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Artists Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch

Norwegian Painter and Printmaker

Movements: Expressionism, Symbolism

Born: December 12, 1863 - Loten, Norway

Died: January 23, 1944 - Oslo, Norway

Quotes

"In my art I have tried to explain to myself life and its meaning. I have also tried to help others to clarify their lives."
Edvard Munch
"For as long as I can remember I have suffered from a deep feeling of anxiety, which I have tried to express in my art. Without anxiety and illness, I should have been like a ship without a rudder."
Edvard Munch
"No longer shall I paint interiors with men reading and women knitting. I will paint living people who breathe and feel and suffer and love."
Edvard Munch
"From the moment of my birth, the angels of anxiety, worry, and death stood at my side, followed me out when I played, followed me in the sun of springtime and in the glories of summer."
Edvard Munch
"The camera cannot compete with the brush and the palette so long as it cannot be used in heaven or hell."
Edvard Munch

"I do not believe in the art which is not the compulsive result of man's urge to open his heart."

Synopsis

Edvard Munch was a prolific yet perpetually troubled artist preoccupied with matters of human mortality such as chronic illness, sexual liberation, and religious aspiration. He expressed these obsessions through works of intense color, semi-abstraction, and mysterious subject matter. Following the great triumph of French Impressionism, Munch took up the more graphic, symbolist sensibility of the influential Paul Gauguin, and in turn became one of the most controversial and eventually renowned artists among a new generation of continental Expressionist and Symbolist painters. Munch came of age in the first decade of the 20th century, during the peak of the Art Nouveau movement and its characteristic focus on all things organic, evolutionary and mysteriously instinctual. In keeping with these motifs, but moving decidedly away from their decorative applications, Munch came to treat the visible as though it were a window into a not fully formed, if not fundamentally disturbing, human psychology.

Key Ideas

Edvard Munch grew up in a household periodically beset by life-threatening illnesses and the premature deaths of his mother and sister, all of which was explained by Munch's father, a Christian fundamentalist, as acts of divine punishment. This powerful matrix of chance tragic events and their fatalistic interpretation left a lifelong impression on the young artist, and contributed decisively to his eventual preoccupation with themes of anxiety, emotional suffering, and human vulnerability.
Munch intended for his intense colors, semi-abstraction and mysterious, often open-ended themes to function as symbols of universal significance. Thus his drawings, paintings, and prints take on the quality of psychological talismans: having originated in Munch's personal experiences, they nonetheless bear the power to express, and perhaps alleviate, any viewer's own emotional or psychological condition.
The frequent preoccupation in Munch's work with sexual subject matter issues from both the artist's bohemian valuation of sex as a tool for emotional and physical liberation from social conformity as well as his contemporaries' fascination with sexual experience as a window onto the subliminal, sometimes darker facets of human psychology.
In a sense similar to his near-contemporary, Vincent van Gogh, Munch strove to record a kind of marriage between the subject as observed in the world around him and his own psychological, emotional and/or spiritual perception.

Most Important Art

The Scream (1893)
The significance of Munch's The Scream within the annals of modern art cannot be overstated. It stands among an exclusive group, including Van Gogh's Starry Night, Picasso's Les Demoiselles d'Avignon, and Matisse's Red Studio, comprising the quintessential works of modernist experiment and lasting innovation. The fluidity of Munch's lateral and vertical brushwork echoes the sky and clouds in Starry Night, yet one may also find the aesthetic elements of Fauvism, Expressionism, and perhaps even Surrealism arising from this same surface.

The setting of The Scream was suggested to the artist by a walk along a road overlooking the city of Oslo, apparently upon Munch's arrival at, or departure from, a mental hospital where his sister, Laura Catherine, had been interned. It is unknown whether the artist observed an actual person in anguish, but this seems unlikely; as Munch later recalled, "I was walking down the road with two friends when the sun set; suddenly, the sky turned as red as blood. I stopped and leaned against the fence ... shivering with fear. Then I heard the enormous, infinite scream of nature."

This is one of two painted versions of The Scream that Munch rendered around the turn of the 20th century; the other (ca. 1910) is currently in the collections of the Munch Museum, Oslo. In addition to these painted versions, there is a version in pastel and a lithograph.
Oil, tempera, and pastel on cardboard - The National Gallery, Oslo
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Biography

Childhood

Edvard Munch was born in 1863 in a rustic farmhouse in the village of Adalsbruk, located in Loten, Norway. His father, Christian Munch, was a practicing physician, married to Laura Catherine Bjolstad. The family, including sisters Johanne Sophie, Laura Catherine Inger Marie, and brother Peter, relocated to Oslo in 1864, following Christian's appointment as medical officer at Akershus Fortress, a military area which at the time was in use as a prison. Munch's mother died of tuberculosis in 1868, the same year Inger Marie was born. Within a decade, Munch's favorite sister, Sophie, just one year his senior and a gifted young artist, also died of tuberculosis. Munch's father, a fundamentalist Christian, thereafter experienced fits of depression and anger as well as quasi-spiritual visions in which he interpreted the family's illnesses as punishment of divine origin.

Due largely to Christian's medical career with the military, the family moved frequently and lived in relative poverty. Christian would often read to his children the ghost stories of Edgar Allen Poe, as well as lessons in history and religion, instilling in young Munch a general sense of anxiety about (and morbid fascination with) death. Adding to this, Munch's frail immune system was little match for the harsh Scandinavian winters and frequent illness kept him out of school for months on end. To pass the time, Munch took up drawing and watercolor painting.

Art became a steady preoccupation for Munch during his teen years. At thirteen, he was exposed to the works of the fledgling Norwegian Art Association and was particularly inspired by the group's landscape paintings. In the course of copying these works he taught himself the techniques of oil painting.

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Early Training

Edvard Munch Biography

In the 1880s, seeking a bohemian lifestyle, Munch discovered the writings of the anarchist philosopher, Hans Jæger, head of a group called the "Kristiania-Boheme" (as a central principle of a larger anti-bourgeois agenda, the group advocated liberal sexual behavior, or "free love," and the abolition of marriage). Munch and Jæger formed a close friendship, and Jæger encouraged the artist to draw more from personal experience in his work. The Sick Child (1885-1886), a somber composition that served as a memorial to Munch's deceased sister, Sophie, speaks to Jæger's profound influence on Munch at this juncture. When the painting was exhibited as A Study in Kristiania in 1886, it was attacked by critics as well as Munch's own colleagues for its overtly unconventional qualities, such as its scratched paint surface and the work's generally unfinished appearance.

In 1889, Munch traveled to Paris on a state fellowship to study in the studio of Leon Bonnat. His painting Morning (1884) was included in the Norwegian pavilion of the Exposition Universelle of that same year. Munch began to draw in Paris after Impressionists, such as Manet, and the Post-Impressionists Gauguin, van Gogh, and Toulouse-Lautrec, whose sometimes airy compositions differed dramatically from Munch's frequent themes of death and personal loss. That same year Munch's father passed away a traumatic event that instilled in the artist a new-found interest in spirituality and symbolism. This is evidenced in the brooding painting of an empty room, Night in St. Cloud (1890), which served as a memorial to Christian Munch.

Mature Period

In 1892, the Union of Berlin Artists invited Munch to be the subject of the union's first solo exhibition. The works on view created much controversy due to their radical color and brooding subject matter and the exhibition was prematurely closed. Munch capitalized on the residual publicity and his career flourished as a result. A year later he exhibited a group of six love-themed paintings in Berlin that would eventually evolve into the larger, renowned series Frieze of Life - A Poem about Life, Love, and Death (1893).

The Frieze series and related works produced by Munch in the 1890s are among the most artistically significant and popularly renowned of his entire career. Munch now created in quick succession his signature paintings The Scream (1893), Love and Pain (1893-94), Ashes (1894), Madonna (1894-95), and Puberty (1895). While these works comprise just a portion of Munch's finest outpouring, they all evoke his characteristically profound, poetic melancholy grounded in themes of isolation, death and the loss of innocence. In the late 1890s Much also took up an interest in photography, although he never considered the medium the artistic equal of painting or printmaking.

Late Period

Edvard Munch Portrait

In 1908, following his stay in Berlin and subsequent return to Paris, Munch suffered a nervous breakdown. A bohemian life of excessive drinking and brawling and the pain and anxiety caused pain by the loss of his sister and father had taken their toll. Munch was admitted to a hospital in Copenhagen, where for eight months he was subject to a strict dietary and "electrification" regimen. While hospitalized, Munch created the lithographic series, Alpha and Omega (1908), depicting the artist's relationships with various friends and enemies.

Munch was released from the hospital the following year and, as advised by his doctor, he immediately returned to Norway to lead a life of quiet isolation. Subsequently, Munch derived inspiration from the Norwegian landscape and the daily activities of farmers and laborers. Reflecting a newly optimistic perspective, Munch's work from this period employed a lighter palette (including white or negative space, a quality virtually absent from former works), loose brushstrokes, and themes revolving around life, work and recreation on the farm. Among representative works of this period are The Sun (1912), Spring Ploughing (1916), and Bathing Man (1918).

Munch continued drawing from his daily life and personal experience, now shunning overt themes of loss and death. An exception was Munch's focus on his own mortality, as is reflected in several somber self-portraits of the 1930s and 40s. He additionally produced much drawing and painting of landscape.

In 1940, Norway was invaded by the Nazis; subsequently, many of Munch's paintings were deemed "degenerate" by Hitler and removed from German museums. Of eighty-two works confiscated during the war, seventy-one (including The Scream) were eventually rescued by Norwegian collectors and benefactors and returned to Munch's native Norway.

At the age of 80, his vision having failed him intermittently since his early 70s, and suffering an extended illness brought on by an explosion of a neighborhood munitions factory, Munch died in the town of Ekely, just outside of Oslo.

Legacy

Munch had a profound effect on subsequent painters in Europe and the United States, even as his particular style dated quickly after the First World War. Pioneering German Expressionist painters such as Kirchner, Kandinsky, Beckmann, and others concerned with expressing individual psychology through intense color and semi-abstraction found considerable inspiration in Munch's melancholy yet strident canvases. Munch's somber, resonant color, as well as his rendering of the human figure in semi-abstract tonalities, would prove enduring expressive and stylistic hallmarks of Symbolism, Expressionism, Fauvism, and even Surrealism. One sees Munch's extended influence even in the work of a later painter such as Francis Bacon, whose portraits reflect the sitter's psychological turmoil as is manifested in skewed facial and bodily features.

On his death in 1944, it was learned that Munch had bequeathed his remaining work to the city of Oslo. Numbering about 1,100 paintings, 4,500 drawings, and 18,000 prints, the collection was provided its own museum in 1963, where it serves as a testament to Munch's lasting legacy.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Edvard Munch
Interactive chart with Edvard Munch's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Edouard Manet
Paul Gauguin
Vincent van Gogh
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Georges Seurat

Friends

jaeger_hans
krohg_christian
Franz Marc

Movements

Naturalism
Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Pointillism
Symbolism
Edvard Munch
Edvard Munch
Years Worked: 1880 - 1944

Artists

Wassily Kandinsky
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Max Beckmann
Paul Klee
Henri Matisse

Friends

Franz Marc
strindberg_august
linde_max
Robert Rosenblum

Movements

Symbolism
Expressionism
Fauvism
Surrealism

Original content written by Justin Wolf

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Edvard Munch

Special Features
Books
Articles
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artist features
Edvard Munch Achievement Overview

Themes explained via The Art Story Image Comparison Tool

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Edvard Munch: Signs of Modern Art

By Ulf Kuster, Philippe Buttner, Edvard Munch

Edvard Munch: Behind the Scream

By Sue Prideaux

Becoming Edvard Munch: Influence, Anxiety, and Myth (Art Institute of Chicago)

By Jay A. Clarke

The Story Of Edvard Munch

By Ketil Bjornstad, Torbjorn Stoverud

Bonhams Moves a $1.91 Million Munch Madonna

Artinfo.com
July 14, 2010

So Typecast You Could Scream

By Roberta Smith
The New York Times
February 12, 2009

The Bigger Picture

By Jonathan Jones
The Guardian (UK)
February 17, 2007

Munch Was More Than a Scream

By Grace Glueck
The New York Times
February 17, 2006

The Old Edvard Munch Bait and Switch

National Public Radio
August 4, 2005

Munch's Masterpieces Said to Be Recovered

By Lynn Neary
National Public Radio
August 31, 2006

Impressionism
Impressionism
Impressionism
A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
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Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
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Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism is a broad term for a host of movements in early twentieth-century Germany and beyond, from Die Brücke (1905) and Der Blaue Reiter (1911) to the early Neue Sachlichkeit painters in the 1920s and '30s. Many Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city.
ArtStory: Expressionism
Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism is an artistic and literary movement that first emerged in France in the 1880s. In the visual arts it is often considered part of Post-Impressionism. It is characterized by an emphasis on the mystical, romantic and expressive, and often by the use of symbolic figures.
ArtStory: Symbolism
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau
Art Nouveau was a movement that swept through the decorative arts and architecture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. Generating enthusiasts throughout Europe, it was aimed at modernizing design and escaping the eclectic historical styles that had previously been popular. It drew inspiration from both organic and geometric forms, evolving elegant designs that united flowing, natural forms with more angular contours.
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Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter, commonly associated with the Post-Impressionist period. As one of the most prolific and experimental artists of his time, van Gogh was a spontaneous painter and a master of color and perspective. Troubled by personal demons all his life, many historians speculate that van Gogh suffered from a Bipolar disorder.
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Edouard Manet
Edouard Manet
Edouard Manet
Edouard Manet was a French painter and a prominent figure in the mid-nineteenth-century Realist movement of French art. Manet's paintings are considered among the first works of art in the modern era, due to his rough painting style and absence of idealism in his figures. Manet was a close friend of and major influence on younger artists who founded Impressionism such as Claude Monet, Edgar Degas and Pierre-Auguste Renoir.
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Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
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Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a Post-Impressionist artist who depicted the dancers, prostitutes, drinkers, and other characters of fin-de-siecle Paris. He is known for his paintings, his caricatures of friends, and his well-designed posters for Parisian dance halls.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
Ernst Ludwig Kirchner was one of the driving forces in the Die Brücke group that flourished in Dresden and Berlin before WWI, and one of the most talented and influential of the Expressionists.
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Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
A member of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter, and later a teacher at the Bauhaus, Kandinsky is best known for his pioneering breakthrough into expressive abstraction in 1913. His work prefigures that of the American Abstract Expressionists.
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Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann
Max Beckmann was a German artist, writer, and philosopher commonly associated with the Expressionist movement of the early twentieth century. He abhorred the label 'Expressionism', but juxtaposed scenes from reality by layering figures, colors, and shadows.
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Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism was an early twentieth-century art movement founded by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Labeled as "wild beasts", Fauve artists favored vibrant colors and winding gestural strokes across the canvas.
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Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
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Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon
Francis Bacon was an Irish-born, English painter and one of the twentieth century's most celebrated and controversial existentialist artists. Bacon favored dark subject matter, often painting slightly abstracted, biomorphic figures, with bodies contorted or in the throes of madness. Painterly themes of Bacon's include the crucifixion, isolation and the mind's fragility. Bacon was also one of the few English artists of any prominence in modern and contemporary circles during the better part of the twentieth century.
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Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
Georges-Pierre Seurat was a French painter who gave rise to the Post- and Neo-Impressionist artistic styles of the late nineteenth century. Seurat's greatest contribution to modern art was his development of Pointillism, a style of painting in which small dots of paint were applied to create a cohesive image. Combining the science of optics with painterly emotion, Pointillism evoked a visual harmony never before seen in modern art.
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jaeger_hans
jaeger_hans
jaeger_hans
ArtStory: jaeger_hans
krohg_christian
krohg_christian
krohg_christian
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Franz Marc
Franz Marc
Franz Marc
Franz Marc was a German painter and printmaker, and one of the pioneers of German Expressionism. Along with August Macke and Kandinksy, Marc founded The Blue Rider artist group. A student of Futurism and Cubism, Marc was a master of color and depth, and a major influence on mid-twentieth-century abstractionists.
Franz Marc
Naturalism
Naturalism
Naturalism
As a distinct artistic medium, Naturalism began as far back as the Florentine School, with artists such as Botticelli and Michelangelo, and still survives to the present day. The term is meant to be self-explanatory, referring to the artist's depiction of realistic objects and settings, and their naturalistic movement. A common theme in naturalist paintings is nature's predominance over humankind.
Naturalism
Pointillism
Pointillism
Pointillism
Pointillism is a mode of art-making, first developed in 1880s France, in which all of the paint is applied to the surface as tiny points or daubs of color. Based on the laws of color theory, pointillism relies on the viewer's eye to mix the disparate dots into the lines, shapes, shadings, and color ranges of the full scene.
Pointillism
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
The Swiss-born painter Paul Klee worked in a variety of styles, including Expressionism, geometric abstraction, and collage. His most famous works have a mystical quality and make use of linear and pictorial symbols.
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Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
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strindberg_august
strindberg_august
strindberg_august
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linde_max
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum was an American art critic, curator and historian. His greatest contribution to the modern canon was his redefinition of Modern art history, offering that the era began not with Impressionism but with Neo-Classicists of the late eighteenth century.
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