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Movements Surrealist Sculpture

Surrealist Sculpture

Started: 1924

Ended: 1966

Quotes

"With Giacometti, new figures place their feet on the earth, albeit with infinite scruples, having arisen from the hearts and minds of men."
André Breton
"I tried to make forms grow. I put my trust in the example of seeds, stars, clouds, plants, animals, men, and finally in my innermost being."
Hans Arp
"Attempts I have sometimes made to consciously give form to a painting or even to a sculpture have always failed."
Alberto Giacometti
"All good art has contained both abstract and surrealist elements, just as it has contained both classical and romantic elements - order and surprise, intellect and imagination, conscious and unconscious. Both sides of the artist's personality must play their part."
Henry Moore
"It is in sculpture that I will create a truly phantasmagoric world of living monsters."
Joan Miró
"The exploitation of the chance meeting of two remote realities on a plane unsuitable to them."
Max Ernst
"To give form to a myth, to produce a new reality from a given material, from a physical thrust that forces a gesture to be carried and placed in the world. The real suddenly appears from this struggle."
Joan Miró
"When I invented Surrealist objects, I had the deep inner fulfilment of knowing, while the group went into ecstasies over their operation that these objects very exactly reproduced the contradictions of a rectal sphincter at work, so that what they were thus admiring was their own fear."
Salvador Dalí

KEY ARTISTS

Man RayMan Ray
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Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
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Hans ArpHans Arp
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Alberto GiacomettiAlberto Giacometti
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Henry MooreHenry Moore
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Hans BellmerHans Bellmer
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"People were no longer limited to talking about their phobias, manias, feelings and desires, but could now touch them, manipulate and operate them with their own hands."

Synopsis

Surrealist sculpture rose from a desire to concretize what lies beneath. In the 1920s, the Surrealism movement began as artists and writers began to delve deeper underneath everyday, literal existence to mine the sandbox of the unconscious mind. It was a revolutionary impetus and philosophical drive first, its members craved to pierce the veil between reality and our more primitive desires, fantasies, taboos and the unconscious ephemera that nevertheless affects real life. They accomplished this by creating visual works across a massive spectrum of art, film, music, literature and philosophy. Surrealist sculpture evolved this process further by making manifest three dimensional objects conjured from those primal, subconscious spaces, bringing them to physical form where the underlying power and mystical presence of the imagination could no longer be denied.

Key Ideas

Surrealist sculpture perfectly enhanced Surrealism's radical provocations by forcing people to encounter physical objects that represented taboo or repressed issues floating just beneath our common surfaces. Rather than simply viewing a painting that might express one artist's buried madness or embarrassing fantasy, viewers were now invited to interact with the unreal made real, and touch a fantastical embodiment of repressed desire.
Two major veins of work defined surrealist sculpture: the "biomorph" and the "objet trouvé" - giving two-sided insight into the way the imagination works when attempting to materialize the pure unconscious. In the former, we find abstracted shapes and forms created through organic, emotional association. In the latter, we find compositions of random items chosen intuitively without strategy or predetermination. Both represent the non-strategic, automatic processes of Surrealism.
Surrealism had a major impact on modern art and continues to be seen globally across creative fields including film, literature, graphic design, fashion, and visionary art. This is a testament to the freedom unleashed by Surrealism's initial mission whereby artists and writers may convey their own uniquely individual thoughts, feelings and innermost drives through creative means. It loosened the field of possibilities and promised perpetual fodder to mine.

Most Important Art

The Enigma of Isidore Ducasse (1920)
Artist: Man Ray
In this early "readymade" a sewing machine is wrapped in an army blanket and tied with a string. The title refers to the French poet Isidore Ducasse who wrote the book Les Chants de Maldoror, which was a text of particular obsession to the Surrealists for its influential line "Beautiful as the chance meeting, on a dissecting table, of a sewing machine and an umbrella." Chance effects were instrumental to the Dada artists, including Marcel Duchamp who was a large influence on Man Ray's work yet this piece pre-dated the Surrealist impetus toward using the subconscsious as creative fodder. The piece was constructed to be photographed and then dismantled. The sewing machine underneath the blanket was never revealed as such. Instead, Man Ray wished to pose a riddle to the viewer, the object's identity hinted at within the work's name. Man Ray was a significant contributor to both the Dada and Surrealist movements, although loosely. He mostly fancied himself a painter yet it was his photography that elevated him to worldwide acclaim as well as his noted photograms, which he called "rayographs" after himself.
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Surrealist Sculpture Artworks in Focus:
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Beginnings

The Surrealist Movement and Ethos

Founder of Surrealism André Breton defined the movement as "psychic automatism in its pure state, by which one proposes to express - verbally, by means of the written word, or in any other manner - the actual functioning of thought." Surrealist artists were heavily influenced by concepts found within psychoanalysis, particularly Sigmund Freud's theories that our repressed desires and fears oftentimes float to the surface through the subconscious temple of dreams or the unfettered creative flow of poetry and art. Surrealism claimed to be an invisible ray, which channeled the unconscious mind in order to unlock its imagination and to showcase its myriad taboos, complexities and similarities within man. This provided an arena where artists could forego conscious thought and embrace chance.

The Emphasis on Sculpture and The Surrealist Object

Early Surrealist experiments with automatism had extracted ideas from the unconscious and recorded them on two-dimensional mediums such as paper. Now three-dimensional forms were required to further solidify an impetus to present fantasy as real. These concrete objects needed to be both magical and tangible, representing the metamorphosis from dream into reality. This delving into the dream world to extricate items of a marvelous reality hidden under everyday life was first mentioned in Louis Aragon's Wave of Dreams (1924).

Concurrently, in 1924, The Bureau of Surrealist Research created the Surrealist Manifesto, demanding the "total revolution of the object." This called for an investigation into any "forms that might express the unconscious activity of the mind." Their focus on the tangible is also shown in their Declaration of January 1925: "Surrealism is not a poetic form... it is determined to break apart its fetters, even if it must be by material hammers!" Drawing inspiration from Giorgio de Chirico's juxtaposed classical statues, rubber gloves, and sunglasses, Marcel Duchamp's "readymades" and Dada works such as Marcel Janco's "constructions," the Surrealist artists reinterpreted what sculpture could be, creating a 1930s golden age of a new surrealist object. This fresh, intuitive and improvisational approach to the Surrealist ideas toward sculpture would eventually grow outside, and independent of, membership in any "official" group of Surrealists who might be included or excluded at Breton's whim.

Salvador Dalí was one such artist who fell in and out of favor with Breton, yet who remains perhaps one of the most famous Surrealists of all time. His eccentric and blazing creative forces brought about a revolution in thinking about the relationships between sculptor and material, and sculpture and viewer. In his essay The Object as Revealed by Surrealist Experiment he pushed against tradition and defined Surrealist objects as those with a symbolic function, "readymades," trans-substantial objects (e.g. his renowned limp and liquid watches), wrapped objects, machine-objects and cast-objects. He helped reconcile the Surrealist belief in automatism and chance with the control imposed by the traditional sculptural techniques of hacking, welding and casting. In his "Paranoiac-Critical method" chance and control worked together. With this technique, an artist would invoke upon himself a paranoid state of fear from which to pull whatever random imagery was conjured. The imagery would then become the artwork, subjectivity now its primary aspect.

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Two Ethos of Surrealist Sculpture

Biomorphism and Abstracted Forms

Artists such as Joan Miró, Henry Moore and Isamu Noguchi transformed organic shapes from anatomy and biology into "biomorphs." Hans Arp was coined the king of "organic abstraction" as he extracted forms originating in earlier Dada practices and brought them into new Surrealist works. This also demonstrated the interplay of Surrealist painting with sculpture because such abstracted forms previously appeared in the paintings of Yves Tanguy.

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Surrealist Sculpture Overview Continues

Found Objects and Assemblages

The Surrealists adopted a line from the poetic novel Les Chants de Maldoror (1869) written by Isadore Ducasse, in which a character is described "as beautiful as the accidental encounter of a sewing machine and an umbrella on a dissecting table" as a type of sacred writing. They too sought to give such illogical and seemingly random juxtapositions beauty through physical form. By rummaging in bric-a-brac shops, or via casual discovery on city streets, the magic of chance and synchronicity ignited artists such as André Breton, Man Ray, and Salvador Dalí to create assemblages. Miró's "constructions" and Breton's "Poeme-Objets" are two great examples of these objet trouvés, or found sculptures, which freed the mind from conscious thought. They might be jumbles of mechanical items, food, dolls, violins, or buttons, often with witty titles. Max Ernst called his found-object assemblies: "the exploitation of the chance meeting of two remote realities on a plane unsuitable to them."

Common Themes and Motifs

In his 1899 work The Importance of Dreams, Freud legitimized the role of the subconscious as a valid portrayal of our innermost emotions and desires. He also exposed the unconscious as a source for our repressed and complex inner worlds of sexuality, desire, violence and all other shadow aspects of the self. Surrealist artists relied on the revelation of their personal obsessions, imagery, motifs and symbolism to inform their work. Although much of what was produced points to the wild and outlandish individuality revealed through this unconscious archaeology, there were several common themes that emerged. These commonalities may simply be cultural representations of the era and environment in which Surrealism burgeoned or perhaps denote the deeper, underlying commonalities of the human condition buried within us all.

Desire & Fear

Breton called desire "the only master man must recognize," adeptly borrowed from Freudian ideas in which our obsessions, fears and phobias are manifestations of what we repress or shun as taboo. The Surrealist Manifesto had noted the inherent human need for "fear, the attraction of the unusual, chance, the taste for the extravagant" in a world where everyone, if honest, internally craved to "try on the white helmet, to caress the fur bonnet." Surrealist objects drew heavily on Freud's investigations into sex and fetish, and the exploration of fantasy, perversion, and madness. Breton ensured that Surrealist shows were deliberately provocative; one early Surrealist exhibition boasted work of "a strictly pornographic nature, whose impact will be of particular scandalous significance."

Marcel Duchamp had already highlighted the fluidity of sexuality and sexual transgression often by the time he created his female alter ego Rrose Sélavy, a name that read aloud sounds like "eros, c'est la vie." The Surrealists went further, even drawing upon the sadistic works of the Marquis de Sade for images of sexual violence and torture. Giacometti's Woman with Her Throat Cut (1932) is a shocking example of a woman, flayed apart as are Dali's constructions of females with missing limbs or embedded with boxes which bring to mind the complicated disparages between attraction and lust. The conflict of desire and fear is most eloquently shown in a common Surrealist fixation on the female praying mantis, an insect known for eating the male after copulation. The 1959 Exposition Surréalisme magnified the theme of Eros; in fact, visitors entered the Surrealist 'Forest of Sex' through a vaginal door.

Dolls, Mannequins and the Uncanny

The Surrealists often fragmented the human body's anatomical parts, such as fingers, toes, and eyes, manipulating them into plays on reality through light, shadow, or pose. Photographs of torsos, headless bodies or strangely posed limbs such as Man Ray's Anatomies (1929) presented parts as considerations separate from their whole. Naturally, this prompted dolls and mannequins to become key Surrealist motifs, as they loomed both inhuman and alive, tweaking the Surrealist sensibility of equal parts ease and dis-ease within subject matter. Dolls also recalled childhood, another Surrealist theme, because of its decidedly innocent and primal moment within existence's overall arc when magic seemed real and toys were bestowed with imaginary life. Hans Bellmer's series of mutilated dolls, Die Puppe and Games of The Doll (1933-1937) used the doll body as a type of "anagram" to create what he called a "real object to be possessed." Bellmer's doll was celebrated by Breton as: "the first and only original surrealist object with a universal, provocative power." At the 1938 Exhibition Surrealiste, visitors were inundated by works of art consisting of dolls or mannequins, including Salvador Dalí's Rainy Taxi, which took the theme to an extreme - his installation rained water onto mannequins sitting inside a taxi as their skin crawled with live snails.

Metamorphosis & Magic

With a basis in transforming the immaterial and ephemeral into reality, it was only natural that the Surrealists became interested in the occult as well as the everyday magic of coincidences and synchronicity, typified by their use of the object trouvé. The 1924 Surrealist Manifesto called for a return to fantasy and superstition that had been banished in the name of progress. The Surrealists violently opposed rational 'civilized' culture, instead praising irrational 'primitive' cultures for their lack of censorship. A particularly appealing aspect of the primitive resided in the ancient and sacred myths of chimeras and metamorphosis, spurring possibilities of the animal-human or animal-plant hybrids as subject matter. Such physical transformation mirrored the psychological transformation that was at the heart of Surrealism; returning to an animal state removed ego-constructed, societal taboos. Images such as the Minotaur, the Mermaid, and the Sphinx were adopted as Surrealist totems; indeed the Surrealist magazine was named Minotaure. Leonora Carrington's work was populated by many half-human, half-animal hybrid figures culled from medieval alchemy, American folk art and Celtic literature reflecting her interest in transformation and constantly shifting identity. Dorothea Tanning's early works were literal interpretations of dreams often containing mythological beasts as well as animal features like feathers incorporated into self-portraits.

Sculptural forms such as Picasso's Bull's Head (1942) and Victor Brauner's Wolf Table (1947) reflect this awe of primitive nature in the Surrealist search for the 'marvelous.' At the 1947 Exhibition Surrealiste, Breton described installations as "altars" to beings that "could possess mythical life." This invention of new myths and anthropomorphic creatures was perhaps most clearly elaborated in Max Ernst's adoption of his alter ego "the Loplop bird" and in his sculptural works such as Capricorn (1946).

Spectators, Surrealist Environments, and Audience Interactions

All Surrealist objects aimed to subvert reality with a dose of shock, which caused a revolutionary new way for viewers to interact with sculpture. Regarding this, Dali stated that, "people were no longer limited to talking about their phobias, manias, feelings and desires, but could now touch them, manipulate and operate them with their own hands." In the 1937 Exhibition Surrealiste, visitors were invited to become active participants, to imagine lifting, touching, playing with, and even eating such seminal pieces as Duchamp's Why not Sneeze Rrose Sélavy? (1921), Alberto Giacometti's Boule Suspendue (1930), and Meret Oppenheim's Object in Fur (1936). During another exhibition, works were shown in a mock cave, in pitch darkness, where audience members roamed with flashlights. Giacometti invited viewers to play with his game-pieces such as Man, Woman and Child (1931) and No More Play (1932). He said he wanted a person to be able to "sit, walk and lean on them."

Dali often conducted experiments to test people's reactions to his work. He concluded that each viewer's reaction depended "only on the amorous imagination of each person" and was "extraplastic." Breton noted this interaction as having "a power over minds that surpasses the work of art in every sense." Dali called it the spectator's desire or hunger - the "cannibalization of the object." This reached comic heights when his Retrospective Bust of a Woman went on show in 1933. Adorned with a baguette, it was allegedly eaten by Picasso's dog. Later in the New York resurgence of Surrealism of the 1940s, ideas of form, function and metaphor through interactive Surrealist sculpture were explored in the iconic Imagery of Chess exhibition. Chess sets by Max Ernst, Alexander Calder, Yves Tanguy, and Isamu Noguchi took Giacometti's earlier game-pieces to new heights of exploration.

Later Developments

The Surrealist golden age made crucial investigations into what sculpture had been, currently was, and indeed could, and should be in the future. The questioning of the gap between the imaginary and the real, and the intangible and tangible, toppled traditional sculptural forms and techniques. The use of defamiliarization, juxtaposition and metamorphosis resulted in fantastical creations that have influenced every subsequent genre of art. Many artists that identified with the Surrealist movement went on to have illustrious careers in their own right. For example, Noguchi became known in the art and design world as one of the most eloquent crafters of elegant furniture, landscape architecture and large-scale public works; while Dali went on to make films, design jewelry, clothes, stage sets and even fashionable retail window displays. Giacometti later produced his signature figurative sculptures that put him on the international map, as did Henry Moore, whose large-scale voluptuous reclining bronzes grace many museums and public spaces today. Today, the influence of Surrealist sculpture can still be seen in artists such as South American Fernando Botero and in the multi media worlds of digital illustration and visionary art.

Abstract Expressionism and Art in the New World

By the 1940s in France some critics claimed that the Surrealist object had failed to make its stated impact to change reality but this was not so in post-WWII America. There was an influx of Surrealists who were escaping the war in Europe to New York and this evolved a new generation of up-and-coming artists that would eventually become known as Abstract Expressionists. Artists such as Arshile Gorky, Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Robert Motherwell, Mark Rothko, Barnett Newman, and Clyfford Still began to create color field and gestural works inspired by the Surrealist techniques of automatism and expressing the subconscious through art. Although these new works were decidedly less literal and more action-identified, many of their creators had been inspired by the presence of Breton, Masson and Matta in New York in the 1940s and earlier works by Miró.

Post-modern Sculpture

By the 1950s the Surrealist reinterpretation of three-dimensional art led to a sculptural emphasis on everyday objects, further rejecting traditional casting and modelling. From 1954-1964 Robert Rauschenberg developed Dada and Surrealist ideas in his "Combines" - assemblages of striking juxtaposition such as Monogram (1959), composed of: a stuffed goat, a police barrier, a shoe, a tennis ball, and paint. Other Neo-Dada artists such as Edward Kienholz followed in a similar vein. Surrealism also reappeared in Pop Art where visual puns echoed the use of humor as a subversive tool of developing artistic representations of the surrounding world. The deliberate shock and provocation of the Surrealist installations and exhibition spaces inspired artists to think differently about how their work could be presented, displayed and interacted with, positioning the spectator as an integral part of art. This would inspire future conceptual work by Louise Bourgeois, Robert Gober, David Smith and Sarah Lucas. More recent echoes of the power to subvert and shock via objects can be seen in the notorious "Sensation" exhibition of the Young British Artists of the 1990s.




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Useful Resources on Surrealist Sculpture

Books
Websites
Articles
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Marvelous Objects: Surrealist Sculpture from Paris to New York

By Valerie J. Fletcher

Passages in Modern Sculpture,

By Rosalind Krauss

The Object as Revealed in Surrealist Experiment

By Salvador Dalí

Surrealism: Desire Unbound

By Jennifer Mundy

More Interesting Books about Surrealist Sculpture
Freud's Sculpture

By Michael Calderbank
2007

The Undefinable Readymade

By Hector Obalk
2000

Sight and Insight: Essays On Art and Culture in Honour of E.H. Gombrich At 85

By John Onians
London, Phaidon
1994

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Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
TheArtStory: Surrealism
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: André Breton
Louis Aragon
Louis Aragon
Louis Aragon
Louis Aragon was a French poet and writer, as well as journalist and editor for several revolutionary and avant-garde journals. He was involved with the Dada circle in Paris before helping found Surrealism in 1924.
Louis Aragon
Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico
Giorgio de Chirico was a Greek-Italian painter and sculptor commonly associated with Surrealism. Initially discovered by Picasso and Apollinaire in France, de Chirico's best known Surrealist paintings incorporated metaphysical subject matter and sculptural still-life. Instead of land- or cityscapes, de Chirico's art is more emblematic of a dreamscape.
TheArtStory: Giorgio de Chirico
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
TheArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
TheArtStory: Dada
Marcel Janco
Marcel Janco
Marcel Janco
Marcel Janco was a Romanian and Israeli visual artist, architect, and art theorist. He was the co-founder of Dada and a proponent of Constructivism in Western Europe, and his work was widely regarded as avant-garde and innovative.
TheArtStory: Marcel Janco
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
TheArtStory: Salvador Dalí
Joan Miró
Joan Miró
Joan Miró
Active in Paris from the 1920s onward, and influenced by Surrealism, Miró developed a style of biomorphic abstraction which blended abstract figurative motifs, large fields of color, and primitivist symbols. This style would be an important inspiration for many Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: Joan Miró
Henry Moore
Henry Moore
Henry Moore
Henry Moore was an English sculptor and artist. He was best known for his abstract monumental bronze sculptures. His forms are usually abstractions of the human figure, typically depicting reclining figures, or even more commonly, the mother and child theme.
TheArtStory: Henry Moore
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi was a Japanese-American modern artist. best known for his organic, biomorphic sculpture works, Noguchi was also a furniture designer and landscape artist.
TheArtStory: Isamu Noguchi
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp (also known as Jean Arp) was a German-French artist who incorporated chance, randomness, and organic forms into his sculptures, paintings, and collages. He was involved with Zurich Dada, Surrealism, and the Abstraction-Creation movement.
TheArtStory: Hans Arp
Yves Tanguy
Yves Tanguy
Yves Tanguy
Yves Tanguy was a French painter and one of the key figures of French Surrealism in the early twentieth century. Having never received any formal training, Tanguy was a self-taught painter who became best known for his highly imaginitive landscapes and detailed precision.
TheArtStory: Yves Tanguy
Man Ray
Man Ray
Man Ray
Man Ray was an American artist in Paris whose photograms, objects, drawings, and other works played an important role in Dada, Surrealism, modern photography, and avant-garde art at large.
TheArtStory: Man Ray
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst
Max Ernst was a German Dadaist and Surrealist whose paintings and collages combine dream-like realism, automatic techniques, and eerie subject matter.
TheArtStory: Max Ernst
Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud
Lucian Freud is a German-British painter, and the grandson of Sigmund Freud. He devoted himself almost entirely to portraiture, applying richer colors and impasto brushstrokes. In 2000 he was commissioned to paint England's Queen Elizabeth II.
TheArtStory: Lucian Freud
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
Alberto Giacometti
The Swiss artist Alberto Giacometti created semi-abstract sculptures that took up themes of violence, sex, and Surrealism. His famous later work is characterized by towering, elongated figures in bronze.
TheArtStory: Alberto Giacometti
Hans Bellmer
Hans Bellmer
Hans Bellmer
Hans Bellmer was a twentieth-century German avant-garde photographer and draughtsman, commonly associated with the Surrealism movement. Bellmer is best known for creating a series of pubescent female dolls in the 1930s, which were designed as a direct criticism of Nazi-controlled Germany and its idealization of the perfect human form. Bellmer eventually fled Germany for Paris and was embraced by Breton and the French Surrealists.
TheArtStory: Hans Bellmer
Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington
Leonora Carrington was a British-born Mexican artist, painter and novelist, commonly associated with the Surrealist movement. As one of the few female Surrealist artists, Carrington made a distinct and lasting impression in the 1940s while showing work at the Pierre Matisse Gallery in New York and international exhibitions of Surrealist artists.
TheArtStory: Leonora Carrington
Dorothea Tanning
Dorothea Tanning
Dorothea Tanning
Dorothea Tanning is an American painter whose work is commonly associated with the Surrealists. Heavily influenced by the likes of Duchamp, Ray, Tanguy and perhaps most of all Max Ernst, her former husband, Tanning created a number of paintings in the 1940s that are now considered seminal to the Surrealist movement, including her dream-like self-portrait Birthday. Later in life much of Tanning's work adopted increasingly abstract forms, yet always maintained a distinctly Surrealist aesthetic.
Dorothea Tanning
Victor Brauner
Victor Brauner
Victor Brauner
Victor Brauner was a French-Romanian painter, art photographer, and sculptor. A friend to, and member of the Surrealists, Brauner's works drew on many favorite Surrealist themes: criticism of bourgeois conventions, warped human figures, and mutilated body parts.
Victor Brauner
Meret Oppenheim
Meret Oppenheim
Meret Oppenheim
Meret Oppenheim was a Swiss artist best-known for her work in Surrealism. A decade into the start of this movement, Oppenheim was invited to join the surrealist exhibition, "Salon des Surindependants" by Hans Arp and Alberto Giacometti, who were impressed by her work after visiting her studio. After this first appearance, Oppenheim had many solo exhibitions throughout and after her career, in Europe and in the United States. The artist's most famous work is the surrealist sculpture, Object (Le Dejeuner en fourrure), which consists of a teacup covered in fur.
TheArtStory: Meret Oppenheim
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder
Alexander Calder was an American artist who made important contributions to abstract sculpture, hanging mobiles, and Kinetic art. His work reflects both modern and Surrealist influences.
TheArtStory: Alexander Calder
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
TheArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Arshile Gorky
Arshile Gorky
Arshile Gorky
Arshile Gorky was an Armenian-born American painter and a major influence on the development of Abstract Expressionism. In his own art he fused elements of Cubism, Surrealism and Expressionism, and was close with key figures central to New York's burgeoning abstrct art scene, such as John Graham, Stuart Davis and Willem de Kooning.
TheArtStory: Arshile Gorky
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
TheArtStory: Jackson Pollock
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning, a Dutch immigrant to New York, was one of the foremost Abstract Expressionist painters. His abstract compositions drew on Surrealist and figurative traditions, and typified the expressionistic 'gestural' style of the New York School.
TheArtStory: Willem de Kooning
Robert Motherwell
Robert Motherwell
Robert Motherwell
Robert Motherwell was a first-generation Abstract Expressionist whose paintings use hulking shapes, large-scale strokes and calligraphy, and wide expanses of muted color. Eloquent and well-educated, he wrote extensively on theories of art.
TheArtStory: Robert Motherwell
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko was an Abstract Expressionist painter whose early interest in mythic landscapes gave way to mature works featuring large, hovering blocks of color on colored grounds.
TheArtStory: Mark Rothko
Barnett Newman
Barnett Newman
Barnett Newman
Barnett Newman was an Abstract Expressonist painter in New York who painted large-scale fields of solid color, interrupted by vertical lines or "zips." His sometimes narrow or boxy canvases, part painting and part sculpture, were influential for Minimalism.
TheArtStory: Barnett Newman
Clyfford Still
Clyfford Still
Clyfford Still
Clyfford Still was a leading first-generation Abstract Expressionist. His mature works are large-scale paintings with gaping chasms and stains of jagged color, often in dark earth tones.
TheArtStory: Clyfford Still
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos. His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation.
TheArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz was an American installation artist and sculptor, frequently associated with the California-based Funk art movement. His work, which explores issues of sexual exploitation, abuse of political power, racism, and religion, is known for its highly critical stance on modern culture and society.
TheArtStory: Edward Kienholz
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
TheArtStory: Pop Art
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois was a French-American artist whose work added a feminist perspective to Surrealist themes of sex, childhood, and the uncanny. She is best known for her sculpture Fillette (1968) and her large-scale spider sculptures, such as Maman (1999).
TheArtStory: Louise Bourgeois
Robert Gober
Robert Gober
Robert Gober
Robert Gober is an American artist whose work often relates to domestic and familiar objects such as sinks, doors and legs. Despite their appearance, his sculptures are meticulously handcrafted. He represented the United States at the 2001 Venice Biennale.
Robert Gober
David Smith
David Smith
David Smith
David Smith was an American artist who combined Surrealism and formal abstraction in his sculptures. His early works, small and with a craft-like aesthetic, give way later on to giant constructions of welded and burnished steel.
TheArtStory: David Smith
Sarah Lucas
Sarah Lucas
Sarah Lucas
Sarah Lucas is a British artist who is known for her self-portraits. Her works feature found objects, collage, photography, puns, and "bawdy" humor. Through this humor Lucas critiques misogyny, voyeurism, and society's view of the female body by taking traditionally masculine constructions and turning them on their heads.
Sarah Lucas
Young British Artists
Young British Artists
Young British Artists
Young British Artists is the name given to a group of conceptual artist, painters, sculptors and installation artists based in the United Kingdon, most of whom attended Goldsmiths College in London. The title is derived from shows of that name staged at the Saatchi Gallery from 1992 onwards, which brought the artists to fame.
TheArtStory: Young British Artists
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