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Artists Alfred Sisley

Alfred Sisley

British painter

Movement: Impressionism

Born: October 30, 1839 - Paris, France

Died: January 1899, Moret-sur-Loing, France

Quotes

"I always start a painting with the sky."
Alfred Sisley
"The Animation of the Canvas is one of the hardest problems of painting."
Alfred Sisley
"I like all those painters who loved and had a strong feeling for nature."
Alfred Sisley
"To give life to the work of art is certainly one of the most necessary tasks of the true artists. Everything must serve this end: form, colour, surface. The artist's impression is the life-giving factor, and only this impression can free that of the spectator. And though the artist must remain the master of his craft, the surface, at times raised to the highest pitch of liveliness, should transmit to the beholder the sensation which possessed the artist."
Alfred Sisley
"Every picture shows a spot with which the artist has fallen in love."
Alfred Sisley
"What artists do I Love? To take just the contemporaries: Delacroix, Corot, Millet, Rousseau, Courbet, our masters. All who have loved Nature and felt strongly."
Alfred Sisley
"A Cézanne is a moment of the artist while a Sisley is a moment of nature."
Henri Matisse
"Since the Impressionist school will hold an important place in the history of the painting of this century and while it has established a universal movement, it is certain that Sisley will never be forgotten..."
Jules Leclercq

"And though the artist must remain the master of his craft, the surface, at times raised to the highest pitch of liveliness, should transmit to the beholder the sensation which possessed the artist."

Synopsis

Alfred Sisley is one of Impressionism's most unjustly overlooked artists. This may perhaps be due to the fact that Sisley straddled two different cultures, having been born to English parents in France and later dividing his time between the two countries. As such, though he worked as one of the key figures in French Impressionism, he remained something of an outsider. Unlike many of his peers, who examined urban life, industrialization, and people, Sisley was almost exclusively a painter of landscapes, a subject from which he rarely strayed. What's more, there is a moodiness and distinct colorism in his works that suggest an influence from earlier periods of English and French art, especially the Barbizon school. As such, Sisley created his own unique brand of Impressionism that foreshadowed many of the new painting styles that would emerge in Europe after the turn of the twentieth century.

Key Ideas

Sisley's landscapes are known for their uncanny ability to capture a sense of atmosphere and light. This effect is compounded by his big, expressive skies, which are almost always a central feature of his paintings.
Although he is often considered an outsider because of his English citizenship, Sisley trained in Paris with Pierre-Auguste Renoir and Claude Monet, among other greats, and was one of the crucial figures working to create the new style that would become known as Impressionism.
Although Sisley's works are quite beautiful to the modern eye, it is important to remember that his work (like that of all of the Impressionists) was quite radical in its own day. His focus on modern, urban life, his view of nature as a worthwhile subject matter, and his sketchy, "impressionistic" style were all hallmarks of a new painting style for an industrialized world.
Sisley's sensitivity to the subtleties of natural landscapes was striking, allowing him to create landscapes that pulse simultaneously with the seemingly contradictory feelings of physical realism and dreamy emotionalism.

Most Important Art

Avenue of Chestnut Trees Near La Celle-Saint-Cloud (1867)
This monumental landscape was exhibited at the Salon of 1868. Avenue of Chestnut Trees Near La Celle-Saint-Cloud illustrates a hunting trail leading through a heavily shaded forest close to the village of La Celle. Sisley painted this subject two times before, in 1865. This painting's subject matter and intense color are reminiscent of the Barbizon school. In fact, the painting has been compared to Hobbema, Rousseau, Corot and Daubigny. Avenue of Chestnut Trees Near La Celle-Saint-Cloud is an example of Sisley's early work, which is known for the use of soft brushstrokes. His ability to represent the intense colors of the forest is achieved through the layering of green and gray tones. The deer standing to the right of the path may suggest a royal subject.

Napoleon III owned this royal hunting ground, which led Scott Schaeffer to believe that this is why the Salon Jury of 1868 accepted the painting. Moreover, Schaeffer states that Sisley's intention may have shown contempt for a royal subject through its representation in a landscape painting, which was considered an "inferior" genre. While Sisley's later work does seem to represent the sobering affects of modernity on nature, it is unknown if Sisley took a political stance in this work. Avenue of Chestnut Trees Near La Celle-Saint-Cloud may have been Sisley's examination of new subject matter, as he worked outside of the confines of the Academy, pioneering the Impressionist movement.
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Biography

Childhood

Alfred Sisley was born in Paris, the son of affluent British expatriates. His mother, Felicia Sell, was a music connoisseur, and his father, William Sisley, owned a lucrative business exporting artificial flowers and silk. Felicia and William were cousins, descended from a long line of English smugglers and tradesmen. Alfred was one of four children, one of whom - the eldest brother - died at a young age. Unfortunately, little is known about Alfred's adolescence before he was sent to London in 1857 to study for a career in commerce. While in London, Sisley is said to have spent much of his time visiting the exhibitions of John Constable and J.M.W. Turner at the National Gallery.

Early Training

Sisley returned to Paris in 1860, where he enrolled at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In Paris, he met the artists Frédéric Bazille, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Claude Monet, and James Whistler while studying in Charles Gleyre's (1806-74) atelier. Sisley's academic training focused on "technique and preparation," yet Gleyre was in part responsible for fostering the new, "impressionist" style. Gleyre taught his students to draw from memory and to study nature, while stressing the importance of originality. None of Sisley's student work survives and only a few of his early paintings can be accounted for. It can only be assumed that his work prior to 1870 was destroyed when he fled Bougival following the Prussian invasion. His earliest surviving paintings are reminiscent of those of the Barbizon school, particularly in their interest in color. Good examples of his early work are his three different renditions of Avenue of Chestnut Trees Near La Celle-Saint-Cloud (1867), the last version of which was accepted into the Salon in 1868.

Sisley became close friends with Renoir during their training in Gleyre's studio. Renoir often spoke of his pleasant and charismatic disposition, telling his son that "[Sisley] was a delightful human being...he could never resist a petticoat. We would be walking along the street, talking about the weather or something equally trivial, and suddenly Sisley would disappear. Then I would discover him at his old game of flirting." Among Gleyre's other students he had a "hardworking and gregarious" reputation.

In 1866 Sisley met a florist named Marie-Louise Adelaide Lescouezec (Eugénie). Renoir recalled that she seemed "exceedingly well bred." Her upbringing is uncertain, but one account suggests that her family's financial hardships forced her to become a model. Another account of her early life suggests that her father, an officer, was killed in a duel when she was a young girl. Despite her questionable background, Sisley fell in love with her and remained devoted to her until her death. A year after they met, the couple's son Pierre was born, followed by a daughter, Jeanne, in 1869. After the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian war in 1870, Sisley's finances became unstable. Sisley had been supported by his father, but his business failed shortly after the outbreak of the war. His father lost everything and passed away shortly thereafter.

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Alfred Sisley Biography Continues

Mature Period

Following the death of his father, Sisley dedicated himself to painting, having to depend on his art to support his family financially for the first time. It was around this same time that Sisley's style matured. He began to exhibit his true potential as a colorist, as well as an ability to capture nature through the use of loose brushstrokes. Sisley's paintings from this time represent an impressive range of tones, while his ability to render the complex visual effects of light brings life to his landscapes. According to art historian Christopher Lloyd, Sisley's compositions are meticulously organized "bringing order to a world constantly in flux." Throughout his career, Sisley worked en plein air, painting directly onto a primed canvas, and he rarely ever retouched his compositions in the studio.

While Sisley's dedication to the Impressionist movement never faltered, his failure to sell paintings led him back to exhibiting at the Salon in the 1870's. Although the Salon Jury rejected him in 1867 and 1879, they accepted his paintings later in his career. Since he was unable to exhibit his work in an academic setting, Sisley exhibited his paintings at the first Impressionist show in 1874. The "impressionists" gathered at the photographer (Gaspard-Félix Tournachon) Nadar's studio, where Sisley exhibited five paintings. Louis Leroy, a critic for Charivari, was in attendance and coined the term Impressionism, which was originally used as derogatory term. Leroy called the artists "trouble-makers," who merely painted their impressions of things. Sisley continued to exhibit his work steadily between 1874 and 1890. He exhibited at most of the Impressionist shows, as well as at other art and corporate venues. In 1872 Sisley met Paul Durand-Ruel, a private art dealer who represented him until 1891 when Georges Petit replaced him.

Late Years and Death

Sisley had spent most of his adult life in poverty, often having to request loans for modest sums of money. He and his family relocated along the outskirts of Paris looking for cheaper housing more than a dozen times. While his lack of recognition and dire financial situation caused him emotional distress that led him to avoid social engagements, he managed to remain friendly and well-liked throughout his life.

Alfred Sisley Portrait

It was not until late in life (1897) that Sisley married his wife. Marie died of cancer in October of 1898, soon after they returned to France from their wedding in Wales. In January of 1899, Sisley himself was in poor health. He invited his good friend Monet to visit him, and while Monet was there, he asked him to care for his children. Sisley died a week later of throat cancer and was buried at Moret cemetery. A bust was erected in his memory.

In May of 1899 Monet requested that Georges Petit hold an auction at the Hotel Drouot to raise money for Sisley's children. Petit managed to sell twenty-seven of his paintings, raising 112,320 francs. Additionally, Sisley's Flood at Port-Marly (1876) sold in March of 1900 for 43,000 francs, nearly half of the amount of all twenty-seven of his paintings sold the year before. While Sisley did not gain notoriety during his lifetime, many of his contemporaries did recognize his talent. Art critic Wynford Dewhurst said "Rare are the artists who distinguish themselves in every branch of art, lucky the man who excelled in one. An example of the latter is Sisley, 'paysagiste' pure and simple, who has left a legacy of some of the most fascinating landscapes ever painted."


Legacy

Despite Impressionism's popularity, Sisley received little recognition and success during his lifetime and is still understudied in comparison to his contemporaries. The lack of serious scholarly consideration is often regarded as a result of his fractured national identity. Sisley retained English citizenship through out his life, although he applied for French Citizenship twice and was denied. Still, he was a founding member of French Impressionism, carrying out the movement's original philosophy throughout his career.

Sisley's early work served as a link between the Barbizon school and what later became known as Impressionism. Although he was not directly involved in the Post-Impressionist movement, his innovative use of color and texture to invoke emotion was the cornerstone of the later movement.

Painter and critic Eugène Fromentin considered Sisley as talented as Renoir, Monet and Pissarro, writing, "He faultlessly conveys those startling moments of perception in which a scene is removed from its surroundings and steeped in an indefinable emotion. He has the power of transcribing such scenes as though he had been searching for them all along, and yet he reveals them with an air of diffidence that disarms while it captivates. He enlarges our perception of Impressionist painting and joins the ranks of the great European Landscapists." Indeed, his work speaks for itself, and shows his tremendous talent at suffusing landscapes with life and emotion. His mastery of light and color certainly paved the way forward for later artists working in the genre, such as Paul Cézanne.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Alfred Sisley
Interactive chart with Alfred Sisley's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Camille Corot
Henri Rousseau
Thomas Gainsborough
John Constable
J.M.W. Turner

Friends

Charles Baudelaire
Emile Zola
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Claude Monet

Movements

Barbizon School
Baroque
Romanticism
Realism
Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley
Years Worked: 1862 - 1899

Artists

Henri Matisse
Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Claude Monet
Gustave Caillebotte

Friends

Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Emile Zola
Claude Monet
Gustave Caillebotte

Movements

Post-Impressionism
Neo-impressionism
Fauvism

Useful Resources on Alfred Sisley

Books
Websites
Articles
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Alfred Sisley

By Raymond Cognait

Alfred Sisley: The English Impressionist

By Vivienne Couldrey

Monet, Sisley, Pissarro

By Pierre Francastel

More Interesting Books about Alfred Sisley
Alfred Sisley, The Complete Works

Collections of works, Sitemap, and Biography

Musée d'Orsay, Paris

Artist's Page and Exhibition Information

Artnet, Alfred Sisley

Artist Biography, Available Paintings, and Auction Prices and Results

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Cite this page

Content compiled and written by Sheryl Siclari-Ostyn

Edited and revised by Ellen Hurst

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by Sheryl Siclari-Ostyn
Edited and revised by Ellen Hurst
Available from:
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Barbizon School
Barbizon School
Barbizon School
The Barbizon School (1830-1870) was a group of painters who worked towards realism in art. Named after the village of Barbizon, France where the artists gathered, the group included Jean-Baptiste Camille Corot, Theodore Rousseau, and Jean-Francois Millet.
Barbizon School
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Pierre-Auguste Renoir was one of the leading figures of French Impressionism during the late-nineteenth century. Renoir tended to favor outdoor scenes, gardens bathed in sunlight, and large gatherings of people. Known as a master of light, shadow and color, Renoir was also highly esteemed for his depiction of natural movement on the canvas. In terms of the French Impressionists' lasting popularity and fame, Renoir is perhaps second only to Monet.
TheArtStory: Pierre-Auguste Renoir
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet
Claude Monet was a French artist who helped pioneer the painterly effects and emphasis on light, atmosphere, and plein air technique that became hallmarks of Impressionism. He is especially known for his series of haystacks and cathedrals at different times of day, and for his late Waterlilies.
TheArtStory: Claude Monet
John Constable
John Constable
John Constable
John Constable was an English Romantic painter. He is chiefly known for his landscape paintings of Dedham Vale, the area surrounding his English home. He was not elected to the Royal Academy until he was 52 years old. His work remained largely unnoticed in England until later into his career, a fact which was due in part to his seemingly old-fashion artistic style.
John Constable
J.M.W. Turner
J.M.W. Turner
J.M.W. Turner
J.M.W. Turner (Joseph Mallord William Turner) was a mid-nineteenth-century British painter and watercolorist. Considered a key forerunner to the French Impressionists and the American Hudson River School of painters, Turner is known in history as "the painter of light." His trademark land- and sea-scapes are categorized as Romantic and Naturalist, given the artist's expressive and poetic application of natural light. Turner was among the last great pre-modern painters.
TheArtStory: J.M.W. Turner
Frédéric Bazille
Frédéric Bazille
Frédéric Bazille
Frédéric Bazille was an Impressionist and Realist painter who came from a wealthy background and was able to help his fellow artists, including Monet, Sisley, and Manet with money and materials. His career and life were cut short, dying in battle during the Franco-Prussian War at just 29 years old.
TheArtStory: Frédéric Bazille
James Whistler
James Whistler
James Whistler
James Whistler was a nineteenth-century American expatriate artist. Educated in France and later based in London, Whistler was a famous proponent of art-for-art's-sake, and an esteemed practictioner of tonal harmony in his canvases, often characterized by his masterful use of blacks and greys, as seen in his most famous work, Whistler's Mother (1871). Whistler was also known as an American Impressionist, and in 1874 he famously turned down an invitation from Degas to exhibit his work with the French Impressionists.
TheArtStory: James Whistler
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne was an influential French Post-Impressionist painter whose depictions of the natural world, based on internal geometric planes, paved the way for Cubism and later modern art movements.
TheArtStory: Paul Cézanne
Impressionism
Impressionism
Impressionism
A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
TheArtStory: Impressionism
Camille Corot
Camille Corot
Camille Corot
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a nineteenth-century French painter and printmaker. Best known for his landscape paintings rendered in a Neo-Classical tradition, Corot's practice of painting outside in the open air was highly influential to many of the French Impressionists.
Camille Corot
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau was a French self-taught painter. His most famous works, done in his characteristic flat figurative style, show surreal and dream-like scenes in primitive or natural settings.
TheArtStory: Henri Rousseau
Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough
Thomas Gainsborough was an English portrait and landscape painter, as well as a founding member of the Royal Academy. Gainsborough's works were celebrated all over England; he was considered to be the preeminent British painter of his time.
Thomas Gainsborough
Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
Charles Baudelaire
Charles Pierre Baudelaire was a French poet and art critic during the mid-nineteenth century. His poetry depicted the harsh realities of urban poverty in nineteenth-century Paris, and often focused on the flanuer (one who wanders the city to experience it). The Baudelarian idea of the flaneur is a lasting legacy of the modern era.
Charles Baudelaire
Emile Zola
Emile Zola
Emile Zola
Emile Zola was a nineteenth-century French novelist, playwright, essayist and political activist. He was also the self-proclaimed leader of literary French Naturalism. As one of the leading cultural figures in France, Zola was close with the likes of Manet and Cézanne, and was the favorite writer of Vincent van Gogh.
Emile Zola
Baroque
Baroque
Baroque
Baroque art and architecture emerged in late sixteenth-century Europe after the Renaissance, and lasted into the eighteenth century. In contrast to the clarity and order of earlier art, it stressed theatrical atmosphere, dynamic flourishes, and myriad colors and textures.
Baroque
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism was a nineteenth-century movement that celebrated the powers of emotion and intuition over rational analysis or classical ideals. Romantic artists emphasized awe, beauty, and the sublime in their works, which frequently charted the darker or chaotic sides of human life.
Romanticism
Realism
Realism
Realism
Realism is an approach to art that stresses the naturalistic representation of things, the look of objects and figures in ordinary life. It emerged as a distinct movement in the mid-nineteenth century, in opposition to the idealistic, sometimes mythical subjects that were then popular, but it can be traced back to sixteenth-century Dutch art and forward into twentieth-century styles such as Social Realism.
TheArtStory: Realism
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
TheArtStory: Henri Matisse
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh
Vincent van Gogh was a Dutch painter, commonly associated with the Post-Impressionist period. As one of the most prolific and experimental artists of his time, van Gogh was a spontaneous painter and a master of color and perspective. Troubled by personal demons all his life, many historians speculate that van Gogh suffered from a Bipolar disorder.
TheArtStory: Vincent van Gogh
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
TheArtStory: Paul Gauguin
Gustave Caillebotte
Gustave Caillebotte
Gustave Caillebotte
Gustave Caillebotte was a nineteenth-century French painter and one of the Impressionist artists, though his style resembled Realism more than Impressionism. Caillebotte was also an early practitioner of using photography for composing his images, a prominent art patron, and an outspoken supporter of other Impressionists like Pissarro, Monet, and Renoir. His vast wealth also allowed Caillebotte to fund several exhibitions of Impressionist art, and to convince the Louvre to acquire many important works.
TheArtStory: Gustave Caillebotte
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
TheArtStory: Post-Impressionism
Neo-impressionism
Neo-impressionism
Neo-impressionism
Neo-Impressionism was an art movement founded by Georges Seurat in the 1880s. It brought a new and quasi-scientific approach to the Impressionists' interests in light and color, along with new approaches to the application of paint, sometimes in dots and dashes. Its followers were drawn to modern urban scenes as well as landscapes and seascapes.
Neo-impressionism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism was an early twentieth-century art movement founded by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Labeled as "wild beasts", Fauve artists favored vibrant colors and winding gestural strokes across the canvas.
TheArtStory: Fauvism
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