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Artists Hannah Wilke

Hannah Wilke

American Photographer and Conceptual Artist

Movements: Feminist Movement, Modern Photography, Conceptual Art

Born: March 7, 1940 - New York City, USA

Died: January 28, 1993 - New York City, USA

Quotes

"I have been concerned with the creation of a formal imagery that is specifically female."
Hannah Wilke
"I become my art, my art becomes me."
Hannah Wilke
"Visual prejudice has caused world wars, mutilation, hostility, and alienation generated by fear of 'the other'."
Hannah Wilke
"History is a dialectical process."
Hannah Wilke
"The role model is now both the woman and the artist herself."
Hannah Wilke
"Why should we have this mind-body male-female duality? The mind and body are one, so I tried to make art an expression of that connection."
Hannah Wilke
"Generating a pornographic attitude toward sexuality creates a money market that promotes and supports financial success and a way of life for both men and women."
Hannah Wilke
"My work has always been about language."
Hannah Wilke

"To diffuse self-prejudice, women must take control of and have pride in the sensuality of their own bodies and create a sensuality in their own terms, without referring to the concepts degenerated by culture."

Synopsis

Now seen as an iconic and path-breaking Feminist artist, Wilke's work was first rejected by many critics, largely because of her conventional beauty. Her performances and photography are now seen as a crucial component of the Feminist movement in their use of the artist's own body in ways that addressed issues of female objectification, the male gaze, female agency, and even sexism within the feminist movement itself. Her challenge to traditional art practices and cultural assumptions puts her work squarely within postmodernism, while her fearless exploration of the female body keeps her relevant to this day.

Key Ideas

Wilke relentlessly explored stereotypes of the female body by drawing attention to the objectification of women in both high art and popular culture. Her use of her own body put her practice at the cutting edge of performance art, but her work in this genre was often misread by critics as a celebration of her own beauty and thus a reaffirmation of women's objectification.
Wilke employed a wide range of media; her experiments with non-art material were not unusual for the time, but her chosen media were ephemeral and playful, including gum, erasers, chocolate, play-doh, cookie dough, and dryer lint. The common denominator in these materials is their malleability, something she used to express both stereotypes about women and women's vulnerability.
Wilke's work was a significant element of postmodernism that dominated the art world beginning in the 1970s. Postmodern art is characterized by the breakdown of distinctions between high and low culture, a rejection of fine art materials, a challenge to traditional definitions of art, and a focus on spectacle. All of these were at the core of Wilke's practice.

Most Important Art

Advertisement for an Exhibition at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts (1970)
Wilke created a provocative advertisement to promote her first solo exhibition at Ronald Feldman Fine Arts in the early 1970s. The photograph depicts Wilke in her studio in Chateau Marmont, Los Angeles, wearing a sweater, high-heeled boots, and thin hosiery. She is shown from behind with one leg planted firmly on the ground, while the other foot rests on a chair. Her position looks neither natural nor comfortable, and the effect is deliberately sexualized and confrontational. The photograph was taken by Wilke's partner at the time, artist Claes Oldenburg, and is the first of a lifelong series of photographic self-portraits taken by people close to Wilke under her direction.

The image is complex and contradictory. It shows Wilke with her back to the viewer, as if she is working hard on her art, taking her practice seriously. However, while it presents a woman-as-artist, it also presents a woman-as-object. As Amelia Jones puts it, "she is absorbed in something on her desk and her defiance is marked by her ass-in-your-face pose and her seemingly complete lack of interest in or concern for the viewer's potentially devastating 'male gaze'."

Wilke's absorption appears to give the (implicitly male) viewer uninhibited access to this highly sexualized image of her. This reading is complicated, however, both by the fact that the image was staged by Wilke herself and by her complete lack of interest in her to-be-looked-at-ness. Even at this early stage of her career, Wilke demonstrates an awareness of the duality of women's roles, both as sex objects and as active agents in society.
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Biography

Childhood

Hannah Wilke was born in New York City, originally named Arlene Hannah Butter. Her parents, Selma and Emanuel (a lawyer), were practicing Jews whose families had immigrated from Eastern Europe. Along with her sister Marsie, Wilke went to a public school in Queens before attending Great Neck High School.

Wilke's interest in photographic self-portraiture started at an early age. When she was 14, she chose to be photographed wearing only a fur stole of her mother's, posing in front of a wall, which featured her name in large letters.

Early Training and Work

Hannah Wilke Biography

After high school, Wilke studied fine art at the Stella Elkins Tyler School, at Temple University in Philadelphia. She graduated with a Bachelor of Fine Arts and a Bachelor of Science in Education in 1961. She married the designer, Barry Wilke in 1960, and taught in a Pennsylvania high school. After their divorce in 1965, she moved back to New York where she also taught at the high school level. In 1974 she began teaching sculpture at the School of Visual Arts, where she founded the ceramics department, and taught until 1991.

In the early 1960s, Wilke's work began to be exhibited widely. Her terracotta sculptures in vaginal forms were first shown in 1967 at Nycata, New York. These works constituted one of the first times that explicit vaginal imagery was used as part of the feminist movement. It was at this point that Wilke started to become a well-known artist.

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Hannah Wilke Biography Continues
Claes Oldenburg and Hannah Wilke

In 1969, Wilke started a relationship with Claes Oldenburg, the American artist famous for his "soft sculptures". Until their relationship ended in the mid-1970s, the couple shared studios as well as lived together. Wilke frequently photographed Oldenburg, and also got Oldenburg to take photographs of her. These included one of her earliest self-portraits for an advertisement for an exhibition at Ronald Feldman Gallery in New York, where Wilke had her first one-woman show in 1972.

Mature Period

Hannah Wilke and Ponder-r-rosa in 1975

While Wilke continued making sculpture and drawings, by the early 1970s her attention shifted to photography, video, and performance art. Throughout the 1970s, she also became increasingly involved with the burgeoning feminist art movement. For example, in 1974 she participated in feminist publications such as, "Anonymous was a Woman" and, "Art: A Woman's Sensibility." In 1975, Wilke met Donald Goddard at the opening of one of her shows at the Ronald Feldman Gallery. Goddard was working as the managing editor for Artnews at the time, and had two daughters from a previous relationship. A couple of weeks after the opening, Feldman offered Goddard tickets for the opera, where he met Wilke again. He later recalled, "The opera was Puccini's La Boheme. Hannah loved opera. She loved Puccini, and she especially loved women's voices. So that was the beginning of our relationship."

Wilke was full of fun and spontaneity. On one occasion, she was with Goddard and his two daughters in New York City, when she spotted an empty sculptural pedestal. She insisted that Goddard photograph her with the two girls posing on it, turning it into a work entitled Three Goddesses, Three Goddards.

Hannah Wilke Photo

From that point on, Goddard worked with Wilke extensively in her practice, taking photographs for her. He was particularly involved in the production of her So Help me Hannah series (1978). Despite his involvement in the process of Wilke's work, Goddard never saw himself as the author. He said, "I saw it as Hannah's work, and I felt wonderful to be a part of it."

At the end of the 1970s, Wilke's mother Selma was diagnosed with breast cancer. Selma lived with Wilke and Goddard for a while, and Wilke began to photograph herself and her mother as her mother's illness progressed, through her mastectomy and invasive cancer treatments. Goddard later recalled that "Hannah took a lot of pictures, and she said it was a way of keeping her mother alive. She hoped that it would literally do that. Of course it didn't." Her mother died in 1982.

Late Period

Wilke continued her work with the same thematic focus in the 1980s, always exploring new media and different forms of self-representation. She was diagnosed with cancer in 1987. She had had a lump for some time, but her doctor failed to recognize the disease, which turned out to be lymphoma. She had to undergo extensive and invasive treatments, including chemotherapy and a bone marrow transplant. Throughout her illness, she had Goddard take photographs and film her.

During this time, her body, which had been a key component of her work, lost its conventional beauty as she underwent her treatments. In addition to losing her hair, she became bloated from chemotherapy and bruised from other invasive treatments. She documented these changes and her altered body in her Intra-Venus series. Wilke and Goddard got married in 1992, and Wilke died the following year. The Intra-Venus series of photos was published posthumously as a poignant record of Wilke's illness.


Legacy

Though her art was strongly and explicitly feminist, Wilke's work was often misunderstood by feminist and other critics who saw it as narcissistic, and reaffirming of women's position as an object of desire. It is only recently that Wilke's work has begun to be reassessed as a radical postmodern statement about women's control over their own bodies, the male gaze, and female objectification. While controversial, her art has also been inspirational for many artists, particularly in the genres of sculpture and photographic self-portraiture. For example, Wilke's provocative advertisement for her solo show at Ronald Feldman Gallery in the early 1970s laid the groundwork for similar works, such as Lynda Benglis' advertisement in Art Forum from 1974, which depicted the artist naked and clutching a large dildo.

Some of Wilke's performances also anticipated other feminist performance works, such as Carolee Schneemann's provocative Interior Scroll (1975), while her photographic works were a strong influence on Cindy Sherman's photographic practice based around self-portraiture. Artists following in Wilke's footsteps lay particular emphasis on issues of the female body, the self, and the gaze.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Hannah Wilke
Interactive chart with Hannah Wilke's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Eva Hesse
Louise Bourgeois

Friends

Claes Oldenburg

Movements

Feminist Art
Minimalism
Conceptual Art
Hannah Wilke
Hannah Wilke
Years Worked: 1960 - 1990

Artists

Cindy Sherman
Carolee Schneemann
Lynda Benglis
Vanessa Beecroft

Friends

Movements

Conceptual Art
Feminist Art

Useful Resources on Hannah Wilke

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Hannah Wilke

By Nancy Princenthal

Hannah Wilke: Gestures

By Tracy Fitzpatrick

Hannah Wilke: Intra Venus

By Hannah Wilke

More Interesting Books about Hannah Wilke
HannahWilke.com

Hannah Wilke's official website

Andrea Rosen Gallery

Collection of works, publications, and press

Hannah Wilke, 52, Artist, Dies; Used Female Body as Her Subject

By Roberta Smith
New York Times
January 29, 1993

Exposed Wounds: The Photographic Autopathographies of Hannah Wilke and Jo Spence

By Tamar Tembeck
McGill University
2008

Hannah Wilke: In her Time

By Taylor Holliday
The Wall Street Journal
October 21, 1996

Hannah Wilke

By Leslie Dick
Mutual Art
Summer 2004

More Interesting Articles about Hannah Wilke
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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Anna Souter

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Anna Souter
Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors
Available from:
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Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist Art
Feminist art emerged in the 1960s and '70s to explore questions of sex, power, the body, and the ways in which gender categories structure how we see and understand the world. Developing at the same time as many new media strategies, feminist art frequently involves text, installation, and performance elements.
TheArtStory: Feminist Art
Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Postmodernism is a broad period of artmaking that occured after the period known as modernism - a period that was driven by a radical and forward thinking approach, ideas of technological positivity, and grand narratives of Western domination and progress. Neo-Dada and later Pop artists are considered the first postmodern movements.
TheArtStory: Postmodernism
Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
Claes Oldenburg
The Swedish-American artist and architect Claes Oldenburg, an early figure in New York happenings and Pop art, is best known for his floppy sculptures and larger-than-life public works of consumer goods, musical instruments, and everyday objects.
TheArtStory: Claes Oldenburg
Lynda Benglis
Lynda Benglis
Lynda Benglis
Lynda Benglis is an American artist associated with process-based and anti-form art. Best known for her floor-based "spills" and latex sculptures, she adds a critical feminist perspective to post-minimalist work.
TheArtStory: Lynda Benglis
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann
Carolee Schneemann is an American visual artist, known for her discourses on the body, sexuality and gender. Her work is primarily characterized by research into visual traditions, taboos, and the body of the individual in relationship to social bodies. Schneemann's works have been associated with a variety of art classifications including Fluxus, Neo-Dada, the Beat Generation, and happenings.
TheArtStory: Carolee Schneemann
Cindy Sherman
Cindy Sherman
Cindy Sherman
Cindy Sherman is an American photographer and film director, best known for her conceptual portraits. Sherman has raised challenging and important questions about the role and representation of women in society, the media and the nature of the creation of art.
TheArtStory: Cindy Sherman
Feminist Movement
Feminist Movement
Feminist Movement
The movement emerged in the early twentieth century to define and achieve equal rights for women. The first organized movement was led by Western nations, but the issue of women's rights continue to be hot topics across the world.
Feminist Movement
Modern Photography
Modern Photography
Modern Photography
Modern photography refers to a range of different approaches. Some, associated with 'Straight Photography,' celebrate clarity and documentary truthfulness. Others, associated with 'New Vision' photography, are often characterized by unusual perspectives, novel print techniques, and abstraction.
Modern Photography
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
TheArtStory: Conceptual Art
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse
Eva Hesse was a major New York artist whose sculpture, assemblage, and installation brought issues of feminism and the body into Minimalism's formal vocabulary. She is heralded as one of the quintessential Post-Minimalist artists.
TheArtStory: Eva Hesse
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois
Louise Bourgeois was a French-American artist whose work added a feminist perspective to Surrealist themes of sex, childhood, and the uncanny. She is best known for her sculpture Fillette (1968) and her large-scale spider sculptures, such as Maman (1999).
TheArtStory: Louise Bourgeois
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
TheArtStory: Minimalism
Vanessa Beecroft
Vanessa Beecroft
Vanessa Beecroft
Vanessa Beecroft is an Italian contemporary artist living in Los Angeles. Her work is a fusion of conceptual issues and aesthetic concerns, focusing on large-scale performance art, usually involving live female models (often nude). Each performance is made for a specific location and often references the political, historical, or social associations of the place where it is held.
Vanessa Beecroft
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