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Artists Théodore Rousseau
Théodore Rousseau Photo

Théodore Rousseau

French Painter

Movements and Styles: The Barbizon School, Naturalism, Romanticism

Born: April 15, 1812 - Paris, France

Died: December 22, 1867 - Barbizon, France

Théodore Rousseau Timeline


"The forest [of Fontainebleau], the most ancient in France... is the only living souvenir that remains from the heroic times of the Fatherland from Charlemagne to Napoleon. For artists who study nature, it offers what others find in the models that have been left to us by Michelangelo, Raphael, Correggio, Rembrandt and all the great masters of past ages."
Théodore Rousseau
"Who will compose the sea, if not the artist's soul?"
Théodore Rousseau
"There is composition when the objects depicted are not depicted for themselves, but for the purpose of containing, under a natural appearance, the echoes that they have placed in our soul."
Théodore Rousseau
"Let us act such that in our works the manifestation of life is our first thought; let us make a man breathe, and a tree able actually to vegetate. He who knows how to give life is god, but he who can only tastefully arrange undulating contours, colors lily white or pink merely displays a turn for the upholsterer's calling or the perfumer's; he accumulates, the pretentious one!"
Théodore Rousseau

"Silence is golden. When I am at my observation post at Belle-Croix, I dare not move, for silence enables me to penetrate to the heart of discoveries. Then the forest families begin to stir. It was silence that enabled me, standing as still as a tree-trunk, to watch the stag cleaning himself... The man who lives in silence becomes the center of the world."

Théodore Rousseau Signature


Théodore Rousseau was known for his exceptional and unconventional nature based paintings. He was highly regarded as a pioneer and a leader of the Barbizon School of landscape art. Having realized his love for nature and his desire for expressing it through landscape paintings early in life, Rousseau was one of the earliest artists to have ventured directly in the outdoors to observe and analyze natural forms. He had thus made a decision on the choice of his subject that led him to ultimately pioneer and lead the Barbizon School. Painting landscape for its own sake, Rousseau elevated its status from that of a mere background support to becoming an independent entity. Even as all of his works were products of direct empirical studies from nature, he was able to create within them an extraordinary poignancy that was unique - which was much like his signature.

Key Ideas

Rousseau created a parallel world where nature's pristine power and glory could cast away the artificiality of industrialized modern life.
At times his works were considered lacking 'finish'. This effect was however, intentional by the artist who wanted to paint by being true to his observation of nature. Impressionist artists, who would follow soon, took this technical aspect of Rousseau further to create a new aesthetic.
With a mature understanding of current debates around mimetic vs. creative abilities of artists, Rousseau blended objective naturalism and his own artistic subjectivity to bring out an awe-inspiring landscape painting so as to fulfill the true role an artist.
Many of Rousseau's paintings challenged the dominant pictorial conventions of Neoclassicism and Romanticism. One of his early experiments depicting The Descent of Cows from the High Plateaus of the Jura is a clear breakaway from the typical horizontal orientation of western landscape art.


Théodore Rousseau Photo


Born into a bourgeois Parisian family, Étienne Pierre Théodore Rousseau began exploring his love of landscape painting as early as age fourteen. His father, a tailor, originally positioned him to study business, but a journey to the Jura region of France changed his destiny. Known for its staggering limestone cliffs and lush forests, this location inspired in the young Rousseau a fervent urge to paint landscapes that would hold sway over him until the end of his life. On this transformative voyage he was fortunate enough to meet a fellow passenger who happened to be a sculptor named Lemaire. Rousseau learned from him the ways in which artists perceive nature and objects around them. Upon his return, he was encouraged by his mother's cousin, the landscape painter Alexandre Pau de Saint-Martin, to try his hand at painting. It was in Saint-Martin's studio that he first observed the art of painting in nature while he was accompanying his uncle to the Forest of Compiègne. The young Rousseau showed such immediate artistic promise that his parents soon decided to support his ambitions by sending him to the studio of Joseph Rémond in 1826.

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Théodore Rousseau Biography Continues

Important Art by Théodore Rousseau

The below artworks are the most important by Théodore Rousseau - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

The Descent of Cows from the High Plateaus of the Jura (1836)

The Descent of Cows from the High Plateaus of the Jura (1836)

Artwork description & Analysis: The Descent of Cows from the High Plateaus of the Jura was one of Rousseau's most beautiful works. Yet, with chemical degradation, compounded by the passing of time, the colors in this painting, which was predominantly green, soon darkened. A cowherd leading a group of cattle down the rocky cliffs in the foreground and a thicket of trees reaching up to as well as obscuring most of the sky in the background are the components that are evident in this work even now.

The artist here offers a completely different take on landscape painting wherein the composition is dramatically compressed and has a vertical orientation as opposed to the regular horizontal layout of the western landscape tradition. Although, art historian Albert Boime compares this work with Jacques-Louis David's painting Napoléon Bonaparte crossing the Alps at the Saint-Bernard Pass with similarly upright composition, an essential difference is that nature in Rousseau's painting is not treated as a mere background. This work is also boldly devoid of mythological or biblical narrative of Neoclassicism as well as the fantasy or imaginative mode of Romanticism and portrays nature for its own sake. No wonder then, that the painter was seen as a rebel of the genre and this work was rejected from the Salon of 1836.

His explicit observation of nature paired with a technique of loose brushwork may have led the Salon jury to judge the work as unfinished, but it was this uniqueness that made him a leader in the field of landscape painting.

Rousseau's innovative expression through this landscape painting was noticed and appreciated by a senior contemporary Romantic painter Ary Scheffer, who displayed it in his studio. Ironically then, the work that was refused by the Salon was reinstated within the lineage of 19th-century landscape. Also, the work that was criticized as lacking 'finish' became a major aesthetic precept to the next generation of artists, the Impressionists, who would revolutionize landscape painting.

Oil on canvas - Mesdag Museum, The Hague

The Avenue of Chestnuts (1837-1841)

The Avenue of Chestnuts (1837-1841)

Artwork description & Analysis: An alley of ancient trees that are symmetrically arranged draws the viewer to the illusion of great depth. Sharp contrasts created by the dark greens give way to lighter tones of gold and yellow below; lead the eye further into the dense grove of the landscape. This work instills a sense of total immersion into the scene itself as if it were a theatrical backdrop. Rounded edges of the top portion enclosing twisted branches intertwining in a canopy above heighten this stage-like effect.

Further, it is reminiscent of an architectonic composition as the thicket of foliage leaves no room for the sky above and is aptly likened by the critic Théophile Thoré to the high vaults of a Gothic cathedral. The Avenue of Chestnuts makes clear the abiding respect and affection for nature felt by Rousseau. He celebrates nature's glory by portraying the power and vigor of natural shapes and forms that renders the human form along the path barely visible, much like the viewer who is overwhelmed by the majesty of the trees.

Rousseau began painting this work in 1837 in the park of Château du Souliers in the Vendee; which was owned by his friend Charles Le Roux's family. After toiling over the painting for many years, he finally submitted it to the Salon of 1841. The jury's rejection of the painting came as a rude shock to the artist, as its sale to the State had been organized the previous year by none other than the Romantic master Eugène Delacroix and the novelist George Sand, who were influential in the political and artistic circles. Such an insult made Rousseau declare that he would no longer submit work to the Salon, a break that would carry on until after the Revolution of 1848.

Yet he remained entwined in the French art world; for example, in a review of the Salon of 1845 by Thoré, the critic provides an in-depth analysis of this work and acclaims Rousseau's devotion to nature as he writes "The opening to the sky at the end of the mysterious alley is like a radiant altar at the rear of a gloomy monument. [...] Nature is the voluptuous mother who provokes her lover's passion, and art is the fruit of this union." One aspect that remained as a continual inspiration, and even progressed further throughout his career, was Rousseau's zeal for nature. It is illustrated here in a laudatory manner with the statuesque forms of the chestnut trees.

Oil on canvas - Musée du Louvre, Paris

Edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau: Sunset (1848-49)

Edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau: Sunset (1848-49)

Artwork description & Analysis: This forest near the village of Barbizon had captivated the artist's heart long before the time of this painting. Shimmering rays of the golden sun set upon tree branches and the tufts of hair of a group of cows, drinking in peace from a still and quiet pond. It is as if Rousseau wanted to capture and amplify the glow of this scene within the natural frame of curvaceous oak tree branches. Using this compositional device that recalls a vignette, the artist provides a focal point for the viewer's gaze. Art historian Greg H. Thomas, however, describes the somewhat unsettling effects of the painting, as he writes, "the viewer's view with trees which [threatens] to obscure the fragile human axis cut through them." Although the forest was managed by the Royal Forest Administration, Rousseau's canvas does not acknowledge human intervention in protecting nature. On the contrary, he seems to argue that human existence is overpowered by forces of nature and any effort to control it is in vain. Perhaps for this reason, the figure of a shepherd at the center of the picture plane seems to disappear into the landscape entirely. By the same token then, though the setting sun is warm and inviting, an air permeating melancholy can also be felt.

After nearly a decade of rejection from the official art establishment, Rousseau was honored with a State Commission for the Musée du Luxembourg, delivered personally in 1848 by the Minister of the Interior and the Director of the Louvre. It resulted in this painting. Displayed first at the Salon of 1850-51 and then again at the Exposition Universelle of 1855, the painting finally bestowed upon Rousseau his long-awaited recognition and eventual ascent within the French art world. Though he would continue to extend the boundaries of landscape painting till the end of his life, his acceptance by Parisian art institutions ensured his visibility for and influence on the younger generation of Impressionists who would soon follow.

More Théodore Rousseau Artwork and Analysis:

An Avenue of Trees, Forest of l'Isle-Adam (1846-49) The Village of Becquigny (c. 1857-67) The Forest in Winter at Sunset (1846-67)

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Théodore Rousseau
Interactive chart with Théodore Rousseau's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart


John ConstableJohn Constable
Richard Parkes Bonnington
Meindert Hobbema

Personal Contacts

Théophile Thoré
George Sand
Jules Dupré


Dutch Golden AgeDutch Golden Age

Influences on Artist
Théodore Rousseau
Théodore Rousseau
Years Worked: 1826 - 1867
Influenced by Artist


Narcisse Diaz de la Peña
Charles Daubigny
Jean-François MilletJean-François Millet

Personal Contacts

Théophile Thoré


The Barbizon SchoolThe Barbizon School

Useful Resources on Théodore Rousseau





The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
The Barbizon School and the Origins of Impressionism

By Adams Steven

Art and Ecology in Nineteenth-Century France: The Landscapes of Théodore Rousseau

By Greg H. Thomas

Unruly Nature: The Landscapes of Théodore Rousseau Recomended resource

By Scott Allan and Edouard Kopp

Souvenirs sur Théodore Rousseau

By Alfred Sensier

Théodore Rousseau: Unruly Nature

Théodore Rousseau et la critique

Musée des peintres de Barbizon

Théodore Rousseau

National Gallery of Art

Getty exhibition makes a case for the enduring power of Theodore Rousseau

By Christopher Knight
LA Times
June 29, 2016

Into the Woods, With Sketchpad: Théodore Rousseau Retrospective at the Morgan

By Roberta Smith
New York Times
November 20, 2014

Tormented by Several Devils': Théodore Rousseau's Wild Styles

By Thomas Micchelli
October 24, 2014

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