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Artists Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin Photo

Agnes Martin

American Painter

Movements and Styles: Color Field Painting, Minimalism

Born: March 22, 1912 - Macklin, Saskatchewan, Canada

Died: December 16, 2004 - Taos, New Mexico

Agnes Martin Timeline


"I hope I have made it clear that the work is about perfection as we are aware of it in our minds but that the paintings are very far from being perfect - completely removed in fact - even as we ourselves are."
Agnes Martin
"The value of art is in the observer. When you find out what you like, you're really finding out about yourself. Beethoven's music is joyous. If you like his music, you know that you like to be joyful. People who look at my painting say that it makes them happy, like the feeling when you wake up in the morning. And happiness is the goal, isn't it?"
Agnes Martin
"Nature is like parting a curtain, you go into it. I want to draw a certain response like this ... that quality of response from people when they leave themselves behind, often experienced in nature, an experience of simple joy ... My paintings are about merging, about formlessness ... A world without objects, without interruption."
Agnes Martin
"Artwork is a representation of our devotion to life."
Agnes Martin
"Art is the concrete representation of our most subtle feelings."
Agnes Martin
"The main thing in making art often is letting go of your expectation and your idea.
Agnes Martin
"My paintings are not about what is seen. They are about what is known forever in the mind."
Agnes Martin
"The Minimalists are idealist. They want to minimize themselves in favor of the ideal... But I just can't. You see, my paintings are not cool."
Agnes Martin
"When I first made a grid, I happened to be thinking of the innocence of trees, and then a grid came into my mind and I thought it represented innocence, and I still do, and so I painted it and then I was satisfied. I thought, 'This is my vision."
Agnes Martin
"My paintings have neither object nor space nor line nor anything - no forms. They are light, lightness, about merging, about formlessness, breaking down form. You wouldn't think of form by the ocean. You can go in if you don't encounter anything. A world without objects, without interruption, making a work without interruption or obstacle. It is to accept the necessity of the simple direct going into a field of vision as you would cross an empty beach to look at the ocean."
Agnes Martin

"When I think of art I think of beauty. Beauty is the mystery of life. It is not in the eye it is in the mind. In our minds there is awareness of perfection."

Agnes Martin Signature


Agnes Martin's sparse, luminous canvases are not easily categorized as they are at the crossroads of several disparate twentieth-century styles. An intensely private person, Martin was diagnosed with schizophrenia in her 40s; she led an austere and solitary existence in a remote area of New Mexico for most of her working life. Like many artists in the 1950s and 1960s, she was influenced by Zen Buddhism and Taoism that contributed to her interest in nature. Despite the abstraction of her paintings, it was the innocence and simplicity of everyday life - especially the natural world - that she attempted to capture in her work.

Key Ideas

Martin used the grid as an organizational element in canvases that were awash with color, thus seamlessly blending what on the surface are two very different art styles: Minimalism and Color Field.
Martin's works are non-representational, yet the titles of her paintings and her own words about her art and life indicate that she was strongly influenced by nature - a focus that brought together different areas of her life. Her adherence to Buddhism encouraged her to rely on her everyday surroundings for subject matter; and her schizophrenia meant that she did not relate well or easily to humans, so that nature represented a calm, ordered refuge.
Martin's use of the grid along with her focus on non-representation released the artist from the burden of traditional subject matter while allowing her to explore infinite variations of subtle color. The resulting freedom of her artwork was at odds with the monastic restraint of her daily life.

Most Important Art

Agnes Martin Famous Art

Untitled (1949)

Martin destroyed much of her work made before the late 1950s when she shifted to a grid format, so works from this period of her oeuvre are scarce. Her early style has been compared to that of Arshile Gorky and, like his works, Untitled displays Martin's debt to Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism. This canvas, with large swaths of earthy clay, black, and sunset orange, incorporates the biomorphic elements and expressive lines of those movements, while also absorbing the landscapes of the Southwest, where Martin would periodically return. The triangles echo the mountains and hills of Taos, and the colors recall the rusty, arid backdrop that she encountered daily. Although the local flora and fauna appealed to Martin greatly, she was also involved with the artists that flourished in Taos and engaged actively with the community during her time there in the 1940s and 1950s.
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Agnes Martin Artworks in Focus:



Agnes Bernice Martin was born on an isolated farm to Scottish Presbyterian settlers. Her father, a wheat farmer, passed away when Martin was two and her mother sold real estate to support the family. Martin had a difficult relationship with her emotionally distant mother, but was close to her maternal grandfather, who introduced her and her two siblings to spiritual texts such as The Pilgrim's Progress (1678) by the English preacher John Bunyan. Her family relocated several times, finally settling in Vancouver, where Martin swam competitively and tried out for the Olympic team. She immigrated to Washington in 1931when she was 19, gaining U.S. citizenship in 1950. She pursued studies at the Western Washington State College in Bellingham from 1935 to 1938. She moved around quite a bit on the west coast, teaching at public schools in Washington and Delaware before enrolling in the art education program at Columbia University's Teachers College in New York City, graduating with a BS in 1942. She then pursued graduate studies at the University of New Mexico in Albuquerque, where she also taught, before returning to Columbia to earn her MA in 1952. While at Columbia, she began attending lectures by the Zen Buddhist academic D.T. Suzuki. Martin's aversion to chaos led her to follow the tenets of Zen Buddhism and Taoism throughout her life.

Early Period

Agnes Martin in Taos, New Mexico, (1953) Photo by M. Tolbert

In the 1940s and 1950s, Martin divided her time between New York City and the southwest, where she spent a considerable amount of time painting. Having grown up in the Pacific Northwest, the dusty, dry landscape of the American Southwest would continually hold Martin's interest. In 1947, she participated in a study program through the Harwood Museum in Taos, New Mexico, an important hub for postwar landscape painters such as Marsden Hartley and Ernest Blumenschein. In 1957, the influential gallerist Betty Parsons, after seeing Martin's work in New Mexico, convinced Martin to relocate and show at Parson's space in New York. Parsons had helped launch the careers of several American Abstract Expressionists such as Jackson Pollock, and Mark Rothko, as well as Martin's friend and confidant Ad Reinhardt.

During the early 1950s, Martin lived in the Coenties Slip enclave of lower Manhattan near Wall Street, where her neighbors included Ellsworth Kelly, Jack Youngerman, Robert Rauschenberg, and Jasper Johns. These artists would often explore downtown neighborhoods, visit each other's studios, and take ferry rides together. She also befriended Barnett "Barney" Newman, who installed her shows. Martin was diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia during this period and was subject to auditory hallucinations and catatonic trances throughout her life. She was hospitalized several times beginning in the 1960s, once in Bellevue, where she received shock therapy before her friends could get her out. In this pre-Stonewall era, Martin was also a deeply closeted lesbian, but when asked about feminism at one point, she claimed that she was not a woman.

Mature Period

Agnes Martin Bio

After Martin exhibited with Parsons, she became associated with Abstract Expressionism and Color Field. She continued to experiment in her practice, arriving at the grid format for which she is famous in 1961. Her work was included at the Solomon R. Guggenheim's landmark "Systemic Paintings" exhibition in 1966, and was also shown at Virginia Dwan's gallery in 1967 at the groundbreaking exhibition "10" that included the work of Carl Andre, Jo Baer, Dan Flavin, Donald Judd, and Sol LeWitt. The exhibition is recognized as having established an unofficial canon of Minimalist artists. After the death of Reinhardt and the planned demolition of the building in which her studio on Coenties Slip was located, Martin stopped painting in 1967 - giving away all of her paint supplies and canvases - to travel through the West and her native Canada in a pickup truck and camper. She eventually settled and built her own adobe home in a remote area of New Mexico with few modern amenities and focused on writing poetry. In 1973, she produced a portfolio of serigraphs based on her own drawings, On a Clear Day. That same year, a large retrospective displaying her works from 1957 through 1967 opened at the Institute of Contemporary Art in Philadelphia. She began painting again in 1974 after a seven-year hiatus. In 1976, she directed the movie Gabriel, her first and only attempt at filmmaking.

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Agnes Martin Biography Continues

Late Period and Death

Martin lived a spartan life in the remote town of Cuba, New Mexico for several years with no television or radio and limited human contact, then moved to Galisteo in 1977. One person who visited her regularly was Arne Glimcher, the founder of Pace Gallery whom she met in 1963 and who became her lifelong friend. In 1992, she settled in a retirement community in Taos at the foot of Taos Mountain, becoming more social and less austere as she aged. In addition to painting everyday from 8:30 to 11:30 in her studio, she collected a number of cars that she kept in pristine condition. In 1995, Martin downscaled her canvases to sixty-inches-square from the six-foot-square stretchers she had used since the 1960s. Prior to her death in 2004, Martin, who had never hired assistants, realized that she would need help physically handling her usual five-foot-square stretchers or be forced to scale down her canvases. Instead of compromising her studio practice, Martin made the resolute decision to quit painting. When she passed away later that same year she had not read a newspaper in five decades. She requested an unmarked grave so that there would be no pilgrimages to her gravesite


Agnes Martin near Santa Fe

Although Martin abandoned the artistic hub of New York in favor of a solitary existence on the other side of the continent, she continued to refine her practice while traveling, writing, and experimenting with filmmaking. Perhaps ironically, her seclusion skyrocketed her fame; many devotees ventured to New Mexico in search of Martin, who reluctantly received her callers. The last few decades of her life were spent painting and writing, her practice becoming a metaphor for her search for tranquility. Her work is especially influential in India and China.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Agnes Martin
Interactive chart with Agnes Martin's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart


Mark RothkoMark Rothko
Barnett NewmanBarnett Newman
Ad ReinhardtAd Reinhardt


The Betty Parsons GalleryThe Betty Parsons Gallery
Ellsworth KellyEllsworth Kelly
Robert IndianaRobert Indiana


Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Hard-edge PaintingHard-edge Painting
Color Field PaintingColor Field Painting
Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin
Years Worked: 1940s-2004


Pat SteirPat Steir
Eva HesseEva Hesse
Ellen GallagherEllen Gallagher


Rosalind KraussRosalind Krauss
Douglas CrimpDouglas Crimp
Louise NevelsonLouise Nevelson



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Useful Resources on Agnes Martin






The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Agnes Martin: Paintings, Writings, Remembrances

By Arne Glimcher

Agnes Martin (Dia Foundation)

By Lynne Cooke, Karen Kelly, Rhea Anastas

Agnes Martin

By Barbara Haskell

More Interesting Books about Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin, Abstract Painter, Dies at 92

By Holland Cotter
New York Times
December 17, 2004

Agnes Martin, 92; Abstract Painter Won the Golden Lion

By Christopher Knight
Los Angeles Times
December 17, 2004

Review of "...going forward into unknown territory... Agnes Martin's Early Paintings 1957 - 1967" and "Agnes Martin: An Homage to Life"

By Deborah Garwood
June 1, 2004

Rep Diary: Gabriel and Creation

By Max Nelson
Film Comment
September 9, 2013

More Interesting Articles about Agnes Martin
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