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Movements Neo-Dada

Neo-Dada

Started: 1952

Ended: 1970

Quotes

"My work exists in the space between art and life."
Robert Rauschenberg
"Which is more musical: a truck passing by a factory or a truck passing by a music school?"
John Cage
"You have to love dancing to stick to it. It gives you nothing back, no manuscripts to store away, no paintings to show on walls and maybe hang in museums, no poems to be printed and sold, nothing but that single fleeting moment when you feel alive."
Merce Cunningham

KEY ARTISTS

Robert RauschenbergRobert Rauschenberg
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Robert Rauschenberg Page
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Jasper JohnsJasper Johns
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Jasper Johns Page
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John CageJohn Cage
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John Cage Page
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Allan KaprowAllan Kaprow
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Allan Kaprow Page
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ArmanArman
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Arman Page
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Yves KleinYves Klein
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Yves Klein Page
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Merce CunninghamMerce Cunningham
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Jim DineJim Dine
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Red GroomsRed Grooms
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Edward KienholzEdward Kienholz
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Edward Kienholz Page
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"This everyday world affects the way art is created as much as it conditions its response."

Synopsis

The term Neo-Dada was applied to the works of artists such as Jasper Johns, Robert Rauschenberg, and Allan Kaprow who initiated a radical shift in the focus of modern art during the 1950s. Neo-Dada artists are known for their usage of mass media and found objects, as well as a penchant for performance. These artists rebelled against the emotionally charged paintings of the Abstract Expressionists that dominated the art world in the 1950s. By introducing mundane subject and emphasizing performance, the Neo-Dada artists ushered in the radical changes modern art underwent during the 1960s and paved the way for Pop art, Minimalism, and Conceptualism.

Key Ideas

Unlike the militant declarations of Dada artists, Neo-Dada artists provoked through covert strategies more suitable to the cold war climate. Neo-Dada simultaneously mocked and celebrated consumer culture, united opposing conventions of abstraction and realism, and disregarded boundaries between media through experimentation with assemblage, performance, and other hybrid fusions.
Neo-Dada artists often encouraged viewers to look beyond traditional aesthetic standards and interpret meaning through a process of critical thinking generated by contradictions, absurd juxtapositions, coded narratives, and other mixed signals, rather than the internal emotions the action painters referenced in their abstract works.
Neo-Dada artists adhered to Marcel Duchamp's premise that works of art are intermediaries in a process that the artist begins and the viewer completes. In the historical context, Neo-Dada revived this long dormant theoretical framework and provided the foundation for many of the contemporary art movements that followed.
Encouraging the shift toward the viewer as part of the artwork, many Neo-Dada artists adhered to a notion that the viewer's interpretation of a work - not the artist's intent - determined its meaning. This was emphasized through the use of chance, found objects, and mass media, which helped eliminate the artist's predetermined significance and instead placed the focus on the viewer's reading of the piece.

Most Important Art

Theater Piece No. 1 (1952)
Artist: John Cage
Cage's Theater Piece No. 1, also known as simply "The Event," was a seminal performance for the evolution of Neo-Dada, paving the way for the movement's signature collaborations and multimedia basis. Conceived by Cage, the piece involved several simultaneous, unscripted performance components including a poetry reading, music, dance, photographic slide projections, film, and four panels of Robert Rauschenberg's White Paintings (1951) suspended from the ceiling in the shape of a cross. While Cage set certain guidelines for which medium each performer used, he let each individual artist determine the specifics of their role within the performance, emphasizing the function of chance in determining the course of the event. The aspects were all integral to the development of the Neo-Dada aesthetic as well as later performance art, and were encapsulated within this one work in which many of the key artists within the Neo-Dada movement played integral roles.
Multimedia performance event - Performed at Black Mountain College
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Beginnings

The Neo-Dada movement was initiated by the composer John Cage, artist Robert Rauschenberg, and the dancer and choreographer Merce Cunningham at Black Mountain College in North Carolina in 1952. At the school, Cage lectured about embracing aleatory processes - the role of chance - and Eastern philosophies like Zen Buddhism in the creation of art and in daily life. A student in Cage's classes, Rauschenberg began working in less-traditional artistic processes, like using an automobile tire to create a print or painting a canvas pure white so that it would reflect its surroundings as the main subject matter. In the same context, Cunningham focused on synthesizing aspects of modern dance and classical ballet with his own natural ability and "animalistic" grace, aligning dance with performance art. While many individual works and moments contributed to the definition of the Neo-Dada aesthetic, Cage's "The Event," or Theatre Piece No. 1 (1952), performed at Black Mountain College, summarized the movement's interests in the emphasis on chance, individuality, interaction with the audience, and multiple media all combined into a singular work. After moving to New York City, Rauschenberg and Johns were neighbors and often discussed their ideas about artistic practice in their studios, further refining the aesthetic, particularly the idea that the artist's intent should not be legible or present in the final work.

The label Neo-Dada was first used in 1957 by art critic Robert Rosenblum and then the following year by Thomas B. Hess, director of ARTnews magazine. The critic and art historian Barbara Rose defined Neo-Dada as a broader movement in 1962, by which time the East Coast branch of the movement was largely considered to be over and Pop art began to captivate New York.

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The Dada Tradition

Neo-Dada as a movement shares a great number of similarities with the earlier twentieth-century Dada movement in Europe, but as the "neo" implies, the artists reinterpreted the goals of the original movement in the context of mid-twentieth-century America. The original Dada artists - in Berlin, Zurich, Cologne, and Paris - mounted an assault on bourgeois culture in response to the horrific destruction of an entire generation of men during World War I. They were unified less by a specific style than by their adoption of particular strategies in which art became a tactic against contemporary culture. The Neo-Dada artists adopted similar strategies in their art, namely collage, performance, and the incorporation of chance. However, the artists of the Neo-Dada movement viewed their varied methods and mediums as a way to expand the boundaries of fine art, while the original Dadaists sought to deconstruct modern society and culture through their art.

Beyond The Shadow of Abstract Expressionism

In the early 1950s, Abstract Expressionism held the mantle of the American avant-garde, and the collective of artists associated with it, including Jackson Pollock, Willem de Kooning, Franz Kline, Mark Rothko, and others, continued to capture the art world's fascination with their exercises in abstraction and their often testosterone-fueled lifestyles of drinking and womanizing. By the time the artists that came to be associated with Neo-Dada began working, Abstract Expressionism had been the primary American modern style of painting for over a decade. In 1949, the Abstract Expressionist movement was so ubiquitous within American culture that Pollock graced the pages of Life magazine. By the 1950s, second and third generations of Abstract Expressionists created works in a style that successfully penetrated all aspects of art education and production in America. When Rauschenberg erased the lines drawn by an Abstract Expressionist master in Erased de Kooning Drawing (1953), he symbolized the desire of all Neo-Dada artists to obliterate the psychological trappings embedded in the formalist aesthetics of the preceding style.

Concepts and Styles

Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, John Cage, Merce Cunningham, and Allan Kaprow were all crucial to the Neo-Dada aesthetic. All of these artists lived and worked in New York City, exhibiting and performing in the same galleries and alternative venues, yet each developed an individual style that drew on the objects and acts of everyday life to create art. In addition to the New York City artists, there also were many artists, like Edward Kienholz, that worked in California in what came to be known as a "Funk" art style, which also utilized found objects as art, often in order to critique society.

Robert Rauschenberg and Combines

Artists involved in Neo Dada Art Movement

Soon after the Erased de Kooning Drawing (1953), Rauschenberg created a new form of assemblage that bridged multiple mediums. The "Combine" or "combine painting" was conceived by Rauschenberg in 1954 and incorporated found objects, paint, print, and sculpture into a multimedia object that transcended traditional divisions between mediums. While some Dada and Surrealist predecessors such as Marcel Duchamp, Kurt Schwitters, and Joseph Cornell had experimented with assemblage in many forms, Rauschenberg's Combines incorporated cast-off pieces of ephemera within the paintings themselves, leaving viewers to question and interpret the painting's intent. The resulting effect of the Combines was a jarring juxtaposition that broke down the lines that traditionally separated mass culture from fine art. Rauschenberg ushered in a postmodern sensibility in which the focus of art shifted from the psyche of the artist to the spontaneous amalgamation of objects and art mediums into a work that dissected contemporary life.

Jasper Johns and Semiotics

In 1958, after Johns' wildly successful first solo exhibition in New York, critics seized on the way he utilized commonplace materials to create aesthetically driven images. He aimed to work with "things the mind already knows," such as targets, flags, letters and numbers, that he rendered using newsprint and magazines dipped in encaustic, a type of molten wax, to create the individual marks, or "brushstrokes," that built each image. By using newspapers and other media as the basis of the flags, targets, letters, and numbers, Johns emphasized the bombardment of symbols in contemporary mass media, heightened by the discord between the legibility of the well-known symbols and the illegibility of the embedded words and images within the encaustic. His choice of medium quoted the gestural brushwork of the Abstract Expressionists, with each movement and mark frozen in time. Through his re-presentation of familiar things, Johns abstracts the surroundings of everyday life, simultaneously criticizing Abstract Expressionism for its inattention to anything but the artist's psyche while also commenting on the inundation of the mass media within Americans' daily lives in the modern world.

John Cage and Chance

During his work as a professor at Black Mountain College, John Cage cemented certain ideals that came to define Neo-Dada, particularly the role of chance in making art, as well as the artist's control over the definition of art and its creation. In 1952, Cage released his controversial 4'33" (Four minutes, thirty-three seconds), a three-movement composition that required a sole musician be present with any instrument and sit in absolute silence for the full duration, allowing the sounds of nature and the audience members to create the music. If nothing else, this paradoxical and utterly spontaneous work of art was a direct challenge to the status quo of music, composition, and performance. In this regard, 4'33" follows in the tradition of Dadaist Marcel Duchamp, whose artistic practices were altogether satirical, ironic, self-effacing, and above all free from the formal criteria of "traditional" avant-garde art. John Cage continued throughout his career to create compositions and performances that relied on external forces and controlled chance, effectively shifting the focus of the artwork from the creator's emotional intent to the surrounding, external world.

Merce Cunningham and Dance as Performance

Merce Cunningham's work with various artists, composers, dancers, performers, and musicians throughout his career set a precedent for the development of a performative art that transcended the boundaries of dance, theater, art, and music. He founded the Merce Cunningham Dance Company at Black Mountain College in 1953, with John Cage occupying the roles of composer, conductor, and musical director. The prior year, Cage staged "The Event" (1952), or Theatre Piece No. 1, through an important collaboration with Cunningham; Cunningham's signature style of individual muscular grace was integral to the work's destruction of the boundaries between audience and performance, as he danced amidst the audience bringing them into the heart of the event. Like Cage, Cunningham avidly employed programmed chance as a determining factor in his works, allowing the structured chaos to shape his choreography. Rauschenberg was the company's first artistic director, followed by Johns, who throughout his long tenure with the company incorporated the designs of artists like Andy Warhol, Bruce Nauman, and Frank Stella into the company's productions. Through Cunningham's innovative choreographies exploring movement and duration, creative partnerships, and radical methodologies, he revolutionized modern dance as well as performance art.

Allan Kaprow and Happenings

Neo Dada Performance

Much like Rauschenberg, Allan Kaprow was heavily influenced by John Cage and was also a great admirer of the Abstract Expressionists. In line with the majority of the Neo-Dada artists, Kaprow sought new ways of combining art and life within his work, particularly by attempting to extend the intentions of the action painters beyond the canvas, into life. In his 1958 essay, "The Legacy of Jackson Pollock," Kaprow described his desire for a concrete art, calling for an end to permanent works of art in favor of ephemeral materials and events. This essay also outlines how these events could move the legacy of the action painters into a new form of art that emphasized the performative act and the audience's reception over the artist's intent, as was typical of the Neo-Dada movement. This call for a radical shift in modern art manifested itself in the late 1950s and early 1960s with the development of Kaprow's iconic "happenings," a mode of quasi-improvised performance art often guided by an idea that relied heavily on audience participation as well as an environment filled with seemingly random objects, smells, actions, and sounds. The happening was an immersive experience, for artists and audience alike, that was specific to a singular occasion and could not be recreated. Kaprow was not only driven by the notion of a performance of daily life, but he also aimed to refute the notion of the art object as a commodity. After the Abstract Expressionists gained immense fame and financial success from their paintings, Kaprow sought to create works that could not be bought and sold, but only experienced. Other key artists of this period who were integral to the development of happenings included Red Grooms, Jim Dine, Robert Whitman, David Tudor, and Yves Klein, among others.

Edward Kienholz and West Coast "Funk Art"

The founder of the two top avant-garde galleries in Los Angeles, Edward Kienholz was at the forefront of the Beat, or Funk, art movement in California. Although he lacked a formal art training, Kienholz had produced art since his teens, and began creating his signature installation assemblages in the early 1960s. Works like The State Hospital (1964-66) incorporate a vast amount of found objects, including hospital beds, fiberglass, and fluorescent tubing, to create an immersive environment that captures the mood or idea - in this case the cruel treatment of patients in a state psychiatric institution. In addition to Kienholz, other artists working in California, like Jay DeFeo, Wally Hendrick, and Bruce Conner, also created assemblages that broke down the lines between sculpture, painting, and mass culture. These artists often included political subtexts in their works that were largely absent from the art of their East Coast cohorts who strongly objected to any implication that the artist's intent dictated the meaning of a work of art. Kienholz co-founded the Ferus Gallery, which was an integral venue for the California artists, and exhibited work that the established New York galleries deemed too risky to show - this included Andy Warhol's Campbell's Soup Cans (1962). The newness of the art world in California allowed artists greater freedom than the highly competitive and formalism-dominated scene in New York City. This freedom was translated into artworks that made social, cultural, and political commentaries, incorporated unconventional mediums, and helped redefine what constituted fine art.

Later Developments

Although loosely associated as a movement by art critics, the artists labeled Neo-Dada never recognized this designation and never really saw themselves as a part of a uniform avante-garde style. By 1962, when Barbara Rose officially defined the movement, all of the principal players had already achieved fame and critical admiration within the art world. As the 1960s moved forward, Neo-Dada's turn toward the external world of mass culture as material for fine art paved the way for Pop art's specific focus on consumer objects and popular images. As artists such as Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein captured the public's imagination with their soup cans and comic book images, the art world's focus shifted to Pop art. However, both Rauschenberg and Johns continued to paint and create prints for several decades, always using their art to engage with their contemporary contexts. Cunningham was immensely influential in modern dance and many of his collaborators and dancers, like Viola Farber, Paul Taylor, and Carolyn Brown, went on to create their own successful performances and companies. Kaprow's happenings paved the way for the international Fluxus groups' actions and the general performance art movement in the late 1960s and 1970s, and also set a standard of interactivity, multimedia, and an art of everyday life that was a huge influence for later contemporary art. Strains of Neo-Dada persisted throughout the 1960s, and even longer in various international movements. For example, Arte Povera was a movement founded in Italy that maintained a disdain for corporate culture and conventional art, while the Nouveau Réalisme (or "New Realism") artists favored the depiction of real objects over pure abstraction and sought to merge art and life.


Content compiled and written by Justin Wolf

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Neo-Dada

Books
Audio
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
written about neo-dada
Neo-Dada: Redefining Art 1958-62

By Susan Hapgood, Maurice Berger, Jill Johnston

An Audience of Artists: Dada, Neo-Dada, and the Emergence of Abstract Expressionism

By Catherine Craft

Chance and Circumstance: Twenty Years with Cage and Cunningham

By Carolyn Brown

Random Order: Robert Rauschenberg and the Neo-Avant-Garde

By Branden W. Joseph

John Cage Lecture Reading

A Discussion of Rauschenberg, Duchamp, and Johns at the LA County Museum of Art

John Cage on Ubu Web

Recordings of Cage's Compositions

Robert Rauschenberg Interview

Clip from the 1972 Film 'Painters Painting'

Robert Rauschenberg on 'Erased de Kooning Drawing'

Video by SFMoMA

'Variations V' by John Cage and Merce Cunningham

Video of the Multimedia Performance by Cage and Cunningham

'Dreams that Money Can Buy'

Marcel Duchamp clip from Hans Richter's 1947 film, with music by John Cage

web resources
'Neo-Dada', 'Junk Aesthetic' and Spectator Participation' by Anna Dezeuze

Essay on the Role of the Spectator in the Neo-Avant-Garde

Allan Kaprow on Ubu Web

A Selection of Essays, Lectures, and Recordings by Kaprow

Merce Cunningham Trust: Official Website

Features Information and Videos on Cunningham and his Work

'Dancing Around the Bride: Cage, Cunningham, Johns, Rauschenberg, and Duchamp' at The Philadelphia Museum of Art

2013 Exhibition Website, with Information on the Artists, a Discussion of Neo-Dada, and Various Multimedia Resources

Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
ArtStory: Jasper Johns
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg
Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos. His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation.
ArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow
Allan Kaprow was an American painter, collagist, assemblagist and performance artist. Kaprow was best known for trailblazing the artistic concept "happenings," which were experiential artistic events rather than single works of art.
ArtStory: Allan Kaprow
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
ArtStory: Pop Art
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
ArtStory: Minimalism
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
ArtStory: Conceptual Art
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
John Cage
John Cage
John Cage
John Cage was an American composer and conceptual artist who incorporated chance, silence, and environmental effects into his performances. An important art theorist, he influenced choreographers, musicians, and the Fluxus artists of the 1970s.
ArtStory: John Cage
Merce Cunningham
Merce Cunningham
Merce Cunningham
Merce Cunningham was an American choreographer and dance instructor. He taught at Black Mountain College for several years, playing an important role in the school's interdisciplinary approach to art instruction. He founded the Merce Cunningham Dance Company in New York, and is considered one of the founders of modern dance.
Merce Cunningham
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. It has had a role in avant-garde art throughout the twentieth century, playing an important part in anarchic movements such as Futurism and Dada. It particularly flourished in the 1960s, when Performance artists became preoccupied with the body, but it continues to be an important aspect of art practice.
ArtStory: Performance Art
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum
Robert Rosenblum was an American art critic, curator and historian. His greatest contribution to the modern canon was his redefinition of Modern art history, offering that the era began not with Impressionism but with Neo-Classicists of the late eighteenth century.
ArtStory: Robert Rosenblum
Thomas B. Hess
Thomas B. Hess
Thomas B. Hess
Thomas B. Hess was an art critic and historian, and a proponent of Abstract Expressionism. He served as editor of the influential magazine ART News.
ArtStory: Thomas B. Hess
Barbara Rose
Barbara Rose
Barbara Rose
Barbara Rose is an American art historian. Her 1965 article "ABC Art" was an important early study of Minimalism.
Barbara Rose
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
ArtStory: Jackson Pollock
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning, a Dutch immigrant to New York, was one of the foremost Abstract Expressionist painters. His abstract compositions drew on Surrealist and figurative traditions, and typified the expressionistic 'gestural' style of the New York School.
ArtStory: Willem de Kooning
Franz Kline
Franz Kline
Franz Kline
Franz Kline was an American abstract painter and one of the pioneers of Abstract Expressionism. His signature black-and-white abstractions were inspired by Japanese calligraphy, and inspired a later generation of artists who created Minimalism.
ArtStory: Franz Kline
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko
Mark Rothko was an Abstract Expressionist painter whose early interest in mythic landscapes gave way to mature works featuring large, hovering blocks of color on colored grounds.
ArtStory: Mark Rothko
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz
Edward Kienholz was an American installation artist and sculptor, frequently associated with the California-based Funk art movement. His work, which explores issues of sexual exploitation, abuse of political power, racism, and religion, is known for its highly critical stance on modern culture and society.
ArtStory: Edward Kienholz
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters was a German multi-media artist who was particularly influential in the development of the Dada and Constructivist movements. By the 1920s, Schwitters was heavily involved in the international avant-garde, touring the world with artists like Hans Arp and Tristan Tzara. These travels earned him wide acclaim in the U.S. and scrutiny in his native Germany, which would soon come under the control of the Third Reich.
Kurt Schwitters
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell was an American artist, best known for his collage work and "shadow boxes," which were highly complex diorama-like constructions. Cornell incorporated found objects, old photos, newspaper clippings and other objects into these boxes, resulting in uniquely surreal, three-dimensional worlds. Cornell was one of the few American artists associated with Surrealism.
ArtStory: Joseph Cornell
Red Grooms
Red Grooms
Red Grooms
Red Grooms is an American painter, sculptor, filmmaker, printmaker, and performance artist. Through his pioneering use of multimedia art forms, Grooms creates colorful, Pop-inspired works marked by humor and absurdism that evoke the frenzy of modern life.
Red Grooms
Jim Dine
Jim Dine
Jim Dine
Jim Dine is an American painter commonly associated with the Neo-Dada and Pop art movements. In addition to showing alongside such Pop icons as Warhol, Lichtenstein and Ruscha, Dine is also well known for collaborating with Allan Kaprow, Claes Oldenburg and John Cage on a series of "happenings" in 1957, now considered a pioneering step for the medium.
Jim Dine
Robert Whitman
Robert Whitman
Robert Whitman
Robert Whitman, an American theater and sound artist, creates sculpture and installation works integrating various technologies. He was part of the group of artists that included Claes Oldenburg and Allan Kaprow, who were creating pioneering performance works in the 1950s and 60s.
Robert Whitman
David Tudor
David Tudor
David Tudor
David Tudor was an American pianist and composer, widely recognized for his collaborations with John Cage and Merce Cunningham. A trailblazer of experimental music and performance, Tudor is best known for his innovative use of found elements, atonal sequences, and manipulated electronic circuits.
David Tudor
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein was a French Neo-Dadaist artist who produced a series of monochrome works in 1957. He is credited with creating an entirely new color of blue, eventually called International Klein Blue. He employed this color in his paintings made by covering naked bodies with pigment and using them as "paintbrushes," an important antecedent to later performance art.
ArtStory: Yves Klein
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
ArtStory: Andy Warhol
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein was an American painter and a pioneer of the Pop art movement. His signature reproductions of comic book imagery eventually redefined how the art world viewed high vs. lowbrow art. Lichtenstein employed a unique form of painting called the Benday dot technique, in which small, closely-knit dots of paint were applied to form a much larger image.
ArtStory: Roy Lichtenstein
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus was an international network of artists of the 1960s who worked in fields ranging from music to performance to the visual arts. Taking their name from the Latin 'to flow,' Fluxus artists adopted an often anarchic and satirical approach to conventional forms of art, and their ideas paved the way for Conceptual art.
ArtStory: Fluxus
Arte Povera
Arte Povera
Arte Povera
Arte Povera - "poor art" or "impoverished art" - was the most influential European avant-garde of the 1960s. It numbered around a dozen Italian artists who often used commonplace materials that evoked a pre-industrial age - earth, rocks, clothing, paper and rope. The artists rejected abstract painting, and the references to modernity and technology in American Minimalism, and instead made sculpture which pointed to the past, and to experiences of locality.
ArtStory: Arte Povera
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme
Nouveau Realisme (New Realism) refers to an artistic movement founded in 1960 by the art critic Pierre Restany and artist Yves Klein during the first collective exposition in the Apollinaire Gallery in Milan. Pierre Restany wrote the original manifesto for the group, titled the "Constitutive Declaration of New Realism," in April 1960.
Nouveau Realisme