Jamaica, New York
Riverhead, New York
Summary of Dan Flavin
Few artists can boast having explored a single medium, and an unusual one at that, as tenaciously and consistently as Dan Flavin with his signature fluorescent light tubes. Classified within the Minimalist framework, Flavin saw himself as vehemently "Maximalist." That is, in using readymade objects in the style of Dadaist Marcel Duchamp, he exploited the possibilities of the most banal and in some ways ugly material: harsh fluorescent lights - surely the stuff of futuristic anti-aestheticism. Flavin began incorporating electric lights into his works in the early 1960s with his breakthrough Icons series. Having hit upon his chosen medium, he abandoned painting altogether, focusing on light works for the remainder of his career, where he produced installations and sculptural pieces made exclusively of fluorescent light fixtures and tubes that came in a limited range of colors and sizes. Working with prefabricated rather than hand-crafted materials allowed Flavin to focus on the light itself and the way in which it transformed ("sculpted") the exhibition space. A clear progression in scale and ambition marks Flavin's site-specific light installations, sculptural and architectural environments commissioned by a wide-range of artistic and religious institutions for the rest of his career.
- Dan Flavin emphatically denied that his sculptural light installations had any kind of transcendent, symbolic, or sublime dimension, stating: "It is what it is and it ain't nothing else," and that his works are simply fluorescent light responding to a specific architectural setting. Despite Flavin's insistence on this, it is possible to view individual pieces in terms of implied narratives. Potential associations with the concept of light - from religious conversion to intellectual epiphanies - are rife in Flavin's work, whether or not such interpretations are encouraged by the artist himself.
- Flavin's light "propositions," which he did not consider sculptures, are made up of standardized, commercially available materials, much like the readymades by Marcel Duchamp that Flavin admired. Further, the materials Flavin used are perishable, their limited lifecycles anything but timeless. In this way, the artist emphasized the ephemeral nature of his works, positioning his art outside the realm of connoisseurship, where art objects are valued as much for their material qualities as for their conceptual meaning.
- The tendency to privilege pre-fabricated industrial materials and simple, geometric forms together with the emphasis placed on the physical space occupied by the artwork and the viewer's interaction with it aligns Flavin's work with that of other Minimalist artists. His emphasis on light and its effects, however, align him as strongly with Op art, whose practitioners explored variations in color and shape based on differences in light. But, in some regards, Flavin went much further than the Op art painters by taking the fundamental concepts of the style and translating them into sculpture that demonstrated in three dimensions what the paintings could only aspire to communicate. The optical effects painters achieved could only fool the eye by alluding to movement, whereas Flavin's light waves demonstrated how the two-dimensional illusionism was achieved - light was color, color was light, and the interaction of either created the illusion of dynamism as they played against, or in harmony with, one another and in their environment.
Progression of Art
Chamber Music I , no. 6 (to James Joyce)
Some of Flavin's earliest dedicated works, such as Apollinaire Wounded, cite famous literary figures. Flavin felt a strong connection with James Joyce, whose rejection of family and Catholicism must have reminded Flavin of his own ambivalent feelings for his parents and the religion they strongly encouraged him to follow. This series of drawings was inspired by Joyce's Chamber Music, which the writer irreverently describes as being inspired by the sound of urination into a chamber pot. While still using the gestural strokes of Abstract Expressionism, Flavin calls attention to the "suggestive color and atmospheric references" of Joyce's poetry and its "pale and dark dualities," revealing an early interest in light effects.
Watercolor, ink and charcoal on paper - Collection Stephen Flavin
The Diagonal of May 25, 1963 (to Constantin Brancusi)
Flavin's iconic diagonal grew out of a sketch of the "diagonal of personal ecstasy," apparently made earlier on the same day. Having studied and admired readymades by Marcel Duchamp, Flavin was searching for a simple object to claim for his art. With the "ecstatic" revelation of the diagonal, Flavin realized the potential of the fluorescent bulb as a basic form that could be built upon and infinitely repeated, not unlike the grooved design of Brancusi's Endless Column. Flavin's choice of the diagonal refers to the artistic philosophy of early abstractionists like Wassily Kandinsky and Theo van Doesburg, who emphasized the diagonal for its dynamic presence. Thus, rather than creating works that focused on stasis in contrast to the impermanence of his medium of light, Flavin celebrated movement by exploiting the liveliness and speed implied by the diagonal.
Yellow fluorescent light - Dia Art Foundation, New York
Icon V (Coran's Broadway Flesh)
Most of Flavin's dedicated works served as memorials, often to talented individuals who died in an untimely or unfortunate manner. His piece icon V (Coran's Broadway Flesh) was intended as a tribute to "a young English homosexual who loved New York City." The 28 incandescent bulbs surrounding the painted-wood ground were specifically designated by the artist as "candle" lights. They give the surface of the work a rosy, flesh-like impression, generating a nearly spiritual glow that stands in marked contrast to the bold coloring of Flavin's other Icons. Also unlike his other works, this piece makes use of overt symbolism, which can be seen in its warm coloring and in the bulbs wryly representing the bright lights of Broadway. Flavin himself remarked on this work, "...beyond structure and phenomena, I have tried to infect my icon with a blank magic, which is my art. I know this is hard to cope with, but I have succeeded. Coran's Broadway Flesh will hold you simply, succinctly."
Oil on gesso on masonite, porcelain, chains, incandescent bulbs - Private Collection, New York
"Monument" I for V. Tatlin
This "monument" dedicated to Tatlin is a distant rendition of Tatlin's Monument to the Third International. It is one of 39 so-called monuments to the Russian Constructivist artist, Vladimir Tatlin, who Flavin held in extremely high regard. Meant to be an office building built according to the ideals of Constructivism, Tatlin's Third International was never constructed, although the plans for the monument remain a symbol of the movement. Flavin's Monuments, made up of light bulbs that either burn out or are turned off, have an element of impermanence that memorializes the ghost of Tatlin's unrealized project. As Flavin stated, "The pseudo-monuments, structural designs for clear but temporary cool white fluorescent lights, were to honor the artist ironically."
Cool white fluorescent light - Dia Art Foundation, New York
Greens crossing greens (to Piet Mondrian who lacked green)
One of Flavin's so-called "barriers," Greens crossing greens blocks off the gallery space with two intersecting, fence-like constructions. Dictated by the dimensions of the gallery space in which it is installed, this piece displays traits associated with Conceptual art and can also be considered one of the first pieces of installation art. The criss-crossing framework of Greens crossing greens approximates Mondrian's paintings, which in turn evoke stained glass windows, one of the oldest forms of lighting design. The intense light and imposing physical presence of the installation almost aggressively push against the viewer. Flavin created a kind of vocabulary of space, giving the types of works he produced names like "corners," "corridors," and "barriers." It was his intent to re-conceptualize the way a work of sculpture relates not only to the space it inhabits but how it can transform the traditional viewing experience: the works quite literally invade the space that the viewer typically inhabits, asserting its significance. Or, possibly, the opposite scenario takes place and the viewer must question his or her own relevance to the process of validating the sculpture as a work of art.
Green fluorescent light - The Guggenheim Museum, New York
Partial view of Untitled (Marfa project)
Begun in 1980, the design for Untitled took nearly 16 years for Flavin to complete. This "situation" spans six U-shaped buildings, each one containing two parallel, slanting corridors constructed in the bottom part of the "U." A barrier work is situated in each corridor like the bars of a prison cell, enabling the viewer to see through to the other side while at the same time preventing access. Each barrier is comprised of bulbs of two different colors, but the colors shine in opposite directions. The two arms of the "U" in each building end in a window that opens to an outdoor vista.The juxtapositions of inside/outside, dark/light, natural/artificial and blue/yellow (as seen above) are some of the various concerns Flavin grapples with in this artwork as it transcends labels of "environmental" or "installation" art to become something larger: a zone for the viewer to inhabit, supplanting gallery or museum or other formal, traditional physical spaces where art is displayed and, in the process, rarified.
Pink, green, yellow and blue fluorescent light - Chinati Foundation, Marfa, TX
Biography of Dan Flavin
Daniel Flavin grew up in a modest Queens neighborhood, raised by Catholic parents. Both he and his twin brother, David, went to parochial school and attended church services regularly. Serving as an acolyte, Daniel was impressed by the ceremony, the dramatic costumes of the celebrants, the music, and the lighting of high funeral mass. The brothers entered the high school of the Immaculate Conception Preparatory Seminary together in 1947, although Daniel's feelings about religion remained ambivalent.
Flavin began drawing at a young age; his mother recalled his precocious depiction of the damage from a 1938 hurricane. A colleague of his father, Artie Schnabel, was the first to encourage his artistic leanings, showing him how to represent movement in water with little "half moons." Flavin preferred to make drawings of real or imagined wartime scenarios, some of them inspired by the "Horrors of War" picture cards that came with packages of bubble gum at the time.
Dan Flavin and his brother joined the U.S. Air Force in 1953. Flavin was posted in Korea, where he served as an air weather meteorological technician. During this time, he was able to take art classes offered by the University of Maryland adult extension program. While visiting Japan, he purchased a Rodin drawing, the first acquisition of an eclectic art collection to which he added throughout his lifetime.
Flavin returned to New York in 1956, when he was reassigned to Roslyn Air Force Base. Exploring his interest in art, he frequented the New York galleries and took art classes at the Hans Hofmann School of Fine Arts, as well as the New School for Social Research. The following year, he matriculated at Columbia University with the intention of becoming an art historian to support his work as an artist. Abandoning this route after three semesters, he took various odd jobs, including working in the mailroom of the Guggenheim and as a guard at The Museum of Modern Art.
Many of his early drawings and paintings explored tonal qualities and reflected an interest in Abstract Expressionism. Experimentation with found objects led to a series of mixed media assemblages, some using empty aluminum cans, such as Apollinaire Wounded (1959-60). The beginnings of Flavin's light works can be seen in its reflective metal surfaces, possibly inspired by the coffee cans, light bulbs and flashlights that Jasper Johns incorporated into his own pieces. Apollinaire Wounded is also one of the first pieces dedicated to an admired artist or friend, typically one who died in unfortunate circumstances.
While working at MoMA, Flavin met Sonja Severdija. They married in 1961, and worked together on the construction of the Icon pieces. Consisting of blank canvases highlighted by electric or fluorescent bulbs, Flavin's works are reminiscent of the religious icons found in Catholic churches, often surrounded by electric vigil lights. The paintings show no trace of the artist's touch, focusing on the objecthood of each piece. Icon IV (The Pure Land) (to David John Flavin) (1962-69) conjures the spirituality and infinite space of a Malevich, but its nondescript construction could also be taken for a light fixture. The Icons were first exhibited in Flavin's 1964 solo exhibition at Kaymar Gallery. The show was generally well-received, particularly by Donald Judd, whose own Minimalist works also rejected painterly qualities in favor of objecthood.
By 1963, Flavin had eliminated the canvas, using only fluorescent bulbs. The switch from incandescent to fluorescent lights signified his alignment with contemporary art movements, which often featured new industrial technologies. The use of fluorescents also highlighted a mass-produced, commonplace material, recalling the ideals of Russian Constructivism. In fact, Flavin dedicated a total of 39 "monuments" to Vladimir Tatlin between 1964 and 1990. Simply made from the light bulb, an everyday item with a short "lifespan," these pieces were the antithesis of their given title.
In 1969, Flavin's first retrospective opened at the National Gallery of Canada in Ottawa. The comprehensive exhibition showcased eight installations, each filling an entire gallery space. Flavin referred to these pieces as "situations," signifying his intention to create an all-encompassing experience. One of the more complex pieces created for the retrospective, Untitled (to S. M. with all the admiration and love which I can sense and summon) (1969), lined a 64-foot-long hallway with long bulbs of pink, blue, red and yellow. The use of different colors demonstrated Flavin's interest in optical effects and creating mood with lighting design.
In the 1970s and 1980s, Flavin continued to develop more complex iterations of the "barriers" and "corridors." He concentrated on large-scale installations, growing more concerned with site-specificity as he was offered access to larger exhibition spaces. Many of these ambitious projects were ultimately abandoned, including a lighting plan for the Munich Olympics, a permanent installation space at Dick's Castle in Garrison, New York, a design for pedestrian tunnels in Amsterdam, and a lobby installation at the World Trade Center.
Flavin began to suffer from complications due to diabetes during the 1980s. Despite his health problems, Flavin designed an extensive light installation for the opening of the new Guggenheim building in 1992, which was carefully planned to complement the architecture (this was also the site of his marriage to his second wife, Tracy Harris, which took place in the same year). Other major projects include the installations at the Chiesa di Santa Maria Annunziata in Milan, and the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas, both ultimately completed by his studio after Flavin's death in 1996.
The Legacy of Dan Flavin
Dan Flavin's light art, work that falls well within the Minimalist idiom, makes an important departure in Minimalist ethos due to its essential impermanence. Not only is the material subject to expiration - fluorescent tubes eventually burn out - but the ephemeral quality of the light itself is arguably completely contradictory to the otherwise industrial character of standard Minimalist materials like steel, aluminum, concrete, plastic, glass, and stone. Thus, Flavin's legacy is less about his work as a significant Minimalist artist than it is in his ability to look beyond the movement, even standing almost outside of the realm of artistic movements. More directly, Flavin's experiments paved the way for other light artists, including Robert Irwin, Olafur Eliasson, James Turrell, Spencer Finch, and Jennifer Steinkamp.