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The Academy of Art

Quotes

"Art takes nature as its model."
Aristotle
"The idea of beauty does not descend into matter unless this is prepared as carefully as possible. This preparation consists of three things: arrangement, measure, and aspect or form."
Nicolas Poussin
"One always begins by imitating."
Eugene Delacroix
"An artist who is self-taught is taught by a very ignorant person indeed."
John Constable

"The sculptor, and the painter also, should be trained in these liberal arts: grammar, geometry, philosophy, medicine, astronomy, perspective, history, anatomy, theory of design, arithmetic."

Most Important Art

The School of Athens (1509-10)
Artist: Raphael
The idea of an academy has its roots in the school Plato established to teach philosophy in Athens in the fourth century BC. When Raphael painted four stanzas representing various branches of knowledge for the Vatican, he devoted one to philosophy and represented many ancient Greek thinkers. But he included a self-portrait on the right of the picture, as an assertion of Renaissance artists' claim to be deserving of a new and higher education than that which was once provided by the guild system.
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Detailed View

Background

In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, academies - and their "academic" style - became focuses of dissent among many modern artists seeking to develop new styles. Yet, for centuries, the idea of the academy - a place where artists could obtain instruction and exhibit their work - commanded respect. Before their growth, the medieval guild had supplied a trade association for artists who regarded themselves principally as craftsmen. During the Renaissance, however, the status of the artist was raised to that of an individual who was gifted both technically and intellectually. Artists began to see themselves as the peers of philosophers and poets (Raphael included himself in his famous gathering The School of Athens (1509-10)), and academies came into being to provide the new kind of multifaceted education that was required.

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Training

The training received in the traditional academy concentrated on drawing from antique statuary and live models. The image of artists "drawing from life," or discoursing in front of a live model, became a classic academy scene, such as in Johann Zoffany's The Academicians of the Royal Academy (1771-72). Artists also learned subjects such as history, since history painting - which borrowed subjects from literature, mythology, the Bible, and history itself - was widely regarded as the most demanding genre. Although the academies also produced skilled portraitists and still life painters, such genres were held in lower regard.

The French Academy

The most influential European academy was the Académie Royale de Peintre et de Sculpture, which was founded in Paris in 1648. Soon after its establishment it became devoted to the glorification of Louis XIV, and the connection between centralized academies and the state remained important as they spread across Europe in the eighteenth century. Academies were vital in fostering national schools of painting and sculpture and remained pinnacles of aspiration for most artists long into the nineteenth century.

The Academy Exhibition

An important function of the academy was to provide artists with a regular exhibition venue. Since the authority of the academies lent considerable authority to these juried shows, they often became the most important event in the exhibition calendar. This in turn lent further weight to the academies as arbiters of popular taste. The most famous example of this is the biannual exhibition of the French academy, the Salon, so called because it was initially held in the Salon Carre of the Palace of the Louvre. The Salon was the most important regular exhibition in Europe throughout the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The story of its decline is intertwined with that of the rise of modern art.

The Academy vs. Modern Art

In the wake of Romanticism, many artists began to question centralized authority, including that represented by the academy. And by the late nineteenth century, many artists were rejecting authority entirely; indeed, it is arguable that in its early stages modern art came to define itself by an opposition to "academic" art - "academic" becoming a term of abuse for all that was old and moribund. Today, with the state having withdrawn from large-scale patronage and official exhibition venues having lost ground to a variety of public museums and commercial galleries, art schools have also moved on. Most have all but abolished life drawing classes, and many are skeptical of the value of any formal and prescribed training whatsoever.

Original content written by Morgan Falconer

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on The Academy of Art

Books
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
The King's Artists: The Royal Academy of Arts and the Politics of British Culture 1760-1840

By Holger Hoock

Art and the Academy in the Nineteenth Century

By Rafael Cardoso Denis

Academies, Museums and Canons of Art

By Gill Perry, Colin Cunningham

The Academy and French Painting in the 19th Century

By Albert Boime

Johann Zoffany, Royal Academy, Seven Magazine Review

By Judith Flanders
The Telegraph
March 16, 2012

Sizing Up Jacques-Louis David, in a Compact Way

By Roberta Smith
The New York Times
June 10, 2005

Italy as Neoclassicist Inspiration

By Roderick Conway Morris
The New York Times
March 23, 2012

Raphael
Raphael
Raphael
Raffaello Sanzio da Urbino, better known as Raphael, was an Italian painter and architect of the High Renaissance. He is celebrated for the perfection and grace of his paintings and drawings. Together with Michelangelo and Leonardo da Vinci, he forms the traditional trinity of great masters of that period.
Raphael
The French Salon
The French Salon
The French Salon
The Salon was a biannual Paris exhibition that, in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, became the most important regular exhibition in Europe. Initially restricted to members of the French Academy, it was later opened up; however, it remained strongly associated with the Academy's conservatism, and this eventually encouraged artists to exhibit outside of its confines.
ArtStory: The French Salon
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism was a nineteenth-century movement that celebrated the powers of emotion and intuition over rational analysis or classical ideals. Romantic artists emphasized awe, beauty, and the sublime in their works, which frequently charted the darker or chaotic sides of human life.
Romanticism