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Artists Jean Tinguely

Jean Tinguely

Swiss Sculptor and Painter

Movements: Dada, Kinetic Art, Op Art, Postmodernism, Modern Sculpture

Born: May 22, 1925 - Fribourg, Switzerland

Died: August 30, 1991 - Bern, Switzerland

Quotes

"You can't expect the end of the world to end the way you want it to."
Jean Tinguely
"I am an artist educated by Duchamp."
Jean Tinguely
"The world has been experiencing a whole pattern of auto-destruction. Whether in environmental disasters like Chernobyl or health disasters like AIDS."
Niki de Saint Phalle
"To an engineer, good enough means perfect. With an artist, there's no such thing as perfect."
Alexander Calder
"The freedom of every artist is essential."
Christo

"Currently, my machines are black and sometimes gentle, if not sexy or exuding a contained violence; I finally found the technical means for accomplishing this."

Synopsis

Jean Tinguely first began creating assemblages composed of found-objects, but soon thereafter, intrigued by the current debate regarding the effect of mechanization and industrial innovation on modern society, he completely altered these static works by putting them into motion. Tinguely was intrigued by the effect of these moving constructions on the spectator and devoted the rest of his career to its exploration. The resultant oeuvre, on both a small and large scale, in works that generated corollary works of art and those that self-destructed, instigated spectator reaction and forever challenged the concept of a static experience of viewing art.

Key Ideas

Tinguely updated the Dada practice of creating sculptural assemblage composed of found-objects, most often scrap metal that might easily have been considered junk, by actually mechanizing them. The revolutionary step of putting a work of art into motion would become known as Kinetic Art.
Also following the lead of Dada artists, who used various means to make fun of society, Tinguely's mechanized creations were intended to mock the "improvements" of the industrial revolution and modern reliance on technology.
Tinguely challenged the assumption of the artist's monopoly on creation with his metamatics, mechanized assemblages fitted with a drawing stylus chosen by any given spectator. The works of art that resulted were given significance on their own, separate to that of the original construction.
The self-destructing assemblages took the concepts explored in his earlier mechanized sculptures to a new level. Providing an actual spectacle for the viewers, a one-off experience with a defined beginning and end intended not only to be seen but in addition, to evoke their reaction, these assemblages illustrate Tinguely branching out into more interactive art whose effect simulates a performance.

Most Important Art

Metamechanical Sculpture with Tripod (1954)
Tinguely used the term "Metamechanics" to describe how he set his assemblage sculptures into motion with some form of motor or system of mechanics. The artist's development of this field, otherwise known as Kinetic art, is exemplified by Metamechanical Sculpture with Tripod. In this early example the artist assembles simple, found objects of the type elevated to artistic status by the Dada artists by whom he was influenced earlier. Wire wheels, to which are connected organically-shaped flat cardboard pieces, painted white on one side and black on the other, are strategically intertwined with stick-straight elements in an interlocking system. The assemblage is balanced above an iron tripod, whose legs echo the linearity of the straight elements assembled above, and the whole fragile assemblage is set into motion. The piece stands nearly 7 feet tall, making its effect quite impressive.

The idea to put assemblages such as this into movement was significant as it evoked an interactive relationship between the spectator and the object. No longer looking at a static collection from a fixed point but instead, moving around in order to get a better look at which parts of the construction were moving, the spectator's experience was actually integrated into the overall effect of the work itself.

Interestingly enough, although the work seems to laud the overall effect of mechanization, by expanding its effect on the spectator, there is some suggestion that instead, it exhibits Dada skepticism regarding the potential of technology to improve human life. By taking on human aspects, simulating limbs that move, for example, the mechanized assemblage itself challenges the concept that machines are necessarily superior to human beings, questioning whether mechanization is actually progress.
Steel, plastic, cardboard, mechanical motor - Tate Collection
More Art Works


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Biography

Childhood and Education

Tinguely was born on May 22, 1925 in Fribourg, Switzerland but his family moved to Basel shortly thereafter. Being the only child of two working class parents, Tinguely spent a considerable amount of time in solitude, exploring his bucolic surroundings. In 1940, at age fifteen, he began designing storefront window displays as an apprentice. The following year he began his studies at the Kunstgewerbeschule (Arts and Crafts School), where he stayed until 1945.

Tinguely was initially influenced by artists such as Kurt Schwitters and Marcel Duchamp. In particular, he was attracted to their use of "found objects" (or objet trouves), a key component of the Dada movement. He was intrigued by the tendency to rebel against societal structures and formalities that had long existed in the art world and society at-large. Tinguely combined found- objects, of the type noted in Dada works, with the new emphasis on installation then developed within the Bauhaus Design School by artists such as Paul Klee, creating his own personal aesthetic.

Early Period

In 1951, having recently married Swiss painter and sculptor Eva Aeppli and intent on forwarding his career, Tinguely moved to Paris. He enjoyed great success there with his first solo exhibition in 1954 at the Galerie Arnaux. During this period he also participated in a number of exhibitions organized around cutting edge groups. The first was in 1951 when he showed with International Happenings. Soon thereafter he began to exhibit with a group known as ZERO that was founded by Otto Piene in Germany and aesthetically favored the notion of Minimalism. ZERO artists sought to distance themselves from the events of WWII and instead to find a context for their art based on modern society. During this period Tinguely also exhibited with Nouveaux Realisme, a group formed by Pierre Restany and Yves Klein that included works of other modern artists such as Christo, Raymond Haines, Martial Raysse and Niki de Saint Phalle.

Mature Period

Gradually Tinguely began incorporating self-operating and self-destructing elements into his work, making it a type of performance art. One example of this was a machine that mass-produced abstract paintings that debuted at the 1959 Biennale of Paris. Based on their autonomous functionality, these machines were known as "Metamatic." Tinguely's goal was to reflect the tension that existed within industrialized society regarding creativity and human expression. Critics and contemporary abstract expressionists considered these works sardonic.

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Jean Tinguely Biography Continues

Influenced by his passion for motorcar racing, Tinguely began to incorporate the idea of high risk, unpredictability into his works. Homage to New York, premiering on March 18, 1960 at the Museum of Modern Art, is the most prominent example of this interest. This set the stage for other self-destructing works like Study for an End of the World (1962) and La Vittoria (1970). Although they were composed of seemingly random found objects, oddly configured mechanisms and cacophonous sound effects, these works exhibited a sense of humor and irony. The artist viewed each piece as a living, breathing entity - speaking and moving of its own accord. Tinguely took pride in knowing that viewers could be amused by the forthright humor and playful elements he used to mask his dark commentary on mass production and the greater industrialization of society.

In keeping with his playful antics and spirit of rebellion, Tinguely participated in the Kuttlebutzer, a collective of artists that acted as the unofficial creative committee for the largest annual "Fasnacht" carnival in Basel, Switzerland. This committee of artists, known for being anti-establishment, took it upon themselves to solidify the creative direction of the festivities. Tinguely's participation, first in 1974, lasted almost twenty years.

The wit and charm of his personality manifested in his artwork helped him foster significant relationships with dignitaries and socialites that led to generous commissions and patronage opportunities. A lasting example of this is his friendship with the Bechtler family, a wealthy Swiss family whose vast art collection is on display at the Bechtler Museum of Modern Art in Charlotte, North Carolina. Many of the found objects that later appeared in his works, including a set of antlers, were originally seen on display at the Bechtler home.

Jean Tinguely Biography

Tinguely initially met Niki de Saint Phalle through common artistic circles. At the time they were both married to different people. Despite the significant generational gap between them and differences in social background, he was from a working-class background and she a French aristocratic family, their friendship eventually developed and led to marriage. Comparable to other artist couples of the era, they each had a strong sense of individuality, which came through on the occasions they collaborated. This was quite different from the male dominated collaborations among most of the artist couples at the time such as Diego Rivera and Frida Kahlo, Christo and Jeanne-Claude, Jackson Pollock and Lee Krasner. They are known as the "Bonnie and Clyde" of modern art.

The foundation of their relationship, rooted in their shared interest in creating art, inspired many collaborative works over their decades together. One of the first major collaborations, exhibited at the Moderna Museet, consisted of a massive reclining figure of a woman - one of the several works of the theme known as 'Nanas' that Saint Phalle produced - with legs splayed enough to allow the entry of visitors. Inside the figure was a kinetic sculpture designed by Tinguely which he described as the "orgasm machine." The couple also collaborated on several other monumental sculpture installations such as the Stravinsky Fountain in Paris and Le Paradis Fantastique in Stockholm. When they weren't collaborating, the two artists helped one another with the production and installation of their respective works.

Later Period

Jean Tinguely Photo

In the 1970s, Tinguely moved back to Switzerland alone while Saint Phalle stayed in France. They would get together at her house in France when working on a collaborative project. During this period, and up until his death in 1991, he continued to produce self-destructing works as well as large public projects. In 1970, Tinguely built a gigantic phallus which he exploded outside of Milan Cathedral. Among these later works are a number of collaborations with Saint Phalle and others. As he and his wife had supported one another throughout their respective careers, it was no surprise that the same held true after his death. Niki de Saint Phalle oversaw the completion of his Le Cyclops, a massive collaborative work whose construction spanned twenty-five years, and was also responsible for donating several of his works to major museums and collections, continuing the legacy of one of the most revolutionary sculpture artists of the modern art movement.


Legacy

Jean Tinguely Portrait

Jean Tinguely's work was part of the movement of New Realism that emerged in the 1960s and sought an alternative expression of the new world order. They tended to take bits and pieces from life and combine them in new ways in order to infuse art with new significance. They stood in opposition of figurative art and abstraction and influenced the Fluxus movement noted for synthesizing a number of media in new, innovative, and consistently energized, ways.

Tinguely's mechanization of found objects greatly influenced the British artist Arthur Ganson. Ganson's oeuvre, primarily machines created from parts put into motion, provoke viewer participation of the type noted in Tinguely's earlier works. British artist Michael Landy has taken Tinguely's self-destructing works one step further. His Break Down (2001), in which he destroyed all of his possessions, was the ultimate reflection of what Tinguely had begun to explore in his self-destructing oeuvre. Both of these artists' works embody the interaction of the viewer which Tinguely's works insisted upon, taking performance art of the nature explored by the Swiss artist to another plane.

Museum Tinguely, located in Basel, Switzerland, commemorates his legacy.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Jean Tinguely
Interactive chart with Jean Tinguely's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Marcel Duchamp
Kurt Schwitters
Paul Klee

Friends

Yves Klein
Eva Aeppli
Niki de Saint Phalle

Movements

Dada
Jean Tinguely
Jean Tinguely
Years Worked: 1947 - 1991

Artists

Andy Warhol
Michael Landy

Friends

Niki de Saint Phalle
Daniel Spoerri

Movements

Neo-Dada
Performance Art
Fluxus
Postmodernism

Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised by Caroline Igra

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised by Caroline Igra
Available from:
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Useful Resources on Jean Tinguely

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Jean Tinguely: A Magic Stronger Than Death

By Pontus Hulten, Karl Gunnar

The bride and the bachelors: five masters of the avant garde, Duchamp, Tinguely, Cage, Rauschenberg, Cunningham

By Calvin Tompkins

artworks
Jean Tinguely: Art & Design

By Heide E. Violand-Hobi

Robert Rauschenberg & Jean Tinguely: Collaborations

By Roland Wetzel and Mari Dumett

Bechtler Collection

Details on Tinguely's last sculpture

Jean Tinguely, Official Site

Biography and artist information

VisualArtsCork.com

Overview of biography/career

Jean Tinguely, Playful Sculptor of Scrap Contraptions, Dies at 66

By Nick Ravo
The New York Times
September 1, 1991

For Tinguely and Saint Phalle, a Show is a Posthumous Reunion

By Alan Riding
The New York Times
September 2, 2006

Dada
Dada
Dada
Dada was an artistic and literary movement that emerged in 1916. It arose in reaction to World War I, and the nationalism and rationalism that many thought had led to the War. Influenced by several avant-gardes - Cubism, Futurism, Constructivism, and Expressionism - its output was wildly diverse, ranging from performance art to poetry, photography, sculpture, painting and collage. Emerging first in Zurich, it spread to cities including Berlin, Hanover, Paris, New York and Cologne.
ArtStory: Dada
Kinetic Art
Kinetic Art
Kinetic Art
Kinetic art - art which depends on movement for its effects - has its origins in the Dada and Constructivist movements that emerged in the 1910s, but it flourished into a lively international avant-garde in the mid-1950s. Its adherents attempted to create new and more interactive relationships with the viewer, and new visual experiences, and its products often rejected the traditional, hand-crafted, static art object.
ArtStory: Kinetic Art
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters
Kurt Schwitters was a German artist who was particularly influential in the development of Dada movement and his own offshoot of Dada that he called Merz. Schwitters was heavily involved in the international avant-garde, with artists like El Lissitzky, Hans Arp, and Tristan Tzara.
ArtStory: Kurt Schwitters
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
ArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus is a style associated with the Bauhaus school, an extremely influential art and design school in Weimar Germany that emphasized functionality and efficiency of design. Its famous faculty - including Joseph Albers and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - generally rejected distinctions between the fine and applied arts, and encouraged major advances in industrial design.
ArtStory: Bauhaus
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
Paul Klee
The Swiss-born painter Paul Klee worked in a variety of styles, including Expressionism, geometric abstraction, and collage. His most famous works have a mystical quality and make use of linear and pictorial symbols.
ArtStory: Paul Klee
Eva Aeppli
Eva Aeppli
Eva Aeppli
Eva Aeppli was a Swiss artist interested in created sculptures out of textile and bronze, and was linked with her husband, Jean Tinguely, in the Parisian avantgarde from 1954 to 1960.a
Eva Aeppli
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism
Minimalism emerged as a movement in New York in the 1960s, its leading figures creating objects which blurred the boundaries between painting and sculpture, and were characterized by unitary, geometric forms and industrial materials. Emphasizing cool anonymity over the passionate expression of the previous generation of painters, the Minimalists attempted to avoid metaphorical associations, symbolism, and suggestions of spiritual transcendence.
ArtStory: Minimalism
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany
Pierre Restany was a French art critic and cultural philosopher. In 1960 Pierre Restany created the idea and coined the term "Nouveau Realisme" with Yves Klein during a collective exposition in the Apollinaire gallery in Milan. It was an idea that united a group of French and Italian artists.
Pierre Restany
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein
Yves Klein attacked many of the ideas of the art world that underpinned abstract painting, audience participation, and other approaches to making and viewing art. Also, he famously used a single color, the rich shade of ultramarine that he made his own, "International Klein Blue."
ArtStory: Yves Klein
Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle
Niki de Saint Phalle explored the various roles and representations of women in society. Her innovative use of found objects, unconventional materials, natural environments, graphic aesthetics, and assemblage in her art made her a prominent figure of 1960s Nouveau Realisme.
ArtStory: Niki de Saint Phalle
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera was the principal actor in the Mexican Muralism movement and one of Mexico's greatest artists. His large-scale fresco cycles tell the histories of labor, industry, society, and other themes.
ArtStory: Diego Rivera
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo is a twentieth-century Mexican artist whose work has a strong autobiographical component as it addresses issues of feminism and nationalism. Her work is often associated with Surrealism and she is best known for her many, often uncanny self-portraits.
ArtStory: Frida Kahlo
Christo
Christo
Christo
Christo is a Bulgarian land and environmental artist, best known as one half of the married artist team Christo and Jeanne-Claude (his wife who died in 2009). Together, Christo and Jeanne-Claude created temporary land art installations, so grand in scale and ambition that controversy often followed. The best known examples of their work include Wrapped Coast (1969) in Little Bay, Australian, Wrapped Reichstag (1995) in Berlin, and The Gates (2004) in New York City.
ArtStory: Christo
Jeanne-Claude
Jeanne-Claude
Jeanne-Claude
Jeanne-Claude was a Moroccan-born French artist known for her environmental works and her collaborations with her husband Christo. Jeanne-Claude and Christo created monumental artworks that were both aesthetically beautiful, which was of great importance to Jeanne-Claude, and often overtly political.
Jeanne-Claude
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
ArtStory: Jackson Pollock
Lee Krasner
Lee Krasner
Lee Krasner
Lee Krasner was an American abstract painter and a prominent first-generation Abstract Expressionist. A student of Hans Hofmann's, and a pioneer in the all-over technique of painting that later influenced Color Field artists such as Helen Frankenthaler, Morris Louis, and her husband, Jackson Pollock.
ArtStory: Lee Krasner
Michael Landy
Michael Landy
Michael Landy
Michael Landy is a British conceptual and installation artist. Landy's break out work, Break Down, is a performance piece in which he destroyed all of his possessions by way of a factory assembly line, a clear comment on society's consumer culture. Landy has continued to explore consumerism and humanity in his later works.
Michael Landy
Op Art
Op Art
Op Art
Op art, short for Optical art, is a style of abstraction that relies on geometric shapes, lines, and color juxtapositions to create optical illusions. Emerging in the mid-1950s, along with Kinetic art, it generated an international following of artists seeking to create new and more interactive relationships with the viewer, and new, disorientating visual experiences.
ArtStory: Op Art
Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Postmodernism
Postmodernism is a broad period of artmaking that occured after the period known as modernism - a period that was driven by a radical and forward thinking approach, ideas of technological positivity, and grand narratives of Western domination and progress. Neo-Dada and later Pop artists are considered the first postmodern movements.
ArtStory: Postmodernism
Modern Sculpture
Modern Sculpture
Modern Sculpture
Modern sculpture emerged in the late-nineteenth century out of the collapse of the academic tradition and the exhaustion of older traditions of figurative public sculpture. It was initiated by Auguste Rodin, but it evolved throughout the twentieth century to encompass a wide variety of approaches to object-making.
Modern Sculpture
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
ArtStory: Andy Warhol
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri
Daniel Spoerri is a Swiss artist and writer born in Romania. Spoerri is best known for his snare-pictures, a type of assemblage or object art. He was one of the original signers of the manifesto creating the Nouveaux Realistes art movement.
Daniel Spoerri
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada
Neo-Dada refers to works of art from the 1950s that employ popular imagery and modern materials, often resulting in something absurd. Neo-Dada is both a continuation of the earlier Dada movement and an important precursor to Pop art. Some important Neo-Dada artists include Robert Rauschenberg, Jasper Johns, Robert Morris and Allan Kaprow.
ArtStory: Neo-Dada
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance Art
Performance is a genre in which art is presented "live," usually by the artist but sometimes with collaborators or performers. It has had a role in avant-garde art throughout the twentieth century, playing an important part in anarchic movements such as Futurism and Dada. It particularly flourished in the 1960s, when Performance artists became preoccupied with the body, but it continues to be an important aspect of art practice.
ArtStory: Performance Art
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus
Fluxus was an international network of artists of the 1960s who worked in fields ranging from music to performance to the visual arts. Taking their name from the Latin 'to flow,' Fluxus artists adopted an often anarchic and satirical approach to conventional forms of art, and their ideas paved the way for Conceptual art.
ArtStory: Fluxus
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