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Artists Frank Stella
Frank Stella Photo

Frank Stella

American Painter and Printmaker

Movements and Styles: Minimalism, Hard-edge Painting, Post-Painterly Abstraction

Born: May 12, 1936 - Malden, Massachusetts

Frank Stella Timeline


"What you see is what you see."
Frank Stella
"A sculpture is just a painting cut out and stood up somewhere."
Frank Stella
"Making art is complicated because the categories are always changing. You just have to make your own art, and whatever categories it falls into will come later."
Frank Stella
"I think that many gestures artists make, gestures that seem casual and improbable but surprisingly effective in making art, can be made available to architecture."
Frank Stella
"Painting is a flat surface with paint on it."
Frank Stella
"You can only take advantage of those gifts that you really have - that are part of your character, and you're lucky to be born with those gifts. I have a gift for structure, and the strength of all the paintings I made in the sixties lay in their organization, their sense of what pictorial structure could be."
Frank Stella
"The crisis of abstraction followed from its having become mired in the sense of its own materiality, the sense that the materials of painting could and should dictate its nature. That's not enough, and the belief that it was killing painting."
Frank Stella

"I like real art. It's difficult to define REAL but it is the best word for describing what I like to get out of art and what the best art has. It has the ability to convince you that it's present - that it's there. You could say it's authentic... but real is actually a better word, broad as it may be."

Frank Stella Signature


In 1959, Frank Stella gained early, immediate recognition with his series of coolly impersonal black striped paintings that turned the gestural brushwork and existential angst of Abstract Expressionism on its head. Focusing on the formal elements of art-making, Stella went on to create increasingly complicated work that seemed to follow a natural progression of dynamism, tactility, and scale: first, by expanding his initial monochrome palette to bright colors, and, later, moving painting into the third dimension through the incorporation of other, non-painterly elements onto the canvas. He ultimately went on to create large-scale freestanding sculptures, architectural structures, and the most complex work ever realized in the medium of printmaking. Stella's virtually relentless experimentation has made him a key figure in American modernism, helping give rise to such developments as Minimalism, Post-Painterly Abstraction, and Color Field Painting.

Key Ideas

A decisive departure from Abstract Expressionism, Stella's Black Paintings series consists of precisely delineated parallel black stripes produced by smoothly applied house paint. The striped pattern serves as a regulating system that, in Stella's words, forced "illusionistic space out of the painting at a constant rate." This device was intended to emphasize the flatness of the canvas and prompt the viewer's awareness of painting as a two-dimensional surface covered with paint - thereby overturning the notion of painting as window onto three-dimensional space that emerged in the Renaissance and dominated the medium for many centuries thereafter.
Created according to a predetermined, circumscribed system imposed by the artist, the Black Paintings served as an important catalyst for Minimalist art of the 1960s. Similar to Stella's parallel stripes and smooth handling of paint, Minimalist artists created abstract works characterized by the use of repeated geometric, industrial-appearing shapes stripped of all thematic or emotional content.
Stella was an early practitioner of nonrepresentational painting, rather than artwork alluding to underlying meanings, emotions, or narratives, and has remained one to this day. Working according to the principle of "line, plane, volume, and point, within space," Stella focuses on the basic elements of an artwork - color, shape, and composition. Over time, Stella succeeded in dismantling the devices of three-dimensional illusionism; his shaped canvases underscored the "object-like" nature of a painting, while his asymmetrical Irregular Polygons explored the tension between the arrangement of colors on the flat surface of the canvas as well as the optical effect of the advancing and receding forms.
Baroque artists such as the early-17th-century Italian painter Caravaggio developed illusionistic "tricks" that convincingly suggested that their subjects emerged out of the canvas and into the space of the viewer. Several centuries later, Stella took such innovations one step further by literally extending painting into the third dimension in his painterly reliefs, which entered the viewer's space with their incorporation of protruding materials.

Most Important Art

Frank Stella Famous Art

Harran II (1967)

In his exploration of formal issues, Stella habitually worked in series, developing increasingly complicated variations on selected themes. In contrast to the monochrome Black Paintings, the Protractor series, to which Harran II belongs, deploys a vivid palette and composition consisting of rectangular shapes superimposed on curving and circular forms. As in The Marriage of Reason and Squalor, Harran II's stripes emphasize the flatness of the composition, reminding the viewer that a painting is merely canvas covered with paint. This concept is reinforced by the use of the shaped canvas, which, challenging the conventional rectangular format, further denies the painting's status as illusionistic window and enhances its "object-like" quality. Harran II - whose title comes from the name of an ancient city in Asia Minor - invites parallels with sculpture as well as architecture. Measuring a massive 10 x 20 feet, the work is architectural in scale, while its composition was based on the semicircular drafting tool for measuring and constructing angles.
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Frank Stella Artworks in Focus:



Frank Stella was born the oldest of three children to first-generation Italian-American parents. In his sophomore year of high school at Phillips Academy in Andover, Massachusetts, he began learning to paint from the abstractionist Patrick Morgan, who taught there. Stella continued taking art courses at Princeton University, while earning a degree in history. His Princeton professors, painter Stephen Greene and art historian William Seitz, introduced Stella to the New York art world by bringing him to exhibitions in the city, thereby shaping his earliest artistic aesthetic.

Early Training

Frank Stella Painting Stripes

These trips to New York galleries exposed Stella to artists such as Jackson Pollock, Franz Kline, and, most critical for Stella's subsequent development, Jasper Johns, whose geometric paintings of flags and targets inspired Stella's work during his Princeton years. After graduating, Stella moved to the Lower East Side of New York, where he set up a studio in a former jewelry store. Almost immediately, the young artist attracted significant amounts of attention from the art world. Deploying a monochromatic palette and flat application of paint, his early work signaled a break from the thick, gestural brushstrokes of the Abstract Expressionists. Stella famously called a painting "a flat surface with paint on it - nothing more," reflecting his view of art as an end in itself rather than a representation of emotional, intellectual, or physical states. With emphasis on form rather than content, his early paintings are often credited with launching Minimalism. For his first major series, the stark Black Paintings (1958-60), Stella covered canvases with black house paint, leaving unpainted pinstripes in repetitive, parallel patterns. At only 23 years old, he gained instant recognition for these groundbreaking works. The Museum of Modern Art included four in its 1959-60 exhibition Sixteen Americans, and purchased one for its permanent collection. That same year, famed gallery owner Leo Castelli began representing Stella.

Mature Period

Frank Stella Biography

From his Black Paintings, Stella moved onto the Aluminum Paintings (1960) and the Copper Paintings (1960-61), for which he created his own geometrically shaped canvases, challenging the traditional rectangular format. Much of his work at this time drew on the stripe motif first deployed in the Black Paintings, but he soon began to embrace complex circular motifs as well as a brighter palette, especially in the Irregular Polygon (1965-67) and Protractor (1967-71) series. During this period, Stella also began delving into printmaking, an aspect of his work he has passionately pursued throughout his career.

In 1970, Stella was the youngest artist to have a retrospective at New York's Museum of Modern Art, and then, receiving a second retrospective 17 years after - the first living artist to earn the latter distinction. Following this exhibition, Stella again explored new artistic avenues, this time incorporating collage and relief into his paintings - an extension of the layered bands of color in his previous works. For the Polish Village series (1970-73), he attached paper, felt, and wood to the canvas. And building on this trajectory, the later Indian Bird series (1977-79) featured an assemblage of painted aluminum forms protruding from the wall, reflecting his growing interest in three-dimensionality and dynamic textures. He continued pushing the idea, creating sculptural works marked by elaborate tangles of curves, spirals, and loops - pieces whose exuberance present a stunning contrast to the more somber Black Paintings that had first brought him into the public eye. Yet for Stella, even these highly sculptural works are still paintings; he asserts, "A sculpture is just a painting cut out and stood up somewhere."

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Frank Stella Biography Continues

Late Period

Frank Stella Photo

In the 1980s and 1990s, Stella expanded his three-dimensional paintings into increasingly explosive, vividly colored, and multifaceted pieces, while continuing his work in printmaking. His series based on Herman Melville's Moby-Dick includes works of many techniques, from metal reliefs to giant sculptures to mixed-media prints combining diverse processes such as woodblock printing, etching, and hand-coloring. After moving in the direction of freestanding bronze and steel sculptures, Stella's work then expanded to encompass architectural structures, illustrating his statement, "It's hard not to think about architecture when you've gone from painting to relief to sculpture." These works include an aluminum band shell in Miami (1999) and a monumental sculpture, Prinz Friedrich von Homburg, Ein Schauspiel, 3X (1998-2001), situated on the lawn of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Currently living and working in New York, Stella continues to create large-scale sculptures, as well as designs for potential architectural projects.


Stella is one of the greatest living artists whose impact is felt in the work of many contemporary American artists and styles. Although he never regarded himself as a Minimalist, Stella's Black Paintings secured their creator's place in art history by inspiring such artists as Carl Andre to create sculptural objects stripped of expressive content and marked by their industrial appearance and seemingly anonymous handling of repeated geometric forms. Stella's color variations, exploration of circular motifs, and shaped canvases influenced artists like Kenneth Noland and served as a catalyst for such developments as Color Field Painting and Post-Painterly Abstraction.

Art critics and theorists took much from Stella's work as well. Clement Greenberg famously said, "Where the Old Masters created an illusion of space into which one could imagine walking, the illusion created by a Modernist is one into which one can look, can travel through, only with the eye." Greenberg derived his concepts of flatness, the integrity of the picture plane, and optical integrity from the work of Stella and other modernists of the time. Stella's ideas also inspired other major theorists of the period such as Carl Andre, Donald Judd, and Michael Fried.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Frank Stella
Interactive chart with Frank Stella's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart


Jackson PollockJackson Pollock
Barnett NewmanBarnett Newman
Jasper JohnsJasper Johns
Hans HofmannHans Hofmann


Clement GreenbergClement Greenberg
Richard MeierRichard Meier
Philip JohnsonPhilip Johnson


Abstract ExpressionismAbstract Expressionism
Color Field PaintingColor Field Painting
Pop ArtPop Art
Frank Stella
Frank Stella
Years Worked: 1958 - Present


Frank GehryFrank Gehry
Daniel LibeskindDaniel Libeskind
Sol LeWittSol LeWitt
Dan FlavinDan Flavin


Donald JuddDonald Judd
Carl AndreCarl Andre


Post-Painterly AbstractionPost-Painterly Abstraction

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Content compiled and written by Rachel Gershman

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Frank Stella







The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.


Frank Stella: American Abstract Artist

By James Pearson

Frank Stella: The Museum of Modern Art Recomended resource

By William S. Rubin

Three American Painters: Kenneth Noland, Jules Olitski, Frank Stella Recomended resource

By Michael Fried

More Interesting Books about Frank Stella
American Artists Must Fight for Resale Rights Recomended resource

By Frank Stella
The Art Newspaper
August 4, 2011

Sightlines: Frank Stella Recomended resource

WSJ. Magazine
March 15, 2010

Abstraction Without Boundaries

By Donald Kuspit
November 3, 2009

Art in Review; Frank Stella: Polychrome Relief at Paul Kasmin Gallery

By Roberta Smith
The New York Times
October 30, 2009

More Interesting Articles about Frank Stella
Frank Stella on Painting and Art Recomended resource

On Point with Tom Ashbrook
WBUR Boston
May 25, 2011


Frank Stella interview: the bigger picture

By Alastair Sooke
The Telegraph (UK)
September 24, 2011

Frank Stella Recomended resource

By Saul Ostrow
Spring 2000

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