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Movements Social Realism

Social Realism

Started: 1929

Ended: Late 1950s

Quotes

"If art is to survive it must describe and express people, their lives and times."
Raphael Soyer
"Revolutionary art.. is decreed by history."
Louis Lozowick
"Paint America, but with your eyes open. Do not glorify Main Street. Paint it as it is - mean, dirty, avaricious."
Moses Soyer
"Schools don't influence me, as much as life."
William Gropper
"I would describe my work as expressionist. The expressionist point of view is stressing your own feelings about something."
Jacob Lawrence
"Art is a response to life. To be an artist is to undertake a risky way to live, to adopt one of the greatest forms of liberty, to make no compromise. Painting is a form of love, of transmitting the years in art."
Antonio Berni
Let's bare our arms and plunge them deep through laughter, through pain, through sorrow, through hope, through disappointment, into the very depths of the souls of our people and drag forth material, crude, rough, neglected. Then let's sing it, dance it, write it, paint it."
Aaron Douglas
"When you talk about war on poverty it doesn't mean very much; but if you can show to some degree this sort of thing then you can show a great deal more of how people are living and a very great percentage of our people today."
Ben Shahn

KEY ARTISTS

William GropperWilliam Gropper
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Ben ShahnBen Shahn
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Ben Shahn Page
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Isamu NoguchiIsamu Noguchi
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Isamu Noguchi Page
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Raphael SoyerRaphael Soyer
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Philip EvergoodPhilip Evergood
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Jacob LawrenceJacob Lawrence
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"To me propaganda is a holy word."

Synopsis

The Social Realist political movement and artistic explorations flourished primarily during the 1920s and 1930s, a time of global economic depression, heightened racial conflict, the rise of fascist regimes internationally, and great optimism after both the Mexican and Russian revolutions. Social Realists created figurative and realistic images of the "masses," a term that encompassed the lower and working classes, labor unionists, and the politically disenfranchised. American artists became dissatisfied with the French avant-garde and their own isolation from greater society, which led them to search for a new vocabulary and a new social importance; they found their purpose in the belief that art was a weapon that could fight the capitalist exploitation of workers and stem the advance of international fascism.

Key Ideas

Social Realists envisioned themselves to be workers and laborers, similar to those who toiled in the fields and factories. Often clad in overalls to symbolize unity with the working classes, the artists believed they were critical members of the whole of society, rather than elites living on the margins and working for the upper crust.
While there was a variety of styles and subjects within Social Realism, the artists were united in their attack on the status quo and social power structure. Despite their stylistic variance, the artists were realists who focused on the human figure and human condition. Social Realists built on the legacies of Honore Daumier, Gustave Courbet, and Francisco Goya in their politically charged and radical social critiques.
While modernism is most often considered in terms of stylistic innovation, Social Realists believed that the political content of their work made it modern. Social Realists turned away from the painterly advancements of the School of Paris.

Most Important Art

Cover image for the New Masses (1933)
Artist: William Gropper
Committed to Marxism and communism, William Gropper drew vast numbers of illustrations for such radical publications as the New Masses and the Communist Party's Daily Worker. Wanting to reach the greatest number of working people, Gropper and others created prints and graphics for radical magazines, which were easy to distribute. Here, Gropper engaged the revolutionary visual rhetoric of the monumental, triumphant worker who both ideologically and physically dominates the puny clerics and capitalists in the lower left corner. Religion, in cahoots with capital, seeks in vain to contain and repress America's worker who is represented almost as a King Kong figure breaking free of his chains; the movie King Kong debuted in 1933. The idea of industrial servitude and slavery are also communicated by the chain links that the worker powerfully splits apart. Gropper's message is as stark and clear as is his choice of black and white coloration.
Ink on paper
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Beginnings

During the 1920s, American artists searched for a greater importance within society. The presence of Mexican muralists Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco in New York City, together with the widespread teachings of Karl Marx and Vladimir Lenin, served as inspiration to the emerging artists. Later, with the lingering effects of the Great Depression of 1929, President Franklin Delano Roosevelt's Work Progress Administration (1933) provided many struggling artists with patronage, a sense of community, and the mandate to paint realistically. Within the above historical context, a very large and diverse group of artists later called the Social Realists joined together to publish magazines, organize unions, convene artists' congresses, and publicly agitate for the importance of their revolutionary work, the role of the artist within society, and radical anti-capitalistic change for America.

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New Masses and the John Reed Club (1931)

Cover of the publication by the John Reed Club

In the 1920s, several artists committed to leftist politics launched New Masses, a radical cultural publication that was tied to Communist Russia. These revolutionary artists also established the John Reed Club. The club's name paid tribute to American journalist John Reed (1887-1920), the author of Ten Days That Shook the World who chronicled the Russian Revolution. The John Reed Clubs (60 in total throughout the United States) promoted the establishment of a proletarian society through their cultural events. Among the better-known members of the Club were Max Weber, Hugo Gellert, William Gropper, Moses Soyer, and Raphael Soyer. According to later reminiscences by involved artists, it was through the John Reed Club that they developed a progressive worldview. Teachers at the John Reed Club in New York City included the Mexican muralist David Alfaro Siqueiros, theorist Lewis Mumford, art historian Meyer Schapiro, artist Ben Shahn, and Louis Lozowick who was the main theorist of the group. The John Reed Club never dictated a specific artistic style or subject matter, yet mandated that artists align themselves with the poor and dispossessed, fight for racial justice, and oppose fascism.

Museum of Modern Art and Social Realism

The early 1930s saw the opening of several key museums and art galleries that went on to exhibit the art of the Social Realists, such as both New York's Museum of Modern Art and the Whitney Museum of American Art. In 1930, Diego Rivera had a one-man show at MoMA, which included the artist painting portable murals on site. Many of the Social Realists visited the revered Rivera as he painted. Two years later, MoMA presented a highly controversial exhibition inviting artists, including Social Realists, to create mural studies for potential projects. Ben Shahn, Hugo Gellert, and William Gropper did not hold back in their biting social criticism. Shahn's The Passion of Sacco and Vanzetti (1931-32), as well as caustic satirical works by Gellert and Gropper that attacked the moneyed, heads of state, and social elites, or in other words, the social types who controlled society and sat on MoMA's Board of Directors. Their works created a storm of criticism that Gropper triumphantly chronicled in his New Masses article "We Captured the Walls!"

The Popular Front

Art Front - 1934

The Russian Communist Party announced the political period known as the Popular Front in 1935, aiming to create a united political front to eradicate fascism that, with the election of Hitler as Germany's Chancellor in 1933, was seen as a greater enemy than capitalism. Under the slogan "Communism is Twentieth-Century Americanism," the Communist Party sought to unify left and liberal Americans. The Popular Front was more welcoming to liberal artists who worked for social equality, rather than for the radical transformation of America into a socialist state. This historical event, driven by Russia, impacted American artists by allowing the progressives who were not extreme radicals to join the cause. A greater number of artists took up the theme of anti-fascism in their art and lessened the hardline commitment to worker-based art and imagery.

The Artists' Union and Art Front

A great concern during the 1930s was labor unions and labor organizing. Social Realists who considered themselves to be workers established their own labor union called the Artists' Union. The Artists' Union was an affiliate of the dominant labor union of the time, the Congress of Industrial Organizations. Bernarda Bryson, Ben Shahn, and Stuart Davis, among other members of the Artists' Union, together agitated for permanent federal art programs and better wages for artists under the New Deal. They were also part of the fight against racism, fascism, and war. Art Front was its radical magazine, complete with articles, photographs, essays, and illustrations.

The American Artists Congress

The American Artists Congress convened in 1936 and Social Realists were among the hundreds in attendance. This was part of the Popular Front's attack against global fascism with the rise of Adolf Hitler and, even locally, with Father Charles Coughlin stirring anti-Semitic sentiments. In addition, artistic censorship was on the mind of many with Nelson Rockefeller's infamous cancelations of Diego Rivera's mural in Rockefeller Center (1933) and Ben Shahn's mural for Riker's Island Penitentiary (1934). Pressing social events of the day held sway rather than aesthetic debates. For example, African-American painter Aaron Douglas criticized socially conscious artists for using African Americans as symbols. An exiled artist from Nazi Germany reported on the events unfolding in Europe. The economic plight of artists was also an issue passionately discussed. The Union successfully inspired artists, giving them a sense of social importance and of being part of a greater, global community.

Concepts and Themes

Despite disparities in style, painters, sculptors, illustrators, and printmakers all were committed to realism and figuration; in fact, it's hard to imagine a Social Realist work that did not focus on the human condition and the human figure. Also common amongst these diverse voices was their commitment to labor, which explains the emphasis on idealizing the worker in art. The artists sought common cause with their subjects and sought to use "art as a weapon," in the words of Diego Rivera, to radically transform society.

The Glory of the Heroic Worker

Unlike the Ashcan School artists, where members of the working class were social outcasts, Social Realists envisioned the worker as a social hero. Empowering the worker physically and making him the focus of artwork communicated the centrality of the laborer to a new worker-based society. Greater emphasis was placed upon the industrial worker over the agricultural worker since this paralleled the economic shift from a farm-based economy to an industrial society. Clad often in workers' overalls holding tools, their jaws squared and faces firm and determined, the worker-hero is shown as the backbone of America and the means to a better future. Occasionally, the worker-hero is shown adjacent to his wife who is rendered diminutive to him in stature, wearing emblems of domesticity such as an apron and subordinate to his authority. Much rarer are images of women as industrial workers.

Sympathy for the "Forgotten Man"

Social artists most often depicted society's outcasts and the marginalized, such as the urban poor, racial minorities, immigrants, and ghetto residents. Often these men were pictured alone without the safety and sanctity of the family unit. Social Realists gave attention and voice to these "forgotten men," as they were called, with empathetic imagery of their struggles. These outcasts appear as the direct opposite of the worker-hero because the former lacks neither personal agency nor power to control his destiny. Instead of being upright and muscular, his body collapses down into itself and is comprised of more rounded forms: a slacken head, slumping shoulders, bent knees. In this manner, his body communicates a forlorn sense of hopelessness and destitution.

The Struggles of Rural America

Overwhelmingly, Social Realism was an urban-based movement created by urban-based artists. However, with the Dust Bowl and other traumatic events caused by poor land management, the sharecropper system and absentee landowners were within the realm of social commentary. The pairing of the agricultural with the industrial laborer was a potent social and political theme of the time and Worker-Farmer political parties were being established. Such artwork, which highlighted the rural poor, ruined lands, and devastation of nature, vehemently countered the chauvinistic Regionialist artists (John Steuart Curry, Grant Wood, and Thomas Hart Benton) who championed the sanctity of rural America, the natural landscape, small town life, and the farmer.

Modernist Connections: Social Surrealism

While Social Surrealists worked alongside the Social Realists, the latter claimed to be the political outspoken art style, yet in fact, it was the Social Surrealists who worked in the more radical style. Radical politics and radical times necessitate a radical form of art, and in the 1930s to mid-1940s, Surrealism was one such form of painting. They believed that liberation of the mind and liberation of the individual would lead to the end of political and social oppression. Social Surrealists used key stylistic techniques of European Surrealists, such as condensing time and space, perfecting a montage of elements, and juxtaposing objects in an illogical manner. For example, Oswaldo (Louis) Luigi Gugleimli expressed his concern with Manhattan's impoverished neighborhoods with a sense of empathy that he developed from growing up in a poor Italian immigrant section of the city. Philip Evergood's body of work has been referred to as both Social Realist for his subject matter and Social Surrealist for his exaggeration of figures, heightened colors, and vivid brushstrokes.

Socialist Realism in Russia and Germany: Totalitarian Art

The Social Realists' openness to a variety of styles and subjects stands in stark contrast to Soviet Socialist Realism, which sought to uphold the Russian political structure through stridently didactic images of workers painted with great uniformity. In both Russia as well as Germany, doctrinaire imagery of the heroicized, classically inspired body promoted Joseph Stalin's and Adolph Hitler's social visions. In Germany, Hitler encouraged the painting of the nude with hyperrealistic perfection to communicate the perfect Aryan body. In contrast, the nude was never a mainstay of American Social Realists, whose figures were based more upon genre painting than classical ideals.

Later Developments

The Changes in the Political Landscape

Starting in the 1930s, the United States government became dramatically less supportive of Russia, which was once the country's ally. This chilling of international relations and attacks against communism directly impacted artists and art movements. Due to persistent rumors that "reds" had taken over the Federal arts programs, the government established the House Un-American Activities Committee (HUAC) in 1938, which investigated numerous artists, among other individuals and groups, searching for possible communist infiltrators. This threw shockwaves throughout the artistic left. An even deeper blow was the 1939 Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression pact, which caused many artists to give up their idealization of Russia as a utopia. While some remained blindly supportive of Stalin, others became more committed to FDR and democracy. With the start of WWII, America's economy kicked into recovery and many industrial jobs became available but were still racially segregated. This postwar prosperity for some Americans also distanced many people from the Soviet model.

The Replacement of the Avant-garde

It is popular to think of Abstract Expressionism as the sole art form of the mid-1940s and 1950s, totally eclipsing realism and political content in art. But this wasn't the case. In fact, many artists such as Ben Shahn, Jacob Lawrence, and Isaac, Moses, and Raphael Soyer, among numerous others, continued to exhibit their works during the Cold War era. Some artists, such as Philip Guston, did see their work evolve into abstraction. It is true that Social Realism was no longer the art of the avant-garde, but it did not vanish. However, the John Reed Club, the Artists Union, and Art Front ceased to exist in part due to internal factions and in part due to the awareness of the Holocaust and the acceptance by many that Stalin was a murderous despotic dictator, rather than a heroic figure.

However, realism and socially conscious art making never died, but these continue to be strands within contemporary art that include names such as Sue Coe and Mike Alewitz. Coe creates narrative series of prints and paintings that address difficult issues such as rape and injustice to women. Alewitz, who witnessed the killing of four young people at Kent State, has gone on to become a muralist for labor unions, social causes, and political actions. He is perhaps America's leading political muralist. In terms of scholarships and exhibitions, starting in the 1980s with publications by Alejandro Anreus, Matthew Baigell, Andrew Hemingway, Patricia Hills, Helen Langa, Diana Linden, and JonathanWeinberg, there has been a resurgence of interest in Social Realism.


Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Social Realism

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
The Social and the Real: Political Art of the 1930s in the Western Hemisphere

By Alejandro Anreus, Diana L. Linden, and Jonathan Weinberg

Rethinking Social Realism: African American Art and Literature, 1930-1953

By Stacy I. Morgan

Social Realism: Art as a Weapon

By David Shapiro

Mexican Painters: Rivera, Orozco, Siqueiros, and Other Artists of the Social Realist School

By MacKinley Helm

The Red Decade: Art with a Gritty Heart

By Gerald Meyer
The Indypendent
March 10, 2015

The Left Front

By Roslyn Bernstein
Guernica
February 25, 2015

Left Turns: The Radical Art of the Nineteen-Thirties

By Peter Schjeldahl
The New Yorker
January 26, 2015

Antonio Berni: Juanito & Ramona

By Kellie Hwang
The Arizona Republic
August 14, 2014

Honoré Daumier
Honoré Daumier
Honoré Daumier
Honore Daumier was a French painter, sculptor and printmaker during the mid-nineteenth century. Although an accomplished artist in several media, Daumier is most well-known for his political caricatures and satirical art. He was also a key figure in the painterly movement of French Naturalism.
Honoré Daumier
Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet
Gustave Courbet was a French painter and chief figure in the Realist movement of the mid-nineteenth century. His paintings often contained an emotional bleakness, and were praised for their precision and use of light. Along with Delacroix, Courbet was a key influence on the Impressionists.
ArtStory: Gustave Courbet
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya was an eighteenth-century Spanish painter, and is considered by many to be "the father of modern painting." Informed by the Baroque style and the Classicists, Goya's art bridged the gap between Realism and Romanticism, but also contained provocative elements such as nudes, war, and allegories of death. He is considered a major influence on the works of Manet and Picasso.
Francisco Goya
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera was the principal actor in the Mexican Muralism movement and one of Mexico's greatest artists. His large-scale fresco cycles tell the histories of labor, industry, society, and other themes.
ArtStory: Diego Rivera
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco was a Mexican Muralist, a social realist painter who is best known for his large-scale expansive works depicting human toil, Mexican politics, and the advent of the industrial age.
ArtStory: Jose Clemente Orozco
Max Weber
Max Weber
Max Weber
Max Weber was an early twentieth century Polish-American painter. Taught in the tradition of the French modernists, such as Matisse, Rousseau and Picasso, Weber became a fairly well-known Cubist painter in pre-WWII America, arguably introducing the painterly style to the U.S. Weber's works were among the first acquisitions made by MoMA in 1929, and he was the subject of the museum's very first solo exhibition by an American artist.
Max Weber
Hugo Gellert
Hugo Gellert
Hugo Gellert
Hugo Gellert was a Hungarian-American illustrator and muralist who was known for his political art. Gellert was a communist and socialist who used his art, mainly illustrations for magazines, to further his political ideas and bring attention to important social issues.
Hugo Gellert
William Gropper
William Gropper
William Gropper
William Gropper was a New York City born cartoonist, painter, lithographer, and muralist. Gropper had radical political views, contributing art to magazines that perpetuated his ideas, such as The Masses, The Liberator, and The Revolutionary Age. Unsurprisingly, many of his works are categorized as part of the Social Realism movement.
William Gropper
Moses Soyer
Moses Soyer
Moses Soyer
Moses Soyer was a Russian-born American painter who worked extensively with the Works Progress Administration. Soyer is known not only for his murals, but also for his intimate and psychologically probing portraits of ordinary people.
Moses Soyer
Raphael Soyer
Raphael Soyer
Raphael Soyer
Raphael Soyer was a Russian-born American painter, draftsman, printmaker, and writer, whose work is commonly associated with Social Realism. Through impressionistic works characterized by bright colors and visible brushstrokes, Soyer focused on contemporary scenes of New York's streets, subways, salons, and artists' studios.
Raphael Soyer
David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Jose David Alfaro Siquieros was a Mexican social realist painter, an active member of the Mexican Communist Party, and one of three artists - along with Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco - who gave rise to the Mexican Mural Renaissance in the early twentieth century. Siqueiros's large-scale fresco murals are defined by their anti-Fascist politics and near expressionistic aesthetic.
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Meyer Schapiro
Meyer Schapiro
Meyer Schapiro
Meyer Schapiro was an important art historian and theorist who wrote on the social and political dimensions of art and its historiography. He made seminal contributions to the fields of Romanesque and medieval art as well as to theories of modernism, abstraction, and Abstract Expressionism.
ArtStory: Meyer Schapiro
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn was a Lithuanian-born American artist and painter. Inspired by the European Expressionists and Fauves, as well as muralists like Diego Rivera, Shahn's Social Realist paintings and murals reflected his leftist political views, focusing on themes like urban life, immigration and organized labor.
ArtStory: Ben Shahn
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis
Stuart Davis Cubist-inspired, but American themes, and his visual manifestation of jazz music were important in the development of movements from Abstract Expressionism to Pop art. He was one of the youngest artists represented at the 1913 Armory Show and taught many young artists in New York City.
ArtStory: Stuart Davis
Aaron Douglas
Aaron Douglas
Aaron Douglas
Aaron Douglas was an American artist and arts educator. Douglas was a major figure in the Harlem Renaissance, painting beloved murals and doing the illustrations for two important African-American magazines of the time.
Aaron Douglas
Ashcan School
Ashcan School
Ashcan School
Founded at the beginning of the twentieth century, the Ashcan School was a loose congregation of American Realist artists that challenged the dominant style of Impressionism in favor of a more naturalistic and socially-engaged approach to painting. Initiated by Robert Henri in Philadelphia, the school later moved to New York, where its central members included George Bellows, George Luks, William Glackens, Edward Hopper, Joan Sloan, and Everett Shinn. Although the group's members incorporated a range of styles, they shared a common interest in depicting contemporary society through both the squalor and vitality of the burgeoning metropolis.
ArtStory: Ashcan School
John Steuart Curry
John Steuart Curry
John Steuart Curry
John Steuart Curry was an American Regionalist painter and muralist who often depicted the outdoor events and landscapes of his native Kansas.
John Steuart Curry
Grant Wood
Grant Wood
Grant Wood
Grant Wood, painter of American Gothic and other iconic representations of American life, was one of the most well-known of the Regionalists, a group that focused on realist depictions of daily life in midwestern America.
Grant Wood
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton was an American painter whose rural and industrial subjects, grand-scale murals, and figurative style were hallmarks of American Regionalism.
ArtStory: Thomas Hart Benton
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
ArtStory: Surrealism
Philip Evergood
Philip Evergood
Philip Evergood
Philip Evergood was an American artist known for his large-scale printmaking and association with the Works Progress Administration. Many of his works can be classified as belonging to the Social Realist movement.
Philip Evergood
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence
Jacob Lawrence was a twentieth-century African-American painter and self-described "dynamic cubist." Lawrence's figurative paintings often depicted slices of African-American life and hardship.
Jacob Lawrence
Philip Guston
Philip Guston
Philip Guston
Initially associated with the New York School of abstract art, Guston famously abandoned pure abstraction in the 1950s and turned to figurative art and quasi-abstract cartoon imagery. His later work, for which he is best known, was a major influence on the development of Neo-Expressionism in the U.S.
ArtStory: Philip Guston
Sue Coe
Sue Coe
Sue Coe
Sue Coe is an English artist and illustrator, frequently illustrating books and comics. Through her drawing and printmaking, Coe has brought the subjects of factory farming, meat packing, apartheid, sweatshops, prisons, AIDS, and war to the forefront of newspapers, books, and magazines.
Sue Coe
Mike Alewitz
Mike Alewitz
Mike Alewitz
Mike Alewitz is an American muralist who was named a Millennium Artist by the White House Millennium Council. Alewitz's murals mix art and politics, expressing the artist's views on war and social justice. His works have been considered so confrontational that he is said to be one of the most censored artists in the world.
Mike Alewitz