developed American art and artistic institutions, especially when Church and Durand helped established the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York during the 1850s; the museum became the example for other collections throughout the country.

The Knickerbocker School and Magazine

The cover of volume XLVIII of <i>Knickerbocker</i> or <i>New York Monthly Magazine</i>, by Samuel Hueston, 1856
The cover of volume XLVIII of Knickerbocker or New York Monthly Magazine, by Samuel Hueston, 1856

Another forum for these nationalistic interdisciplinary connections between artists and writers was the Knickerbocker Group. Named for Washington Irving's Knickerbocker's History of New York (1809), the group included James Fenimore Cooper, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, Oliver Wendell Holmes, James Russell Lowell, J.K. Paulding, and William Cullen Bryant along with Irving himself. They hoped to establish a truly American culture, separate from European influence, with New York City as its center. (Knickerbocker was the name of Irving's fictional character; indeed, he has become a lasting part of the city's culture, reflected in the naming of the New York Knicks)

Many of the group's members contributed to the Knickerbocker Magazine (also called New-York Monthly Magazine), which was published from 1833 to 1865, circulating literary works along with essays and editorials on the fine arts. Often its contributions focused on America's "vanishing wilderness," an early environmental theme that emphasized the American national landscape. This interest created a natural affinity between its writers and the painters of the Hudson River School; they also shared the desire to create a uniquely American art and literature. Crossovers include Cole's first acclaimed masterwork Gelyna (View near Fort Ticonderoga) (1826), which was based on Gulian Verplanck's short story of the same title.


Largely influenced by European Romanticism, the Hudson River School intended to convey nature's sublime beauty. Cole's influential "Essay on American Scenery" emphasized the emotive possibilities for landscape painting, writing, "American Scenery is a subject that to every American ought to be of surpassing interest...it is his own land; its beauty, its magnificence, its sublimity - all are his; and how undeserving of such a birthright if he can turn towards it an unobserving eye, an unaffected heart!" To best convey the magnificence of the American landscapes, they favored views of rugged and remote wilderness or of idyllic and lyrical countryside. If man's presence was noted, it was most often favorably depicted as progress and yet dwarfed by the scale of raw nature.

The concept of the sublime is central to Romanticism, considered an ideal by its practitioners. Rejecting the more cerebral narratives of the Neo-Classical style, they calculated their compositions, palettes, and subjects to evoke strong emotions in the viewer. Although this emotional response could be geared towards fear or repulsion, landscape artists most commonly aspired to awe and wonder at the beauty of nature and humility before its power. The sublime was achieved in this direct appeal to the senses through representations of the extraordinary.

Unlike French Romanticism that was often connected to revolutionary impulses in society, Romanticism in the Hudson River School was more closely tied to contemporary German and British examples of symbolic and meaningful landscape painting. At the same time, however, the style was intrinsically nationalistic, connected to a rising sense of American identity by conveying the unique beauty of the native landscape. While painters could not rival the history of their European counterparts, their large paintings of expansive, untamed lands spoke of American potential and promise.

The Second Generation and Focus on Naturalism

Matthew Brady's <i>Asher B. Durand</i> (1855-1865) reflects the artist's qualities of dignified leadership in the Hudson River School
Matthew Brady's Asher B. Durand (1855-1865) reflects the artist's qualities of dignified leadership in the Hudson River School

When Cole died in 1848, leadership of the Hudson River School fell to Asher B. Durand. Influenced by the landscapes of the British Romantic painter, John Constable's landscapes, Durand shifted the group's style towards more naturalistic painting. As head of the National Academy of Design, he stressed careful observation and representation. He encouraged scenes of quiet communion with nature rather than dramatic allegory.

William Henry Jackson's <i>At the Mammoth Hot Springs, Gardiner River</i> (1871) shows the artist Thomas Moran contemplating the landscape that would become his artistic subject
William Henry Jackson's At the Mammoth Hot Springs, Gardiner River (1871) shows the artist Thomas Moran contemplating the landscape that would become his artistic subject

The second generation of Hudson River School painters centered around Durand, Albert Bierstadt, John Frederick Kensett, Sanford Robinson Gifford, along with Cole's only student, Frederic Edwin Church. Although they drew heavily from Cole's example, Church and Bierstadt began to explore other geographical areas, particularly in Church's landscapes of South America and Bierstadt's visits to paint the American West. Both regions were considered epic spaces of untapped potential and sublime wilderness and their work connected with American expansion and the concept of Manifest Destiny. The resulting large-scale landscapes were often composite or idealized scenes, calculated to create panoramic effects. Showmanship dominated the public display of these works, as dramatically staged, single picture exhibitions were enormously popular events. Church and Bierstadt became celebrities. Church continued to explore more exotic locations, eventually painting in the Middle East and the Arctic, as shown in his The Icebergs (1861) (which was directly influenced by the work of the Romantic German landscape painter, Caspar David Friedrich).

Other second generation artists, like John Frederick Kensett, developed new themes that would be labeled Luminism, emphasizing the effects of light in contemplative scenes of seascapes or other bodies of water. These artists created small intimate canvases that focused on familiar areas, a contrast with the dramatic sublime of their colleagues. The Luminists usually returned to the same areas again and again to study the shifts in light and atmosphere.

Concepts and Styles

Allegorical Painting

Following the early successes of his landscape paintings, Cole aimed to emulate history painters by layering his compositions with symbolic meaning. His The Course of Empire (1833-1836), five paintings depicting the rise and fall of a civilization, exemplifies this turn to allegorical or metaphorical painting. Indeed, a number of Hudson River School painters developed an allegorical theme in their works in order to convey more complex messages. Albert Bierstadt's Last of the Buffalo (1888) is both an accurate depiction of the topographical features of the Great Plains and an imagined buffalo hunt, designed as an allegory of the destruction of the natural world and a vanishing way of life.

Rocky Mountain School

In the 1860s, Bierstadt and Thomas Moran turned their attention to the American West, earning them (along with Thomas Hill and William Keith) the title of the Rocky Mountain School. They were not just interested in depicting the Western landscape, but viewed it as symbolizing the vast sense of promise of a nation that was expanding westward. Many of their paintings were composites, drawing together a selection of ideal views, in order to convey the uniqueness of the Rocky Mountains, the Yellowstone area, and the Yosemite Valley to an East coast audience. Artists often accompanied scientific expeditions, like Bierstadt's 1859 expedition to the Rocky Mountains in Wyoming or Moran's 1871 United States Geological Survey of Yellowstone. As a result, their artwork was integrally connected to a sense of national discovery. It also influenced the preservation of these areas: the enormous popularity of Moran's The Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone (1872) gave impetus to the movement to create Yellowstone National Park.


Peter Juley & Sons' <i>John F. Kensett in his studio February 29 1864</i> shows the artist pausing in the finishing touches on one of his seascapes
Peter Juley & Sons' John F. Kensett in his studio February 29 1864 shows the artist pausing in the finishing touches on one of his seascapes

Focusing on the effects of light, Luminist painters most often depicted water scenes from an aerial perspective, emphasizing a finished reflective surface without visible brushstrokes. The artists were influenced by the Transcendentalist philosophy that contemplation of nature led to spiritual truth. Like Impressionism, Luminism emphasized the effects of light but differed in its attention to precise detail, its total concealment of brushstrokes, and its quiet, contemplative view of nature; although they are contemporary, the two movements were not connected. Indeed, the artists who adopted this style did not refer to themselves as Luminists; the term originated in the 1950s.

Luminism Movement Page

Later Developments

In the 1870s, the Hudson River School fell out of fashion, as the influence of the Barbizon School and Impressionism dominated the art world. In comparison, Hudson River School realism and mimesis seemed out of date, sometimes sentimental, or of merely historical interest. Yet, while artistically unfashionable, the school had a profound cultural influence, popularizing its wilderness ideal, which encouraged preservation efforts and the development of national parks. Olana, Church's expansive estate overlooking the Hudson River, has been preserved as a national historic landmark. Home to a museum today, visitors can tour Church's home and the grounds and view installations of historical and contemporary art inspired by the Hudson River School. Thomas Cole's home in the Catskills has also been maintained as a museum.

Regionalism or American Scene Painting, drew upon the model of the Hudson River School as it developed in the American Midwest during the 1930s. Artists like Thomas Hart Benton, Grant Wood, and John Steuart Curry sought to create a modern but distinctly American art. They adopted the rural landscapes, realistic detail, and regional identity that had characterized the earlier movement.

In its depictions of wilderness and sublime views, modern photography was also influenced by the Hudson River School, particularly as seen in works like Ansel Adam's The Tetons and the Snake River (1942).

In the postwar years, Hudson River School painting was both critiqued and emulated. In the 1960s, a new generation of photographers like Ed Ruscha and Robert Adams deliberately posited their photographs of banal suburban modernity as a challenge to dramatic and heroic visions of nature. However, with the development of Land art and environmental activism in the 1970s, the style came back into vogue. Its influence continues today: the exhibition "River Crossings: Contemporary Art Comes Home" (2015) highlighted the work of contemporary artists whose work is directly or implicitly associated with The Hudson River School by installing works like Angie Keefer's Fountain (2014) in Cole's historic home. Mixing nature and industry, Fountain projects an image of Niagara Falls adjusting the water's according to computer data from the Commodities Futures Indexes. The exhibition also highlighted work by Kiki Smith, Jerry Gretzinger, Maya Lin, Lynn David, Valerie Hegarty, and Charles LeDray. Valerie Hegarty's Fallen Bierstadt (2007) reinterprets Bierstadt's landscapes and ideals of Manifest Destiny into depictions that decay like the fallen canvas.

The New Hudson River School, a group of approximately twenty-five artists, extend the core identity of the 19th-century movement by painting contemporary landscapes and subjects from the Hudson River Valley and the surrounding area. The Thomas Cole National Historic Site is an important site for these connections, particularly with its series, Open House: Contemporary Art in Conversation with Cole, that explores intersections of contemporary art with Cole's art. In 2016, Jason Middlebrook's installation, Nature Builds / We Cover (2016) installed paintings made on hardwood planks inside Cole's home.

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino

" Movement Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Rebecca Seiferle
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino
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Useful Resources on The Hudson River School





A "Grand Tour" of the Hudson River School at the New-York Historical Society ► 9:12 A "Grand Tour" of the Hudson River School at the New-York Historical Society


The Hudson River School: Artistic Pioneers ► 1:11:15 The Hudson River School: Artistic Pioneers


Artist Specific Videos:

Thomas Cole's Warning to America - The Course of Empire ► 49:10 Thomas Cole's Warning to America - The Course of Empire


Thomas Cole: The Voyage of Life (1842) ► 3:57 Thomas Cole: The Voyage of Life (1842)

By the National Gallery of Art

More Interesting Videos about The Hudson River School
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Thomas Cole Recomended resource

By William H. Wallach and Allan Truettner

Thomas Cole

By Earl A. Powell


The Hudson River School: Nature and the AmericanVision

By New York Historical Society and Linda S. Ferber

Hudson River School: Masterworks from the Wadsworth Atheneum Museum of Art

By Elizabeth Mankin Kornhauser, Amy Ellis, and Maureen Miesmer

More Interesting Books about The Hudson River School
Thomas Cole: National Historic Website Recomended resource

Virtual tour of Thomas Cole's The Course of Empire Recomended resource

New York Historical Society E-museum

Frederic Edwin Church (1826-1900)

By Kevin J. Avery
The American Wing, The Metropolitan Museum of Art
August 2009

Church, Frederic Edwin

American, 1826 - 1900
National Gallery of Art, Washington D.C.

More Interesting Websites about The Hudson River School
Formative Lessons in the Hudson River School: An Exhibition on Frederic Edwin Church and Thomas Cole, in Catskill, N.Y.

By Susan Hodara
New York Times
September 12, 2014

The Legacy of the Hudson River School

By Harold Faber
New York Times
June 10, 1988

Communing With Nature on a Grand Scale Recomended resource

By Grace Glueck
New York Times
March 30, 2007

Asher B. Durand's "Kindred Spirits"

Crystal Bridges Museum of American Art Bentonville Arkansas
August 21, 2014

More Interesting Articles about The Hudson River School
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