SynopsisLeo Steinberg is one the 20th century's foremost historians and scholars on the works of Michelangelo, Leonardo and other Italian Renaissance artists. Throughout his career, Steinberg has paid particularly close attention to the depiction of Christ in art, and in the process caused much controversy and debate. In addition to his scholarly work of Renaissance art, Steinberg is also a significant authority on 20th-century modern art, including the paintings and sculptures of Picasso, Jasper Johns's Flag series, and Willem de Kooning's Woman series. His scholarly work has consistently placed art and artists in a historical context, yet he is known for his less than formal approach to criticism by often using a first-person narrative in his essays. This style has personalized art criticism, making it experiential for readers and museumgoers.
Key Ideas / Information
ChildhoodBorn in Moscow to German-Jewish parents, the family later moved to Berlin, where Steinberg spent most of his childhood, between the years 1923 and 1933.
Early yearsFrom 1936-40, Steinberg studied sculpture and painting at the Slade School in London.
After World War II, he emigrated to New York City and began work as a freelance writer and German-English translator. Steinberg's career in the New York art world was launched when, in 1951, he delivered a lecture series at the 92nd Street Y entitled An Introduction to Art and Practical Esthetics. He has said the purpose of these talks was "to provoke an unprejudiced response to various and contradictory art forms."
As a freelance writer in 1950s, his essays found a home in many of the avant-garde, politically leftist publications that were popular at the time, including Partisan Review and Artforum. In particular, Steinberg was quite taken with the art works of Jackson Pollock and Jasper Johns, who were both causing quite a bit of controversy in the New York art world.
Middle yearsIn 1955, Steinberg began writing a number of insightful reviews in Arts magazine about contemporary modern artists. He wrote for the very first Jackson Pollock retrospective at the Sidney Janis Gallery in New York, Willem de Kooning's Woman paintings at the Martha Jackson Gallery, and for the sculptor Julio Gonzalez's retrospective at MoMA, the first U.S. exhibition of metal sculpture work.
In 1960, he earned his Ph.D. in art history from the Institute of Fine Arts at New York University. Steinberg taught art history and life drawing at Hunter College, the City University of New York (CUNY), from 1962 until 1975. While at Hunter, Steinberg was instrumental in developing the curriculum for CUNY's graduate program in art history, which was launched in 1971.
Although best known for his scholarly work on Renaissance art, Steinberg wrote two career-defining essays in 1972 on modern art. The first was an in-depth examination of Picasso's famous 1907 portrait Les Demoiselles d' Avignon, entitled The Philosophical Brothel, and the second was a harsh critique of formalist art criticism, entitled Reflections on the State of Art Criticism.
Since the 1970s, Steinberg has held a steady stream of professorships and lecturing posts at various universities, including Stanford, Berkeley, Princeton, Columbia and Harvard. He has also lectured extensively at museums and galleries around the country.
In 1983, Steinberg became the first ever art critic to receive the Award in Literature from the American Academy and Institute for Arts and Letters.
Later yearsAfter working as a Visiting Professor of Art History at the University of Texas, in 2002 Steinberg donated his private collection of 3,200 prints to the University's College of Fine Arts, valued at approximately $3.5 million. The collection includes prints by Rembrandt, Matisse, Goya, Picasso and Johns, although the majority comprises prints from 16th-18th century artists such as Michelangelo and Agostino Veneziano.
LegacyAs an historian of both Renaissance and Modern art, Steinberg has covered a broad range of subjects in the art world. His scrutiny and eye for detail established Steinberg as a foremost authority on some of history's most prized paintings and prints, dating back nearly a half millennia. He studied the most minute of details in paintings because he believed, above all else, that great artists were master tradesmen who applied time-tested techniques to their canvases, with slow and deliberate action. Despite Steinberg's broad range of topics and thirst for historical context, he is anything but a traditional formalist. In fact, his criticism has been something of a maverick for art historians and critics alike.
MOST IMPORTANT ESSAYS:
Intro to Leo Steinberg's TheoryAs a writer and historian, Steinberg knows the dangers of being too analytical or formal in the critique of any artist or movement. In his essay Other Criteria he writes, "Modern art always projects itself into a twilight zone where no values are fixed. It is always born in anxiety, at least since Cézanne." Steinberg's view of art - whatever the era or movement - is always a historical one, grounded in context. When Steinberg considers the merits of an artwork, he tries to understand the artist's intent, his own reaction to the piece and perhaps most importantly, the physical make-up of a work of art. Steinberg takes his readers on a journey inside each painting, so that they may try to understand what the artist is attempting on the canvas, rather than focus on the intended reaction.
Steinberg on Pablo PicassoThe sheer breadth of Pablo Picasso's work is nearly enough to fill a lifetime of study and retrospection. Steinberg did not attempt a critique of the artist's entire catalogue raisonne; rather, he looked for and focused on prevalent themes in Picasso's repertoire instead.
In his essay collection, The Other Criteria, Steinberg focuses on three key themes in Picasso's work; Sleepwatchers, Skulls, and Women. In each essay, Steinberg carefully juxtaposes in-depth examinations of specific works of art with an equally in-depth examination of Picasso the man. These essays were written in the late 1960s and early 1970s, when art criticism was more widely accepted as a literary medium. Even so, to examine an artist's works directly alongside that artist's life and psychological tendencies was considered a brave departure from more formalist critiques from the past, which considered an artist's private life had little to do with the art they produced.
In his essay Picasso's Sleepwatchers, the theme of sleeping is important to Steinberg because he perceives historical similarities between the time of the Renaissance artists and the time of Picasso. He writes, "But whether the intrusion is tender or murderous, the one caught napping, victim or beneficiary, is the butt of the action. Sleep is the opportunity of the intruder." In this passage, he likens Picasso to Renaissance artists who "complicated the fortunes of sleep." The cultures may differ, but judging by the recurring themes, the nature of private lives and mankind's "psychic concerns" have not significantly changed over time.
Steinberg on Jasper JohnsUpon seeing his first Jasper Johns solo exhibition in 1958, Steinberg was admittedly reticent and skeptical. He saw the value in Johns's new work and in the artist's use of recognizable, everyday objects. This was a clear departure from the world of ineffable imagery found in Abstract Expressionism, but he took time to formulate an opinion about it.
He writes in his essay, Contemporary Art and the Plight of the Public, "It seems that during this first encounter with Johns's work, few people were sure of how to respond, while some the dependable avant-garde critics applied tested avant-garde standards - which seemed suddenly to have grown old and ready for dumping. My own reaction was normal. I disliked the show, and would gladly have thought it a bore. Yet it depressed me and I wasn't sure why." In the works of Jasper Johns, Steinberg identifies a theme of great consequence that is not clear to the naked eye, that of waiting. Steinberg points out the "sense of desolate waiting" in Johns's works, which all contain objects (flags, faces, coat hangers, etc.) designed to move and function in a particular way, yet they are held absolutely rigid and still. This technique, according to Steinberg, is how Jasper Johns manages to invert the viewer's expectations of what makes for significant art.
Steinberg on Willem de Kooning's Woman SeriesSteinberg pays Willem de Kooning a great honor by using his Woman paintings as a vehicle through which to examine all Abstract art. "She is no more distorted than a lightning bolt is a distorted arrow," writes Steinberg in his essay "De Kooning's Woman." There is flesh, definition and erotica in de Kooning's works, but there is also fear, femininity and raw beauty. Steinberg recognizes the complexity of de Kooning's portraits and even concedes that they are "events," despite not being a true believer in Harold Rosenberg's definition of "Action Painting." "The agitated worlds of de Kooning's abstract canvases were scenes of germination," writes Steinberg. "And within these worlds ... de Kooning has described a familiar shape, a form that even Adam would have recognized as from an ancient knowledge." He goes so far as to identify de Kooning's vision as a universal one, as old as art itself.
Writing styleSteinberg adopted no singular methodology when writing. He was an anti-formalist who often used formal analysis in his critiques. What makes Steinberg unique as a critic is his direct honesty and divulgence of personal experience when it comes to viewing art. He not only considers the cultural context of the time when an artwork was made, he also examines all of art history, benefiting readers by drawing on his vast knowledge of themes and movements. While this may sound common among art historians-cum-critics, Steinberg also writes about his personal experience - his emotions, reactions, etc. - when viewing art, which was quite radical for a critic. He interweaves a personal essay style with hard academic research and formal analysis, something that is still frowned upon by many art and cultural historians.
Below are Steinberg's major influences, and the people and ideas that he influenced in turn.
Years Worked: 1955 - present
Quotes"...it is in the nature of original contemporary art to present itself as a bad risk. And we the public ... should be proud of being in this predicament, because nothing else would seem to us quite true to life; and art, after all, is supposed to be a mirror of life."
"If a work of art or a new style disturbs you, then it is probably good work. If you hate it, it is probably great."
"All art is infested by other art."
Written by Steinberg:Other Criteria: Confrontations with Twentieth-Century Art
The Sexuality of Christ in Renaissance Art and in Modern Oblivion
Leonardo's Incessant Last Supper
Essays by Steinberg:
False Starts, Loose Ends
The Brooklyn Rail
Articles about Steinberg:
March 1972 - Reflections on the State of Art Criticism by Leo Steinberg
Expanded Text of Leo Steinberg Interview
The Washington Post
October 5, 2008
In Pop Culture:
The Painted Word
In this Tom Wolfe's 1975 novel, Leo Steinberg (along with Clement Greenberg and Harold Rosenberg) was identified as one of the "Kings of Cultureburg".
|Thomas Eakins was an American painter, photographer, sculptor and teacher. Renowned as an influential Realist painter, particularly during the late 19th century, Eakins' many portraits famously depicted the streets, parlors, natural scenery and citizens of his native Philadelphia. Working on both the canvas and with motion photography, Eakins was known as a master of light, shadow and movement, and for capturing simple scenes that evoked complex themes.
|Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting, and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
ArtStory: Pablo Picasso Page
|The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp Page
|Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
ArtStory: Jasper Johns Page
|Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
ArtStory: Jackson Pollock Page
|Soren Kierkegaard was a Danish philosopher and theologian during the mid 19th century. His most famous work, Either/Or, examined the aesthetics and ethics of human existence through a series of life views espoused by fictional characters. Because of his fascination with the human plight of existence, some consider Kierkegaard to be the father of existentialism.
|Immanuel Kant was a German philosopher and one of the major figures during the 18th-century Enlightenment period of philosophical thinking. Kant's metaphysical writings on judgment, knowledge and doubt led to the development of German idealism, and influenced the likes of Hegel and Schopenhauer.
|Clement Greenberg was one the leading American art critics during the 20th century. Best known as the ideological counterpart to Harold Rosenberg, Greenberg was a formalist who coined the terms "American-type painting" and 'Post-painterly abstraction.' He was a staunch champion of pure abstraction, including the work of Pollock, Still and Hofmann.
ArtStory: Clement Greenberg Page
|Harold Rosenberg was a critic, art historian, and curator who published important works on modern art and culture. He was a leading exponent of Abstract Expressionism, and coined the term "Action Painting."
ArtStory: Harold Rosenberg Page
|Rosalind Krauss is an American art critic and philosopher. Originally a disciple of formalist critic Clement Greenberg, Krauss later founded the radicalist journal October, and became an important proponent of postmodern art theory.
ArtStory: Rosalind Krauss Page
|In the Renaissance, artists rediscovered techniques like rational space, three-point perspective, and plastic forms. Paintings frequently emphasized the human figure, allegory, classical mythology, and Christian themes.
|Baroque art and architecture emerged in late sixteenth-century Europe after the Renaissance, and lasted into the eighteenth century. In contrast to the clarity and order of earlier art, it stressed theatrical atmosphere, dynamic flourishes, and myriad colors and textures.
|A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
ArtStory: Impressionism Page
|Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
ArtStory: Cubism Page
|A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and 1950s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraces the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the post-war mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism Page
|Robert Rauschenberg, a key figure in early Pop Art, admired the textural quality of Abstract Expressionism but scorned its emotional pathos. His famous "Combines" are part sculpture, part painting, and part installation.
ArtStory: Robert Rauschenberg Page
|Thierry De Cordier is a contemporary Belgian artist, whose work consists largely of paintings, drawings and sculpture. De Cordier has made a name for himself by proclaiming his art to be entirely self-centered, thus making each of his works a self-exploratory venture into themes of seclusion, primitivism, and one's need for protection (both physical and emotional) from the outside world.
|Roy Lichtenstein was an American painter and a pioneer of the Pop art movement. His signature reproductions of comic book imagery eventually redefined how the art world viewed high vs. lowbrow art. Lichtenstein employed a unique form of painting called the Benday dot technique, in which small, closely-knit dots of paint were applied to form a much larger image.
ArtStory: Roy Lichtenstein Page
|David Hockney is an English painter, photographer, collagist and designer. Hockney's influence was particularly felt during the Pop art movement on the 1960s, yet his work has also suggested mixed media and expressionistic tendencies. Although based in London for most of his career, Hockney's most famous paintings occurred during an extended trip to Los Angeles, in which he painted a series of scenes inspired by swimming pools.
|Tom Wolfe is an American author and journalist, and a founder of the so-called New Journalism movement of the 1960s and 70s. Known equally for his fiction and non-fiction, Wolfe gained noteriety and infamy within the art world for his biting 1975 book The Painted Word, in which he critiqued the art industry's insularity and excessive use of critical jargon.
|John Russell was an art historian and critic who wrote for the London Sunday Times from 1950-1974, then for the New York Times from 1974-1990, coming on board immediately after the departure of John Canaday. Although seldom cited in the annals of Abstract Expressionist history, Russell's work as a critic was crucial to the continued enthusiasm for modern art well into the 1970s and 80s.
ArtStory: John Russell Page
|Robert Rosenblum was an American art critic, curator and historian. His greatest contribution to the modern canon was his redefinition of Modern art history, offering that the era began not with Impressionism but with Neo-Classicists of the late-18th century.
ArtStory: Robert Rosenblum Page
|William Rubin was the Museum of Modern Art's Director of the Department for Painting and Sculpture, from 1973 to 1988. As an accomplished curator and as friend to many prominent dealers, including Julien Levy, Rubin was instrumental in building the MoMA's collection of Abstract Expressionist art, as well as many groundbreaking works by Picasso, Matisse and Miro.
|British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
ArtStory: Pop Art Page
|Op art, short for Optical art, is a style of abstraction that relies on geometric shapes, lines, and color juxtapositions to create optical illusions. Emerging in the mid 1950s, along with Kinetic art, it generated an international following of artists seeking to create new and more interactive relationships with the viewer, and new, disorientating visual experiences.
ArtStory: Op Art Page
|Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the hot expressivism of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
ArtStory: Minimalism Page