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Artists Theo van Doesburg

Theo van Doesburg

Dutch Painter, Designer, and Architect

Movements: De Stijl, Elementarism

Born: Born: August 30, 1883 - Utrecht, Netherlands

Died: Died: March 7, 1931 - Davos, Switzerland

Quotes

"The artist no longer needs a particular starting point in nature in order to achieve an image of beauty. He spontaneously creates relationships in equilibrium - complete harmony - the goal of art."
Theo van Doesburg
"The point is to situate man within painting, rather than in front of it."
Theo van Doesburg
He explained "Elementarism" as "based on the neutralization of the positive and negative directions by the diagonal and, as far as color is concerned, by the dissonant. Equilibrated relations are not the ultimate result."
Theo van Doesburg
"Mondrian realizes the importance of the line. The line has almost become a work of art in itself; one cannot play with it when the representation of objects perceived was all important. The white canvas is almost solemn. Each superfluous line, each wrongly placed line, any color placed without veneration or care, can spoil everything - that is, the spiritual."
Theo van Doesburg
"Architecture joins together, binds; painting loosens, unbinds."
Theo van Doesburg
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"What I am trying to realize is a universal form which entirely corresponds to my spiritual vision"

Synopsis

Theo Van Doesburg was one of the founders and leading theorists of De Stijl along with Piet Mondrian, which began in the Netherlands and flourished into one of the major inter-war movements. It advocated a simplified, geometric, and reductive aesthetic in the visual arts and argued that painting, design, and architecture should be fully integrated. Van Doesburg created numerous abstract paintings and designed buildings, room decorations, stained glass, furniture, and household items that exemplified De Stijl's aesthetic theories and his personal ideas. He wrote numerous essays and treatises on geometric abstraction and De Stijl, published journals, and organized many exhibitions of works by De Stijl artists and related movements.

Key Ideas

Van Doesburg's personal version of De Stijl was called Elementarism, which emphasized subtle shifts in tones, tilting squares and rectangles at angles relative to the picture plane, and allowed straight horizontal and vertical lines to be colored, varied in length, and disconnected from one another.
Van Doesburg wanted to give De Stijl more variety, movement, and energy than found in Piet Mondrian's personal version of the movement, which was called Neoplasticism. This small but crucial difference in his thinking led to Van Doesburg and Mondrian's split in 1924.
Van Doesburg believed that art should be an absorbing, spatial, and environmental experience. This led him to create architectural designs, stained glass, interior decoration, furniture, and other functional, daily items that were carefully related to one another and were meant to be installed together for a holistic experience. Many of these were never actually built or manufactured.
Van Doesburg felt that abstraction's unique value was its ability to achieve social order and universal harmony with its precise, orderly geometry and vibrant, contrasting colors. He also felt that his reductive method had spiritually and morally uplifting qualities. His Dancers series demonstrates both his abstraction, and the spiritual inspiration he found in it.

Most Important Art

Dancers (c. 1916)
An example of van Doesburg's early abstraction work before the influence of Mondrian, Dancers presents his explorations into Theosophy and spiritualism. The two figures in the diptych are abstracted representations of the Hindu deity Krishna, dancing and playing the flute. He based the images on a Theosophy figurine of the deity, showing two sides of the figurine in the diptych. Van Doesburg sought to portray spiritual ideas which ignited his belief in the higher powers of art. The Theosophical doctrine outlined in the painting is of the harmony that exists between things on the ideal, divine level underneath the chaotic surface images of everyday existence. By abstracting away the chaotic elements, and representing the harmonious realm beyond the surface, art could make people aware of, and allow them to experience, a spiritual perspective. In the work, he borrows the techniques of Indian art, in which colors and shapes do not reflect nature, but instead express spiritual truths and states.
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Biography

Childhood and Education

Theo van Doesburg was born in Utrecht, the Netherlands to Wilhelm Kupper and Henrietta Catherina Margadant. Originally named Christian Emile Marie Kupper, he considered his stepfather, Theodorus Doesburg to be his natural father, eventually taking his stepfather's name when he began his painting career. Van Doesburg served in the Dutch military and from 1914 to 1916, during World War I he was stationed near Tilburg. He was married four times; the first three marriages ended in divorce and the fourth lasted until his death.

He trained in singing and acting before deciding to become a painter, and diverse interests continued to be a hallmark of his career. His first exhibition was in 1908, and starting in 1912 he supported his painting by writing for magazines. Until 1913 he explored traditional representational painting, greatly influenced by Vincent Van Gogh, and the then more modernist figurative styles. After reading Wassily Kandinsky's autobiographical Ruckblicke, he had a revelation about the nature of painting and its connection to spirituality. He began to study Theosophy, which influenced his ideas about artistic harmony. The idea that painting originates in the mind changed his style, and he began working in a more personally expressive and painterly abstract style because of this. Two years later, his devotion to Kandinsky's ideas and style of painting had waned considerably after exposure to Piet Mondrian's paintings in 1915 while reviewing an exhibition on an assignment from a magazine.

Early Training

Theo van Doesburg Biography

In 1916, van Doesburg began to develop his distinct variation of De Stijl. He became convinced that painting, architecture and design should be completely integrated and that art should not only be a visual experience, but part of a larger, more encompassing spatial and physical environment. In October 1927, along with Piet Mondrian, Bart van der Leck, and J.J. Oud, he was one of the founders of the De Stijl movement, and its magazine, De Stijl. Van Doesburg was probably its most ardent supporter in the years to come, spreading the message of De Stijl across Europe, and editing and publishing the magazine until its end in 1931. De Stijl was the Dutch variation of the geometric abstraction that developed across Europe. It was characterized by long straight black lines used to define squares and rectangles that are filled in with white, grays, or primary colors.

In addition to editing, and writing for De Stijl, van Doesburg advocated for his theories and other artists' ideas in various publications that he helped publish. Mécano, published in 1922-1923, was more concerned with Dada, another artistic movement he was greatly interested in and to which he contributed. Van Doesburg's extensive traveling throughout Europe, including visits to France, Italy, Germany, and Spain, made him personally familiar with many of his contemporaries and their works and ideas. In these years, he organized many exhibits of Bauhaus, De Stijl, and Constructivist artists, and even some of Dada artists. He lectured on the ideas of De Stijl at the Bauhaus in 1921, moving to Weimar in 1922 to try and ingratiate himself with principal Bauhaus member, Walter Gropius. However he was never invited to become part of the Bauhaus faculty because the Bauhaus leaders considered his idea too dogmatic and narrow. Nevertheless, van Doesburg was tenacious; setting himself up next to the Bauhaus buildings and teaching interested students about Constructivism, Dada, and De Stijl.

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Theo van Doesburg Biography Continues

While promoting De Stijl, van Doesburg collaborated with architects and designers as early as 1918, working on numerous projects with the architects J.J. Oud, Gerrit Rietveld, and Cornelis van Easteren. The architectural works that they created together reflected the De Stijl intention of integrating art, architecture, and design. Van Doesburg took the geometry and color of a De Stijl painting off of the canvas and transformed it into an architectural structure; the illustrations for the "Maison Particuliere" that he designed with van Easteren demonstrate this intention. Van Doesburg designed stained glass windows for a house that Oud was building in 1918, as well as the windows and interior decorations for apartment buildings in Rotterdam that Oud was working on from 1918 to 1920. However, this idealistic cooperation proved short-lived, as disagreements over designs and balancing how architecture would be complemented and enhanced with painting or decoration led to deep divisions among the artists and architects associated with the movement.

Besides architecture, van Doesburg explored structure in a different way by working in typography. In 1919 he designed an alphabet style that was severely reductive and geometric, which was intended for use in De Stijl posters, signs, decorations, and architecture. Interest in it flourished for only a few years. In the 1920's he collaborated with Kurt Schwitters and Kate Steintz on a series of children's books and fairy tale collections which used the typeface; he also designed book covers and posters incorporating his ideas on typography.

Further proving how varied his interests were, Dada also intrigued van Doesburg. He socialized with numerous Dada artists, creating Dada artworks as early as 1920. He felt that there were aesthetic and expressive benefits to shifting styles so radically. However, he had reservations about being associated too closely with Dada; perhaps because he felt that its irony, sarcasm, and pessimistic outlook conflicted too sharply with the utopian ideas of De Stijl. He wrote Dada poetry under the pen name "I.K. Bonset," which means "I am a fool" in Dutch. He submitted poetry to De Stijl magazine, as well as editing the Dada magazine, Mecano. Most of his friends did not know until after his death that van Doesburg was "I.K. Bonset." He even had his wife Nelly dress in drag as "I.K. Bonset" with a false mustache, smoking a pipe, and wearing an aviator's helmet and goggles. Both participated in Dada performances, including a Dada tour of Holland with Kurt Schwitters.

Mature Period

Theo van Doesburg Photo

In 1923 van Doesburg left Weimar and moved to Paris to be closer to Mondrian. Unfortunately, their personal and professional relationship soon dissolved. Previously, the two artists had only corresponded by mail. In person their divergent personalities were apparent: van Doesburg was extroverted and flamboyant, while Mondrian was introverted. These differences came to a head in 1924, leading to a rupture with Mondrian. The exact reason for the split has been contested among art historians, but many believe that it was due to opposing artistic ideas - primarily that Mondrian did not agree with the use of diagonals whereas van Doesburg insisted that they were a necessity. After the breakup, Van Doesburg further developed his artistic style, creating many paintings that constituted his Counter-Compositions series. These paintings reflect his development of Elementarism, his own variation on Mondrian's Neoplasticism, which he felt, as evidenced by the split with Mondrian, had become too narrow and rigid in its insistent use of horizontal and vertical linear construction and the combination of only white and primary colors. Elementarism allowed for diagonal lines and triangles to create more varied, overlapping and interactive shapes in compositions that were still basically two-dimensional. It also used graduated tones of primary colors and shades of gray for more variety and interaction between colors, and lights and darks. There was a brief reconciliation when the two men accidentally met in a Parisian café in 1924.

While in the middle of this tumultuous time with Mondrian, van Doesburg worked with van Easteren on several designs for houses, some of which were exhibited but none of which were ever built. These designs involved broad geometric planes in primary colors that suggested or indicated planar divisions of space without creating clearly determined, but limiting, walls and ceilings. In 1926, van Doesburg was invited by Hans and Sophie Tauber Arp to collaborate with them on redesigning the Aubette Building in Strasbourg, so that it would have a café, dance hall, and movie theater. He worked on all aspects of these new parts of the building, from the rooms to their tables and chairs, and small furnishings. His recently developed concepts of Elementarism were used extensively in this project. However innovative his work was, the redesign was not well received by the public when the building re-opened in 1929, and it was soon replaced with more conservative decorations and designs.

Late Period

Theo van Doesburg Portrait

After the dissolution of Dada, while in Paris in 1929 van Doesburg helped create the group Art Concret and was one of the publishers of its short-lived journal. Art Concret was partly a continuation of De Stijl, but went further, emphasizing geometrical abstract art that was considered the most radical and absolute formulation of abstraction. The group only exhibited three times in 1930, at the Salon des Surindependants in Paris, Production Paris 30 in Zurich, and the International Exhibit of Post-Cubist Art in Stockholm. In 1932, Art Concret was absorbed into Abstraction-Creation, a larger and more robust organization that was established in 1931, partly with his support, and lasted until 1936.

Van Doesburg's last major project was the house that he designed for himself and his wife in Meunon, France in 1930-1931. Unlike his work in the 1920s, this house was more reductive and restrained in forms and colors. However, he never saw the house to completion. After several years of poor health he died of a heart attack in 1931 in Davos, Switzerland. His wife, Nelly, lived in the house until her death in 1975.


Legacy

Van Doesburg's influence on the future of art is hard to ascertain, but only because he worked extensively in so many different forms of art, and in so many different groups. Signs of his impact are found in architecture. Ludwig Mies Van der Rohe, and others at the Bauhaus, incorporated the ideas espoused in van Doesburg's Weimar lectures, which spurred them to add geometry and bold, primary colors into their theory of design. As a testament to his importance, in 2010 the Tate Modern had an entire exhibition devoted to his works, and his influence on fellow artists such as Constantin Brancusi, Piet Mondrian, Jean Arp, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Francis Picabia, Kurt Schwitters, and Sophie Taeuber-Arp. His theoretical essays and articles remain influential.

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Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Theo van Doesburg
Interactive chart with Theo van Doesburg's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Vincent van Gogh
Wassily Kandinsky
Walter Gropius
Tristan Tzara

Friends

Piet Mondrian
El Lissitzky
Kurt Schwitters

Movements

Dada
Bauhaus
Constructivism
Neo-Plasticism
Cubism
Theo van Doesburg
Theo van Doesburg
Years Worked: 1900 - 1931

Artists

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Constantin Brancusi
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Francis Picabia

Friends

Piet Mondrian
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Kurt Schwitters
Barbara Hepworth

Movements

Dada
Bauhaus
De Stijl
Elementarism



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Useful Resources on Theo van Doesburg

Books
Websites
Articles
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Theo Van Doesburg: Painting into Architecture, Theory into Practice

By Allan Doig

Van Doesburg and the International Avant-Garde. London: Tate, 2010

By Gladys Fabre, et al

De Stijl, 1917 - 1931: The Dutch Contribution to Modern Art

By H. L. C. Jaffe

De Stijl: World of Art

By Paul Overy

More Interesting Books about Theo van Doesburg
Avant-garde Apostle

By Alied Ottevanger
January 1, 2010
The Tate

Theo Van Doesurg: Forgotten Artist of the Avant Garde

By Simon Mawer
January 22nd, 2010
The Guardian

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De Stijl
De Stijl
De Stijl
Founded in the Netherlands in 1917, De Stijl was an avant-garde dedicated to isolating a single visual style that would be appropriate to all aspects of modern life, from art to design to architecture. Taking its name from a periodical, its most famous practitioners were Theo van Doesburg and Piet Mondrian, whose mature art employed geometric blocks of primary colors and vertical and horizontal lines.
TheArtStory: De Stijl
Piet Mondrian
Piet Mondrian
Piet Mondrian
Piet Mondrian, a founding member of the De Stijl movement, was a modern Dutch artist who used grids, perpendicular lines, and the three primary colors in what he deemed Neo-plasticism.
TheArtStory: Piet Mondrian
Elementarism
Elementarism
Elementarism
Elementarism is a variation of Neoplasticism created by Theo Van Doesburg. Elementarism was less rigid than Neoplasticism, allowing for tilting and diagonals, among other changes, to make painting more dynamic.
Elementarism
Neo-Plasticism
Neo-Plasticism
Neo-Plasticism
Neo-Plasticism was the guiding philosophy behind the art of Dutch painter Piet Mondrian and many of his peers in the De Stijl circle. Articulated by Mondrian in 1917-18, the approach stipulates the strict use of only horizontal and vertical lines; the primary colors red, yellow, and blue; and white, gray, and black.
Neo-Plasticism
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter, commonly associated with the Post-Impressionist period. As one of the most prolific and experimental artists of his time, van Gogh was a spontaneous painter and a master of color and perspective. Troubled by personal demons all his life, many historians speculate that van Gogh suffered from a Bipolar disorder.
TheArtStory: Vincent van Gogh
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
Wassily Kandinsky
A member of the German Expressionist group Der Blaue Reiter, and later a teacher at the Bauhaus, Kandinsky is best known for his pioneering breakthrough into expressive abstraction in 1913. His work prefigures that of the American Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: Wassily Kandinsky
Bart van der Leck
Bart van der Leck
Bart van der Leck
Bart van der Leck was a Dutch painter and designer, who along with Mondrian and van Doesburg founded the De Stijl movement. Van der Leck's quasi-abstract paintings, comprised of geometric shapes and deconstructed forms, were often based on real world imagery.
Bart van der Leck
J.J.P. Oud
J.J.P. Oud
J.J.P. Oud
Born Jacobus Johannes Pieter Oud, this Dutch architect was a significant figure in the De Stijl movement. Unlike many of his contemporaries, such as Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, Oud never achieved great fame or money as an architect, and eventually abandoned De Stijl more out of necessity than stylistic differences. His best known work produced in the De Stijl style is the tiered Gallery House for the Weissenhof Estate (1927) in Stuttgart.
J.J.P. Oud
Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
TheArtStory: Dada
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus is a style associated with the Bauhaus school, an extremely influential art and design school in Weimar Germany that emphasized functionality and efficiency of design. Its famous faculty - including Joseph Albers and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - generally rejected distinctions between the fine and applied arts, and encouraged major advances in industrial design.
TheArtStory: Bauhaus
Constructivism
Constructivism
Constructivism
Russian Constructivism emerged with the Revolution of 1917 and sought a new approach to making objects, one which abolished the traditional concern with composition and replaced it with 'construction,' which called for a new attention to the technical character of materials. It was hoped that these inquiries would yield ideas for mass production. The movement was an important influence on geometric abstraction.
TheArtStory: Constructivism
Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
Walter Gropius
The German architect Walter Gropius founded the Bauhaus school of art and design in Weimar Germany. Along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, he is regarded as one of the pioneers of modern architecture.
Walter Gropius
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters was a German artist who was particularly influential in the development of Dada movement and his own offshoot of Dada that he called Merz. Schwitters was heavily involved in the international avant-garde, with artists like El Lissitzky, Hans Arp, and Tristan Tzara.
TheArtStory: Kurt Schwitters
Art Concret
Art Concret
Art Concret
Art Concret is the name for a group of artists in the 1920s who promoted a geometric abstraction similar to Neoplasticism. The group was short-lived and only exhibited together three times.
Art Concret
Abstraction Creation
Abstraction Creation
Abstraction Creation
Abstraction Creation was an association of artists dedicated to opposing the influence of Surrealism. The group was founded in 1931 by Theo van Doesburg, Georges Vantongerloo, Auguste Herbin, and Jean Helion in order to promote abstract art.
Abstraction Creation
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi
Constantin Brancusi, a Romanian artist working in Paris, was one of the founders of modern sculpture. His abstracted animals, portrait busts, and totem-like figures revolutionized the traditional relationship between the sculpture and its base.
TheArtStory: Constantin Brancusi
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp
Hans Arp (also known as Jean Arp) was a German-French artist who incorporated chance, randomness, and organic forms into his sculptures, paintings, and collages. He was involved with Zurich Dada, Surrealism, and the Abstraction-Creation movement.
TheArtStory: Hans Arp
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Laszlo Moholy-Nagy was a Hungarian painter, photographer and teacher at the Bauhaus School. Moholy-Nagy was influential in promoting the Bauhaus's multi- and mixed-media approaches to art, advocating for the integration of technological and industrial design elements.
TheArtStory: Laszlo Moholy-Nagy
Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia
Francis Picabia was a French artist who worked in Dada, Surrealist, and abstract modes, often employing language and mechanical imagery. He published the Dada journal 391 in Barcelona and America.
TheArtStory: Francis Picabia
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Sophie Taeuber-Arp was a Swiss artist, painter, sculptor, and dancer who is considered to be one of the most important artists of geometric abstraction of the twentieth century. Arp was married to Jean Arp, the major Dada artist, and the two worked together until her early death.
TheArtStory: Sophie Taeuber-Arp
Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara
Tristan Tzara was a Romanian and French poet, playwright, and avant-garde performer who played a key role in the development and founding of Dada. A proponent of pure automatic techniques, he had an at-times contentious relationship with the Surrealism's direction in Paris.
TheArtStory: Tristan Tzara
El Lissitzky
El Lissitzky
El Lissitzky
El Lissitzky was a Russian avant-garde painter, photographer, architect and designer. Along with his mentor Kazimir Malevich, Lissitzky helped found Suprematism. His art often employed the use of clean lines and simple geometric forms, and expressed a fascination with Jewish culture. Lissitzky was also a major influence on the Bauhaus school of artists and the Constructivist movement.
TheArtStory: El Lissitzky
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
TheArtStory: Cubism
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe was one of the founding fathers of architectural Modernism and The International Style. Utilizing modern materials and mass production strategies, his buildings rejected surface ornament in favor of a sleek and imposing geometry.
Ludwig Mies van der Rohe
Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth
Barbara Hepworth was an English sculptor. She helped develop modern sculpture, along with her contemporaries Henry Moore and Naum Gabo. She won a scholarship and studied at the Leeds School of Art in 1920, where she met Moore.
TheArtStory: Barbara Hepworth
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