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Artists Édouard Vuillard

Édouard Vuillard

French Painter and Printmaker

Movements: Symbolism, Post-Impressionism

Born: November 11, 1868 - Cuiseaux, France

Died: June 21, 1940 - La Baule-Escoublac, France

Quotes

"Nothing is important save the spiritual state that enables one to subjectify one's thoughts to a sensation and to think only of the sensation, all the while searching to express it."
Édouard Vuillard
"To say that a thing is beautiful is simply an act of faith, not a measurement on some kind of scale."
Édouard Vuillard
"We perceive nature through the senses, which give us images of forms of color, sounds etc. A form which exists only in relation to another form on its own, it does not exist."
Édouard Vuillard
"Conceive of a picture really as a series of harmonies."
Édouard Vuillard
"Why is it in the familiar places that the mind and the sensibility find the greatest degree of genuine novelty?"
Édouard Vuillard

"I don't make portraits, I paint people in their homes."

Synopsis

Édouard Vuillard was a member of the Symbolist group known as Les Nabis (from the Hebrew and Arabic term for "prophets" and, by extension, the artist as the "seer" who reveals the invisible). However, he was less drawn to the mystical aspects of the group and more drawn to fashionable private venues where philosophical discussions about poetry, music, theatre, and the occult occurred. Because of his preference for the painting of interior and domestic scenes, he is often referred to as an "intimist," along with his friend Pierre Bonnard. He executed some of these "intimist" works in small scale, while others were conceived on a much larger scale made for the interiors of the people who commissioned the work.

Key Ideas

For Vuillard, reticent by nature, the subject of the interior served as a symbol for the interior self, separate from the rest of the world. This is an aspect of a modernist idea - the notion that one's personal viewpoint, a subjective view of reality, can gain insight into the truth.
As a Symbolist painter and part of the fin-de-siècle escape into the aesthetic, Vuillard employed flat patterns into which his figures were embedded in order to express both emotion and ideas. This kind of abstract painting evolved to communicate ideas not expressible through traditional painterly means. Color and shape could represent experiences that are difficult to express in words.
Although the Symbolists were, in general, anti-utilitarian (and more art-for-art's sake), Vuillard created large-scale screens and murals that were architectural in conception (and part of the "applied arts"). These large-scale works - intended for the use of interior decoration - linked him to other modernists' search for the "total work of art" (the Gesamtkunstwerk) that would help unify society, but updated it to function in contemporary interior spaces.

Most Important Art

Interior, Mother and Sister of the Artist (1893)
This painting depicts Vuillard's sister Marie and his mother Mme. Vuillard. The figures merge and interact with the space. Through pattern, Marie blends into her surroundings; through pattern, the artist is able to suggest that she is what she does. There is a struggle between figure and space, creating an uneasy symbiosis between figure and environment that instills a feeling of psychological disturbance as her form bends to fit the space and suggests ambivalent human relationships. The interior of the space is a burden to Marie, while Mme. Vuillard dominates it.

This work is also an example of the Nabi credo of respecting the overall pattern, the two-dimensional surface, and decorative schema. Although gender and class issues may be subtlety alluded to here, Vuillard's work also alludes to that time of transition when women were entering the workforce. Mme. Vuillard seems perfectly comfortable with, in fact in charge of, her surroundings, while the younger generation, personified by Marie, struggles against the confinement.

This painting of the artist's mother and sister is not an example of portraits in the traditional sense. Here Marie's physiognomy (and posture) is as a puppet/marionette with the upturned and slightly pinched nose and solid black dot of an eye as if a sewn-on piece of felt. This aspect of a puppet, while mildly humorous, can elicit pathos as well. Mme. Vuillard's face, on the other hand, is more like a mask atop a stalwart black silhouette - both entrenched and immovable. Because he is able to generalize, Vuillard's portraits are amongst his most communicative means, and are all the more psychologically intense. In Vuillard's work, the facial features - even when they are altered - become the very symbols of all intense feeling. Vuillard has created his own more modern version of a portrait: the artist combines the specific features of the actual person with non-human and generalized features and thus can refer symbolically to all humanity.
Oil on canvas - Museum of Modern Art, New York
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Biography

Childhood and Early Training

Vuillard Edouard Young self-portrait

Jean-Édouard Vuillard, the son of a retired captain, spent his youth at Cuiseaux (Saone-et-Loire), France. But in 1878 his family moved to Paris in modest circumstances. After his father's death in 1884, Vuillard received a scholarship to continue his education. In the Lycée Condorcet, Vuillard met Ker Xavier Roussel (also a future painter and Vuillard's future brother-in-law), Maurice Denis, musician Pierre Hermant, and writer ierre Véber, among others. Vuillard began visiting the Louvre regularly, which influenced his decision to become an artist, but broke with the family tradition of an army career. In 1885, Vuillard left the Lycée Condorcet and joined Roussel at the studio of painter Diogène Maillart. There, Roussel and Vuillard received the rudiments of artistic training. In March 1886, Vuillard embarked upon the fairly rigid curriculum at the Académie Julian where he was taught by Tony Robert-Fleury, and met Pierre Bonnard, with whom he shared a studio.

In July of the following year, on his third attempt, he passed the entrance examination to the École des Beaux-Arts. He was taught by Jean-Léon Gérôme for a brief period of about six weeks in 1888. In 1888, Vuillard began to keep a journal in which he made sketches of works he was studying in the Louvre and noted ideas about future paintings. In these sketches and early works, Vuillard was drawn to the realistic study of still lifes and domestic interiors. He was also attracted to the seventeenth-century Dutch artists and to the works of Jean-Baptiste-Siméon Chardin. Vuillard kept this private journal from 1888 to 1905 and, later, from 1907 to 1940.

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Mature Period

In 1889, Vuillard was persuaded by Denis to join a small group of art students that had formed within the Académie Julian around Paul Sérusier and that referred to itself as the brotherhood of Nabis. Sérusier had communicated to his fellow students his knowledge of Synthetism - a form of Symbolism that relied on memory, imagination, and the use of color and shape to communicate feelings and ideas - following his contact with Paul Gauguin in Brittany. In 1892, on the advice of the Natanson brothers, Vuillard painted his first decorations ("apartment frescoes") for the house of Mademoiselle Desmarais. Subsequently, he fulfilled many other commissions of this kind. With other members of Les Nabis, Vuillard had exhibited small-scale works at the Le Barc de Boutteville Gallery. Later in the 1890s, he showed work through Ambroise Vollard; in 1897, Vollard commissioned him to produce a series of color lithographs on the themes of landscapes and interiors.

Like other Nabi artists, Vuillard was influenced by the simplification and emphasis on expressive contour of nineteenth-century Japanese woodcuts. The theater was also an important influence on his choice of subjects and muted and mysterious light effects. His closest friend in the theatre was Aurelien Lugne-Poe who, along with Paul Fort's Théâtre d'Art introduced Symbolist drama to Paris. Vuillard not only attended many of the latter's rehearsals and performances of plays by Maurice Maeterlinck, Henrik Ibsen, August Strindberg, and others, but often painted scenery and designed costumes and programs.

Also in the 1890s, Vuillard met and became friendly with the brothers Alexandre and Thadée Natanson, the founders of La Revue Blanche, a cultural review. The editor-in-chief was Thadée Natanson, and he and his wife, Misia (a frequent model during these years), became close friends of Vuillard's. Vuillard's graphics appeared in the journal, together with work by Pierre Bonnard, Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec, Félix Vallotton, and other artists.

Late Years and Death

Vuillard Edouard Biography

In the early years of the twentieth century, Vuillard began to show work at the Parisian gallery of the Bernheim-Jeune family and was later contracted to them. Lucy Hessel, wife of Joseph Hessel, a partner in the firm, became a close friend, confidante and model, and Vuillard's time was spent increasingly in the Hessels' entourage, which included successful actors and playwrights, as well as wealthy business people.

By the 1910s, Vuillard began to treat his domestic scenes and portraits with a much more palpable sense of depth, and portraiture was an increasingly significant genre in his oeuvre. Vuillard found no shortage of sitters; many were members of fashionable society and/or personal friends or professional colleagues. During World War I, he was called to serve briefly in 1914, as a railway lookout near Paris. He later served as a war artist, sketching soldiers on the front line. However, Vuillard's style and interest in subject matter were, for the most part, not affected by the outbreak of World War I, and the artist continued to concentrate on decorative schemes, though his success would not match his output in the 1890s and early twentieth century. His occasional commissions included four portraits of Roussel, Denis, Bonnard, and Maillol of the Nabis, shown at the Exposition Internationale in Paris in 1937, and a final major mural project for the League of Nations Building, the Palais des Nations, in Geneva.

Vuillard was elected to the highly esteemed Institut de France in 1937, and in 1938, following a major retrospective curated by Vuillard's friend Claude Roger-Marx, he fled occupied Paris.

Notwithstanding the above achievements, Vuillard lived a generally withdrawn life, living with his mother until her death in 1928, and remaining a bachelor throughout. He died in La Baule on June 21, 1940.

Legacy

Vuillard's work helped lay the foundation for modernist attitudes toward the arts in believing that a painting could create a parallel reality to the world at large. As a Nabi "prophet" of modern art, Vuillard's achievements as a colorist and as an experimenter in tone have been widely lauded. In addition, his abstract and decorative commissions have been identified in recent scholarship as significant antecedents of twentieth-century modernism, transcending traditional easel painting and moving into the realm of art-as-environment. The artist's large-scale, decorative works that brought painting and architecture together by uniting the flat, abstract picture surface with the two-dimensionality of the wall heralded the major twentieth-century theme of seeking a more unified and aesthetic world in which to live and of uniting domestic and public arenas. Vuillard's embedding of his figures into a two-dimensional, decorative background also served as a significant precedent for the work of Henri Matisse, who employed similar means.


Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Édouard Vuillard
Interactive chart with Édouard Vuillard's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
Paul Sérusier
Claude Monet
Edgar Degas

Friends

Maurice Denis
Pierre Bonnard
Ker-Xavier Roussel

Movements

Post-Impressionism
Symbolism
Synthetism
Japonisme
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Years Worked: 1887-1938

Artists

Stéphane Mallarmé
Paul Signac
Walter Sickert
Henri Matisse

Friends

Maurice Denis
Pierre Bonnard

Movements

Les Nabis
Post-Impressionism
Divisionism
Fauvism

Content compiled and written by Katlyn Beaver

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Édouard Vuillard

Books
Websites
Articles
Audio
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Vuillard

By Belinda Thomson

paintings
Édouard Vuillard

By Guy Cogeval

Édouard Vuillard: Catalogue Raisonne

By Antoine Salomon, Guy Cogeval

Mere Society Paintings? Look Again

By Ken Johnson
The New York Times
May 10, 2012

Édouard Vuillard's Jewish Muses

By Paul Fishbane
Tablet Magazine
May 3, 2012

Rich Pickings

By Jonathan Jones
The Guardian
January 23, 2004

Pictures at an Exhibition: Do Vuillard's Photographs Belong on the Walls of the National Gallery?

By Blake Gopnik
Slate
March 24, 2003

Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism is an artistic and literary movement that first emerged in France in the 1880s. In the visual arts it is often considered part of Post-Impressionism. It is characterized by an emphasis on the mystical, romantic and expressive, and often by the use of symbolic figures.
ArtStory: Symbolism
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist artists in 1890s Paris including Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, and Edouard Vuillard. They combined Impressionist brushstrokes with vivid colors, an at-times mystical or symbolic subject matter, and an interest in patterned and repeating backgrounds.
ArtStory: Les Nabis
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
The French artist Pierre Bonnard, although dismissed as old-fashioned by some of the avant-garde in his lifetime, was esteemed by contemporary colorists like Matisse. A member of the Nabis group in his youth, his innovative paintings play with light, decorative surfaces, and Impressionist techniques.
ArtStory: Pierre Bonnard
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Ker-Xavier Roussel, also known as K.X. Roussel, was a French painter, best known for his involvement with the French avant-garde group Les Nabis and the Neo-Impressionist movement. Incorporating a subdued color palette and thick brushstrokes, Roussel focused on natural and mythical subject matter, including bucolic landscapes and fictitious figures.
Ker-Xavier Roussel
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis was a French painter and writer, recognized as an important member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. A pioneering theorist who insisted on the flatness of the picture plane, Denis created brightly colored Post-Impressionist works that profoundly influenced the next generation of modern artists.
Maurice Denis
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Paul Sérusier
Paul Serusier was a French Symbolist and Post-Impressionist painter, a central member of Les Nabis, and a key proponent of the late-nineteenth-century artistic movements Synthetism and Cloisonnism. Influenced, in part, by the work of Paul Gauguin, his innovative painting style incorporated vibrant color, abstract form, natural motifs, and religious themes.
Paul Sérusier
Synthetism
Synthetism
Synthetism
Coined in 1877, Synthetism is a term used to describe a group of Post-Impressionist painters, including Paul Serusier, Paul Gauguin, Emile Bernard, and Louis Anquetin, who wished to break with the predominant Impressionist style of the era. Taking their name from the French verb 'synthetiser,' the Synthetist artists sought to combine objective appearances with the artist's subjective emotions, while retaining aesthetic concerns of line, color, and form. Considered an outgrowth of Symbolism, the style is characterized by vibrant colors, thick outlines, flattened or distorted perspectives, and surreal, mystical, or spiritual themes.
Synthetism
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
ArtStory: Paul Gauguin
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard
Ambroise Vollard was an important dealer, collector, and arts patron in late nineteenth-centry and early twentieth-century Paris. His interests were diverse, spanning Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, Expressionism, and modernism, and included such artists as Renoir, Cézanne, Gaugin, Matisse, and Picasso.
Ambroise Vollard
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec was a Post-Impressionist artist who depicted the dancers, prostitutes, drinkers, and other characters of fin-de-siecle Paris. He is known for his paintings, his caricatures of friends, and his well-designed posters for Parisian dance halls.
ArtStory: Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec
Félix Vallotton
Félix Vallotton
Félix Vallotton
Felix Vallotton was a Swiss painter and printmaker, and a major figure of the French avant-garde group Les Nabis. Recognized for his interest in decorative aesthetics and the flatness of the picture plane, Vallotton painted landscapes, still lifes, and portraits and was heralded for his inventive use of woodcut printing.
Félix Vallotton
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
ArtStory: Henri Matisse
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
ArtStory: Post-Impressionism
Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
Chardin is a lauded eighteenth-century French painter of still life, and is regarded as a master of portraiture and impasto brushwork, influencing a great number of early European modern painters. Chardin's work is remembered above all for his subjects, which include kitchen maids, children and other domestic scenes.
Jean-Baptiste Simeon Chardin
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a French artist who helped pioneer the painterly effects and emphasis on light, atmosphere, and plein air technique that became hallmarks of Impressionism. He is especially known for his series of haystacks and cathedrals at different times of day, and for his late Waterlilies.
ArtStory: Claude Monet
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas was a French Impressionist painter, printmaker and sculptor with an extraordinarily long career from the mid-nineteenth century until after WWI. As one of the original group of Impressionists, although he preferred to be called a Realist, he traveled widely and employed the use of photography in his creative process. He is most renowned for his painting and drawings of ballet dancers in rehearsal and performances in the theatre.
ArtStory: Edgar Degas
Japonisme
Japonisme
Japonisme
Japonisme describes the influence of Japanese art, especially woodblock prints, on French artists in the second half of the nineteenth century. Many Post-Impressionists were influenced by the flat blocks of color, the emphasis on design, and the simple, everyday subject matter.
Japonisme
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé was a French Symbolist poet and critic in the late 1800s. Densely written, his poetry played with both the meaning and sound of words, making it difficult to translate. His work was greatly influential on the Dada and Surrealist movements.
Stéphane Mallarmé
Paul Signac
Paul Signac
Paul Signac
Paul Signac was a French painter and significant Post-Impressionist in the late nineteenth century. Along with Georges Seurat he developed the painting style known as Pointillism, in which small and precise dots of color were used to compose a larger, Impressionistic picture.
Paul Signac
Walter Sickert
Walter Sickert
Walter Sickert
Walter Sicket was a German-born, English painter and a co-founder of the Camden Town Group, a collection of British Post-Impressionist artists that also included Wyndham Lewis and Augustus John. Sickert's oeuvre favored urban scenes and portraits of ordinary people, often in moody or somewhat macabre settings, yet painted with a soft Victorian sensibility. Sickert was also something of an eccentric and aloof character, and due to some circumstantial evidence, is considered by some historians to be the infamous Jack the Ripper - a theory that isn't without controversy.
Walter Sickert
Divisionism
Divisionism
Divisionism
Divisionism was the characteristic style in Neo-Impressionist painting defined by the separation of colors into individual dots or patches which interacted optically. Georges Seurat founded the style and believed it achieved the maximum luminosity scientifically possible.
Divisionism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism was an early twentieth-century art movement founded by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Labeled as "wild beasts", Fauve artists favored vibrant colors and winding gestural strokes across the canvas.
ArtStory: Fauvism