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Edward Weston Photo

Edward Weston

American Photographer

Movements and Styles: Modern Photography, Early American Modernism

Born: March 24, 1886 - Highland Park, Illinois

Died: January 1, 1958 - Carmel, California

Edward Weston Timeline

Important Art by Edward Weston

The below artworks are the most important by Edward Weston - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Steel: Armco, Middletown, Ohio (1922)
Artwork Images

Steel: Armco, Middletown, Ohio (1922)

Artwork description & Analysis: It was during a trip to Ohio to visit his sister in 1922 that Weston came across American Rolling Mill Company (Armco) and, fascinated with the brute beauty of its industrial complex and giant smoke stacks, created this and other photographs of the steel works. A row of monumental, cylindrical smoke stacks flanked by warehouses that converge at their base and loom tall against the sky. This photograph and others in the Armco series mark a turning point in Weston's style from pictorialism's soft focus forms to straight photography's sharper resolution and detail.

Alfred Steiglitz was among the first to identify the clarity of this image and the choice of modern subject as signaling photography's emergence from the Victorian age into the Modern era. Had he still been publishing his magazine Camera Work at the time, he told Weston, he would have published these smoke stacks in it. Taking Steiglitz's praise to heart and deeply proud of his latest series, Weston took this Armco photo to Mexico two years later, hanging it alongside a print after Picasso on the wall of his studio for inspiration. There it remained even after Weston returned to California, in the possession of Tina Modotti until her death in 1942.

Palladium print - MoMA

Excusado (Toilet) (1925)
Artwork Images

Excusado (Toilet) (1925)

Artwork description & Analysis: Weston created Excusado (the Spanish word meaning "excused" and a slang term for "toilet") during his second trip to Mexico in 1925. He channels the Duchampian concept of the readymade by taking this familiar, ordinary object and re-presenting it in an unfamiliar and artistic manner. By offering a frontal view of the toilet's base, its curving forms echoed in the patterned tiles below, Weston highlights the plumbing fixture's sculptural quality. The functionality of the subject remains apparent, but this new vantage point emphasizes the profane object's unexpected aesthetic elegance; while the commode's central placement within the composition as well as its dominance of space falsely suggest it is colossal in size.

It is no coincidence that Excusado, as well as Duchamp's Fountain photographed by Alfred Steiglitz eight years earlier, are very influential. Both encourage the viewer to reconsider the value of a banal object- the toilet. Because it best articulated the modernist tenet 'form follows function,' the toilet, according to artist Margaret Morgan, became the "grand signifier of twentieth-century Modernism." For Weston, this image also foreshadows his series of high resolution, close-up photos of organic objects that he commenced upon leaving Mexico later that year.

Gelatin Silver Print - Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City

Knees (1927)
Artwork Images

Knees (1927)

Artwork description & Analysis: Weston began photographing nudes - his largest series of close-up organic forms - in the early 1920s and continued over the next twenty years. Models included friends, family, and most frequently, his lovers. The identity of the subject for Knees remains unconfirmed. While the body of this figure is not entirely exposed, nudity is implied by its inclusion in the series. The subject is seated with legs folded under and slightly askew, exposing knees and thighs, one in front of the other. Common among Weston's work at the time, his cropping and dramatic lighting create a high contrast image that encourages focus on the fleshy bumps and curves of the figure's form.

Similar to his straight photos of vegetables, shells, and landscapes, Knees exemplifies Weston's lifelong effort to capture the essence of ideal beauty. For Weston's second wife and model, Charis Wilson, the beauty of his nudes lay in "the rhythmic patterns, the intensely perceived sculptural forms, the subtle modulations of tone, of which these small, perfect images were composed." And yet Weston's nudes have provoked some Feminist critics to question why the artist, by so drastically cropping some of his nudes, sacrifices the individuality and identity of the sitter so that he may realize this goal. This issue not withstanding, Weston's nude series continues to be celebrated by artists and critics alike for doing something that no one had done before. As author Susan Sontag wrote, "he made nude photography respectable."

Gelatin Silver Print - SFMoMA, San Francisco, CA

Pepper #30 (1930)
Artwork Images

Pepper #30 (1930)

Artwork description & Analysis: In the late 1920s, Edward Weston began photographing what he called "still-lifes" or individual ordinary objects at close range. Inspired by the bright, bold, simplified forms he observed in murals by Diego Rivera and Jose Orozco while in Mexico, the artist produced sharply focused portraits of subjects that prompt a reconsideration of their aesthetic potential. Pepper #30, one of at least 46 negatives he created of the vegetable over a two year period, is also the most famous of his pepper images.

Here, Weston captures a solitary, oddly shaped, bell pepper carefully placed inside a tin funnel that reflected light from above so as to highlight the object's bulbous contours. The result is an anthropomorphic vegetable that resembles two lovers intertwined, as in Auguste Rodin's The Kiss. Its three dimensionality is evident, despite the flatness of the printed image. Light brushwork along the bottom of the photograph adds textural interest and speaks to Weston's admiration for photographer Edward Steichen, who was known to manipulate his negatives during the printing process.

Weston described the pepper as taking "one beyond the world we know in the conscious mind," suggesting an affinity for modern surrealism. Indeed, one finds similarities between his Pepper #30 and Surrealist Hans Arp's curvaceous, even lumpy, sculptures created at approximate the same time.

Gelatin Silver Print - SFMoMA, San Francisco, CA

Cabbage Leaf (1931)
Artwork Images

Cabbage Leaf (1931)

Artwork description & Analysis: As one of Weston's monumental close-ups, Cabbage Leaf heightens ones visual understanding of this vegetable with its solitary display of a flayed leaf. The raised spinal structure and linear striations of the wilted form emerge from a dark, flat background as though a piece of relief sculpture. This creates a subtle undertone of grace and movement within the work. Indeed, the cabbage leaf becomes a sculptural work of art in its own right, elevating the common edible to an object of fine art, and thereby supporting Weston's efforts to expand his audience's visual consciousness of the world.

Weston photographed arrangements of cabbage over a nine-year period, from 1927 to 1936. In keeping with the method of straight photography practiced by the f/64 group to which he belonged, Weston created a high-resolution photo that relies on the object itself for visual interest, rather than manipulating the surface quality of the image as pictorial photographers did. Cabbage Leaf in particular is imbued with a Surrealist quality in that it depicts an everyday object with great precision and yet makes the viewer aware of an otherness or strangeness that we do not typically associate with it. Author Susan Sontag, for example, notes the subject's resemblance to "a fall of gathered cloth," adding that its title heightens our appreciation of its beauty by declaring that the gentle folds of drapery we so admire are in fact the veined, wilted leaf of a garden vegetable.

Gelatin Silver Print - The Art Institute of Chicago

Tomato Field, Monterey Coast (1937)
Artwork Images

Tomato Field, Monterey Coast (1937)

Artwork description & Analysis: Weston's work often draws attention to the variable shapes and patterns found in natural objects and landscapes in a way that challenges the viewer's expectations of or familiarity with the subject. Tomato Field, Monterey Coast is a quintessential example of this. A field of tomato plants dominates the lower foreground of the photograph beneath a distant, slanted hilltop horizon at top. The aesthetic, reminiscent of collage, highlights visual juxtapositions, such as the contrast between a dark, clearly patterned foreground and a lighter irregularly shaped landscape or the flattening of the lower 2/3 of the picture created by the polka dot pattern versus the slightly varying sizes and spacing between plants that suggest a depth of field inherent to landscape. With this work, Weston forces the viewer to address the ways in which we visually interpret and experience landscapes.

In Tomato Field, Monterey Coast, Weston accomplishes what Paul Strand managed in Wall Street (1915) and his other photographs of New York City. But whereas Stand's photos transform urban man-made structures, objects, and the shadows they cast into abstract or geometric patterning, Weston relies on less predictable and more variable organic forms found in rural settings to meet the same end. In so doing, Weston effectively brought modern photography out of the city and into rural America and, like Paul Cezanne, Joan Miro, and other modern painters, challenged the traditional depth of field one expects from a landscape.

Gelatin Silver Print - SFMoMA, San Francisco, CA



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Edward Weston Photo

Related Art and Artists

From the Back Window at 291 (1915)

From the Back Window at 291 (1915)

Artist: Alfred Stieglitz

Artwork description & Analysis: This nighttime scene was taken from the window of Stieglitz's famous avant-garde gallery. The photo is dominated by the geometric lines of New York's cityscape, using the rich range of tone the camera affords to depict the drama of the city by night. The overall darkness is leavened by intermittent beacons of artificial light. Although the picture was taken many years after Stieglitz had turned his back on the rich tonality of Pictorial photography, it could be interpreted almost as a transitional piece - the dramatic light effects recall his early work, but the geometric forms of the roofs in the foreground recall the concerns of his more recent, straight photography.

Platinum print - Museum of Modern Art, New York

Noire et Blanche (Black and White) (1926)
Artwork Images

Noire et Blanche (Black and White) (1926)

Artist: Man Ray

Artwork description & Analysis: This photograph of Kiki de Montparnasse's head next to an African ceremonial mask bears a title that references both the black and white process of photography as well as skin color. It was created at a time when African art and culture was much in vogue. The oval faces of the two almost look identical in their serene expressions, but he contrasts her soft pale face with the shiny black mask. He simplifies the conflict of society into a problem of lighting and imagery in aesthetics - one oval next to another oval; one laying on its side contrasted with another that is erect; one lit from above and the other from the side.

Gelatin silver print - J. Paul Getty Museum, Los Angeles

Metal Hook (Early 1940s)
Artwork Images

Metal Hook (Early 1940s)

Artist: Aaron Siskind

Artwork description & Analysis: In the early 1940s, while on a visit to Martha's Vineyard, Siskind began photographing at close range everyday objects that interested him or that seemed to reflect his emotional state at the time - things like ropes, seaweed, and footprints in the sand. Metal Hook is one of Siskind's first photographs that truly focuses on the abstract visual language of ordinary objects. The curvilinear echoes between the hook and its rope, the highly detailed textures of the ground and rusty metal, as well as the overall emphasis on form achieved through the close cropping of the frame, conspire to produce an image that abstracts reality. The flatness of the image as a whole also serves to assert the graphic quality of the metal hook itself as a sign/symbol for male and female, thus suggesting a level of content in addition to that of form.

Gelatin silver print

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Content compiled and written by Kimberly Henderson

Edited and revised by Sandy McCain

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Kimberly Henderson
Edited and revised by Sandy McCain
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