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Artists Diego Velazquez
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Diego Velazquez

Spanish Painter

Movement: Baroque

Born: June 6, 1599 - Seville, Spain

Died: August 6, 1660 - Madrid, Spain

Diego Velazquez Timeline

Quotes

"Raphael, to be plain with you, for I prefer to be candid and outspoken, does not please me at all...It is Titian that bears the banner."
Diego Velazquez
"A human will only grasp the realm of a parent's love when he experiences for himself the like."
Diego Velazquez
"Were painting but a second birth of creation, then Velazquez would unquestionably be the greatest of painters."
Charles Blanc
"...Manet went to Madrid to look at Velazquez's work and later wrote to his fellow painter, Henri Fantin-Latour: This is the most astonishing piece of painting that has ever been made. The background disappears. It is air that surrounds the fellow."
Laura Cumming
"...he is to me like one of the figures in "Las Meninas" - the servant on the far edge by the window, the only person in that masterpiece about whom nothing is known, whose story is never told and who is all but a painted blur, vanishing into the shadows."
Laura Cumming
"This is a great question with his art: what grows out of what, how it all evolves at leisure, or at speed, by chance or design."
Laura Cumming
"Compared with Velazquez, Titian's colouring seems conventional, Rembrandt phantastic, and Rubens infected with a dash of unnatural mannerism. Francis Bacon: "One wants to do this thing of just walking along the edge of the precipice, and in Velazquez it's very, very extraordinary that he has been able to keep it so near to what we call illustration and at the same time so deeply unlock the greatest and deepest things that man can feel."
Karl Justi

"I would rather be an ordinary painter working from life than be the greatest copyist on earth."

Diego Velazquez Signature

Synopsis

Although Diego Velazquez's primary position was one of prestigious court painter for Spain's King Philip IV during the Baroque period, he is most celebrated for breaking portraiture and scene painting out of its staid confines. His individualistic style of naturalism, a precursor to realism, favored authenticity over the romantic and differentiated him from others of his time who stayed bound to the traditional and historical ways of depicting their subjects. Vastly personable, and as equally interested in the common man as the lauded man, he managed to create a fiercely individualistic and impressive body of work that belied his underlying passion for the human being and human experience. He remains one of the most important artists of the Spanish Golden Age.

Key Ideas

Although he was paid to create work for royalty, Velazquez maintained an extreme commitment to also depict everyday people and scenes. He managed to quell the external influences of popular opinion, which deemed this work wasteful or meaningless, by creating pieces so compelling they could not escape interest.
Velazquez's intensely direct style of painting truth was photorealistic in nature and far ahead of its time. He infused various techniques toward accurately depicting detail and its many nuances including free, loose brushstrokes, the utilization of gradients of light, color, and form, and an eye for detail that was unsurpassed by his peers. This style would become an early forebear to both Realism and Impressionism.
Velazquez was a master of the use of chiaroscuro, or, the treatment of light and shadow in a painting to create high contrast. He utilized this technique to highlight points of particular importance to the viewer and to set an overall atmospheric perspective.
Composition was a strategic tool for Velazquez in motivating the viewer to experience his work as it was intended. To this end, he often used diagonal structures, complex focal points, and separate planes to manipulate the eye toward what was most important, or to spur a deeper understanding of the picture.
Velazquez's masterpiece Las Meninas (The Ladies in Waiting), has become one of the most analyzed works in Western painting. By placing a rendition of himself as artist into an intensely private scene with his royal subjects, he remarked not only upon the position of the painter as one who is allowed to glimpse moments of intimacy that viewers would not ordinarily be privy to, but to then authentically portray them armed with the artist's signature tools and techniques of the trade. It is a great testament to the role of the painter.

Biography

Diego Velazquez Photo

Childhood and Education

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez was the first of six children born to Juan Rodriguez and Jeronima Velazquez in Seville, Spain. He received fine training in religion, languages, and philosophy from his parents. His father recognized his son's early talent in drawing when his copybooks always turned into sketchbooks and arranged an apprenticeship for Velazquez to study with Francisco de Herrera the Elder. The master painter was considered to be the creator of the Spaniards' national style.

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Diego Velazquez Biography Continues

Important Art by Diego Velazquez

The below artworks are the most important by Diego Velazquez - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Vieja friend huevos (Old Woman Frying Eggs) (1618)

Vieja friend huevos (Old Woman Frying Eggs) (1618)

Artwork description & Analysis: At eighteen years of age, Velazquez painted this picture in the style of a Spanish bodegone, or small genre scene that depicts normal, everyday people in a common situation, many times involving food and mealtime gatherings. It is known for its unflinching naturalism. In it, Velazquez took care to lovingly render the many subtle changes of the tones in skin, the graceful folds of soft fabric in the old woman's scarf, the gleam and delicate shadows of metal in the pots, and the rich sheen of the red onion's skin. The center of the composition is the food, the pot of cooking eggs, and the hand of the woman above it. The bright melon and the boy's solemn face, his left hand, and the woman's hands pull the viewer's eyes in and around the scene. It a great example of Velazquez's commitment to not only showing us the privileged lives of his royal subjects, but also to express his love of everyday people and experiences with a noted sincerity toward depicting reality in all its forms.

Although the subject matter is decidedly more humble than his portraits of kings and their accompanying entourages and historical situations, Velazquez treats the subjects of this painting with the same masterful touches signature to his artistic voice. There is a strong use of chiaroscuro, in which the dark, disappearing background juxtaposed with lighter, high contrast areas and objects tell the story. This is shown to us in high contrast with unsurpassed realism. The ovular construction of the composition is designed in such a way that it opens up to include the viewer using Velazquez's common strategy of diagonal planes and coextensive spacing. A combination of loose and fine brushwork is utilized to create surface tension and emphasis on various objects and the faces. The background is immersed in darkness, creating a theatrical effect that renders his subjects, even in their mundaneness, as grand central figures as if spot lit upon a stage.

In 1889, biographer Karl Justi quoted Sir J.C. Robinson's observation that "...The pictures of Velazquez have this in common with photographs, that they impress the mind with such a powerful sense of actuality..."

Oil on canvas - National Gallery of Scotland, Edinburgh

The Supper at Emmaus (1618-1623)

The Supper at Emmaus (1618-1623)

Artwork description & Analysis: Here the precise realism and actions of the figures portrayed with strong dramatic lighting recall the work of Caravaggio, which Velazquez may have studied from copies in Seville. Christ is depicted at the moment of recognition by two disciples after his resurrection.

Velazquez's experimentation with different perspectives and his ability to draw the viewer into the drama of the artwork were unparalleled by his contemporaries. The light source in this work enters from our left and appears centered on or near Christ's head. This creates illuminated faces and a darkened background. The primary focus is on Christ; he emanates a quiet, pensive presence while the disciples react with movements and expressions of surprise or emotional confusion.

The many diagonals pull us into and around the composition. The dark figure with an outstretched arm and his back to the viewer in the foreground leans in and over the table. The man across from him leans toward Christ, and gestures in his direction even as he addresses his fellow disciple. All hands visible are near Christ, who gazes up, out of the immediate space. His light colored, garmented arm and hand form a curve leading into the center of the scene. The table with a white cover stabilizes the middle ground to help us understand the dramatic, active arrangement. Velázquez emphasizes the individuals but uses color, light, and motion to involve the viewer. Karl Justi, the author of Diego Velazquez and His Times, noted that Antonio Ponz, the cicerone or learned guide for viewing Spanish art, advised that "...the best models of the natural style are the works of Diego Velazquez, in their knowledge of light and shade, in the play of aerial effect, which are the most important features of this style, because they give a reflection of the truth."

Oil on canvas - The Metropolitan Museum, New York City, New York

The Triumph of Bacchus (1628-1629)

The Triumph of Bacchus (1628-1629)

Artwork description & Analysis: Velázquez's masterpiece of the late 1620s might be interpreted as a response to the criticism of his rivals of the Spanish court; it had been said that he was a mere portraitist and not able to compete in the lofty sphere of history painting. An alternate Spanish title for the painting is Los Borrachos or "The Drunks" and it was painted for Philip IV who hung it in his summer bedroom.

The scene is a depiction of Bacchus, or Dionysis, the god who rewards men with wine, temporarily releasing them from their problems. In Baroque literature, Bacchus was considered an allegory of the liberation of man from the slavery of daily life. In the painting, the god is surrounded by eight drinkers, which was a rare subject in Spanish painting. Drunkenness was condemned in Spain but the royal court found it entertaining to bring in low-life people from comedy theaters and inebriate them for the amusement of the ladies.

The painting is firm and solid in its figures while the light and dark areas show an evolution from Velazquez's former works. The composition was devised using many diagonals and complex focal points to involve the viewer. On the left, Bacchus and the satyr behind him are quite naked except for the traditional loose cloths of classical mythology. Bacchus is posed and vividly illuminated; he looks out of the painting as he places a leafy wreath on a man in a golden jacket kneeling before him. An extremely dark mythological figure crouches in the lower left. The right side of the composition is made up of several darkly clothed older men who are drinking and conversing. Two of the men look directly out at the viewer as if to invite them in to the merriment.

The piece is noted for its use of Velazquez's signature naturalism, that even when transposed upon a subject of mythical proportions manages to maintain a sense of realism - practically welcoming the spectator to partake in the dreamy scene.

Oil on canvas - Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain

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Influences and Connections

Influences on Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Influenced by Artist
Artists, Friends, Movements
Diego Velazquez
Interactive chart with Diego Velazquez's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
View Influences Chart

Artists

CaravaggioCaravaggio
Peter Paul RubensPeter Paul Rubens
TitianTitian

Personal Contacts

Jose RiberaJose Ribera
Peter Paul RubensPeter Paul Rubens

Movements

RealismRealism

Influences on Artist
Diego Velazquez
Diego Velazquez
Years Worked: 1622 - 1659
Influenced by Artist

Artists

Édouard ManetÉdouard Manet
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Salvador DalíSalvador Dalí
James WhistlerJames Whistler
Thomas EakinsThomas Eakins

Personal Contacts

Movements

RealismRealism
ImpressionismImpressionism

Useful Resources on Diego Velazquez

Videos

Books

Websites

Articles

The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
The Vanishing Velazquez, A 19th - Century Bookseller's Obsession with A Lost Masterpiece Recomended resource

By Laura Cumming

Diego Velazquez and His Times

By Karl Justi

Diego Rodriguez de Silva y Velazquez

By Ernest Lloyd Raboff

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Cheryl Van Buskirk

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Kimberly Nichols

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Cheryl Van Buskirk
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Kimberly Nichols
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