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Andres Serrano

American Photographer and Conceptual Artist

Movement: Conceptual Art

Born: August 15, 1950 - New York, New York

Andres Serrano Timeline


"I see myself as belonging to a tradition of religious art going back to Caravaggio and others. Caravaggio's works are so strong - using a prostitute as the Virgin Mary."
Andres Serrano
"I distrust anyone with a message. The best artistic intentions are usually cloaked in mysteries and contradictions. It wouldn't be interesting for me if the art were not 'loaded' in some way. I always say my work is open for interpretation and that's why I prefer not to read many of the 'interpretations' out there. Suffice it to say, the work is like a mirror, and it reveals itself in different ways, to different people."
Andres Serrano
"Freedom of religion and freedom of expression have something in common: they both have the power to polarize people. Everyone has an opinion on these freedoms and those opinions often clash. It's the result of living in a Democracy where the people don't always share the same values or opinions. That's why it's called a Democracy, because you are free to choose."
Andres Serrano
"Keep your dreams no matter what. When I hit my twenties I turned my back on being an artist and became a drug addict instead. I stayed a drug addict until my late twenties when my biological clock told me that if I stayed in that life in my thirties there'd be no turning back. There are all kinds of ways of being an artist and there is no right way or wrong way, only your way."
Andres Serrano
"When I make work, I don't usually feel like I'm trying to tap into anything in particular, because I see myself as more of a classical artist, with connections to the past. So I try to make work that is timeless, as you say, like torture, racism, homelessness, religion, these things are all timeless and they keep cropping up in my work. And so I'm fixated on things not in the moment but of the times."
Andres Serrano
"It's easy to torture people when you have power over them."
Andres Serrano
"Torture almost seems to be a part of the human condition."
Andres Serrano
"I don't see myself as a champion of a cause or an artist with an agenda. I'm not trying to save the world. I just see myself as the child in the story of the emperor's new clothes. The child is the only one who can say the emperor has no clothes. We're conditioned to not look at certain things. It's too much of an overload to look because we'll feel bad about everything, so we choose to ignore them. I come along and say, 'Hey, look at this.' I feel like what I do is state the obvious."
Andres Serrano
"I am a Christian. Sometimes I'm a misunderstood Christian, but I am a Christian. I'm also an artist. It's not like you can say, 'he's a good guy,' or 'he's a bad guy.' Maybe you're a bit of both. But I would say that my work does have a sense of humanity in it. I'm concerned with the same things that the pope is concerned about - opening a dialogue with Cuba, the problem of homelessness. It's my dream that Pope Francis would meet with me, and give me his blessing, and maybe give me a commission to do work for the church the way that religious artists have worked for the church in the past."
Andres Serrano
"There is a certain aesthetic that I have to live up to. I choose to make beautiful objects, even if they're about things that make you uncomfortable. If my work didn't have that urge, that duality, the contrast between the good and the bad, the beautiful and the ugly, it would just be making pretty pictures. It would be decorative work, and nobody would want it from me."
Andres Serrano
"A lot of times, contemporary art right now is intellectual, and it's cold. It's not political; it's not social. It's art about nothing. My art is about something, and it's not cold, because I'm not a cold person. Quite frankly, I don't understand a lot of art, so it makes sense to me that maybe some people don't understand my work as well."
Andres Serrano
"When I did the Shit show, I wanted to take beautiful pictures of shit. They are very abstract but also conceptual in the sense that the language of shit is also present in the titles. There is Good Shit, Bad Shit, Holy Shit, Bullshit, etc. It was a conceptual play on words, because there was no difference between Good Shit and Bad Shit, because they were both bullshit, meaning they were the same shit from a bull but photographed from different angles against different backdrops. I was making a statement: everyone thinks their shit is the best shit. And I was saying, if you want some shit, I've got the best shit in town!"
Andres Serrano

"Even though I consider myself a conceptual artist, I am a traditionalist when it comes to photography. I like to use film and shoot straight. No technical gimmicks or special effects. What you see is what I saw when I looked though the camera. If I've dazzled you with lights and colors, it's because I've dazzled you with lights and colors. Ideas are more important than effects. And effects are always better when they're real."


Andres Serrano is an American artist notorious for the controversial content of his photographic works. His best-known pieces are large format images of objects (frequently religious in nature) and studio portraiture, often featuring titles that unambiguously describe the process of creating the work. These processes have included submerging a crucifix in urine, taking photographs of recently deceased bodies just brought into a city morgue, and producing portraits of members of the Ku Klux Klan.

In the late 1980s his practice was highlighted as an example of work that was deliberately confrontational and designed to shock the audience. His potent mix of religious imagery, bodily fluids, sex, violence, and death was labelled obscene by conservative politicians and advocacy groups, his photograph Piss Christ in particular becoming a flashpoint in what became known as the 'culture wars' of the 1980s and 1990s in America. Serrano has always maintained that shock is not his primary goal, and points to the formal qualities of the images, their relevance to political issues (such as intolerance or sensationalism) and their relation to particular moments in art history as being his key motivation and intention.

Key Ideas

The imagery and content of Serrano's work is often a challenge to mainstream propriety or sensibilities. He produces images that combine the sacred, such as religious iconography, with the what might be called the profane: sex, bodies and their fluids, poverty, death, and/or violence. Even his studio portraiture presents controversial subjects in highly stylized ways, framing a homeless person or a loaded gun in the same way as they might be the subject in a Renaissance portrait or classical still-life.
His photographs, whilst controversial, also suggest a sustained social critique. Serrano uses the shock of seeing a crucifix in urine, feces decorated with glitter, or a nude and bound figure to comment on the influence of religion in society, the positioning of bodies and their waste as shameful, or the treatment of women and other people marginalized in contemporary society.
His formally accomplished and often very beautiful images of taboo subjects brought the kind of provocation common in the punk-influenced East Village Art scene of the 1980s into a mainstream art context, partly as a result of the controversy they provoked in the national and international media. This laid the groundwork for later artists to utilize similar imagery and still be taken up by large and established galleries and museums, often in turn generating further media scandal.
Serrano considers himself simply an artist rather than a photographer, insisting that his camera is the tool he uses to express himself rather than a form whose techniques or conventions he is attached to. His images are remarkably consistent across his career in their use of shallow focus, high contrast, and vivid color. Serrano foregrounds the idea behind his pictures, and their subject and title, as the main ways in which his photographs generate meaning rather than the technical processes behind them.
Serrano's work is steeped in art historical reference. His images featuring religious iconography are heavily influenced by Baroque painting, for example, whilst his more abstract presentations of bodily fluids reference the blocks of color of Piet Mondrian and the De Stijl movement and the swirls of Abstract Expressionism. His use of bodily fluids references previous artists and artworks who have done the same, such as Piero Manzoni, who created Artist's Shit in 1961 by supposedly filling ninety tin cans with his own feces. In the late 1970s and early 1980s Andy Warhol too also experimented with the chemical interactions of urine and copper in his Oxidation Paintings. Serrano's work with urine, feces, blood, milk, and semen in photography also has important precedents in Performance Art, such as the work of Carolee Schneemann or Vito Acconci, artists both active in New York in the 1970s when Serrano lived in the East Village.

Most Important Art

Andres Serrano Famous Art

Heaven and Hell (1984)

This photograph frames two figures against a mottled backdrop. The first, a nude woman bound at the wrists with rope, throws her head back as blood streams down her neck and torso, whilst the second, dressed in the robes of a Catholic cardinal, turns away dismissively. Serrano explained this image as "referring to the relationship the Church has with women", questioning whether "they are aware of women as human beings or just take them for granted and dismiss them." Despite the artist's straightforward explanation, the work has several potential readings.

The depiction of a bound, nude woman is both a depiction of violence and potentially titillating to its audience, whilst the motivations of the religious leader in the image are similarly unclear. The scene may be one of indifference, culpability, pity, or all three. Many of his early works (1984-87), a period which includes Heaven and Hell, feature a similar mixing of religious iconography and bodily fluids, often used to imply both passion and violence.

The Cardinal is portrayed by American painter and political artist Leon Golub, who collaborated with Serrano on the production of the image. The decision to cast Golub suggests the image is also a critique of the fraught status of women in art and within the art world, with the dispassionate observer of violence played by a successful male artist. Serrano and Golub shared many political positions and originally met through their involvement in the Artists' Call Against US Intervention in Latin America. Following Golub's death in 2004, Serrano praised his friend as "a great artist with great convictions." Reading the photograph is therefore a multi-layered process, with further resonances revealed by the knowledge of Golub's identity, and his collaboration with Serrano in the production of the image.
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Andres Serrano Artworks in Focus:



Andres Serrano was born in Manhattan on August 15, 1950, and raised in Williamsburg, Brooklyn, as an only child in an American family of Honduran and Afro-Cuban origin. His father was a Honduran immigrant, and his mother, although born in Florida, was raised in Cuba and spoke only Spanish. Serrano insists that his background is a quintessentially American one, reflecting the diversity of the country and New York as a city.

Whilst he was still a young boy his father abandoned the family to return to Honduras, leaving Serrano to be raised by his mother. As she was frequently hospitalized by bouts of psychosis, Serrano was left alone for a large portion of his childhood. Influenced by his mother, Serrano was "born and raised a Catholic', as was usual in the predominantly Italian-American Williamsburg at that time. Rituals of the church played a key part in his childhood, and religious iconography had a profound influence on the development of his aesthetic sensibilities. The artist says that he "has been a Christian all my life. When I was eight years old, I made my holy communion. When I was 12, I made my confirmation, and then I stopped going to church for about 20 years."

Education and Early Training

During a school trip to the Metropolitan Museum of Art, Serrano fell in love with Renaissance and Baroque painting, and became fascinated with its religious iconography. He returned to the museum alone whenever possible to look at the paintings in its collection. At 15, he dropped out of high school with the dream of pursuing a career as an artist. He attended the Brooklyn Museum Art School from 1967-69 but didn't start working as a serious artist until some years later. After art school he lived in the East Village of New York, a vibrant yet run-down neighborhood home to many other artists, musicians and filmmakers. The East Village was also a center of drug culture and addiction in the city, and Serrano began experimenting with and selling drugs during this time. As he describes, he "turned my back on being an artist and became a drug addict instead. I stayed a drug addict until my late twenties when my biological clock told me that if I stayed in that life in my thirties there'd be no turning back."

At 28, Serrano quit drugs and began to work more conventional jobs, including time as an assistant art director at an advertising firm. Through this work, he became more familiar with photography, and decided that, as he did not feel that he was particularly gifted at painting or sculpture, it was his ideal art-making medium. As he says "I've never called myself a photographer. I studied painting and sculpture and see myself as an artist with a camera. I learned everything I know about art from Marcel Duchamp who taught me that anything, including a photograph, could be a work of art."

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Andres Serrano Biography Continues

Mature Period

Serrano returned to making his own work consistently in 1983, developing a practice that was based in his studio as it allowed the careful management and composure of his images. The use of religious iconography referenced the Baroque art that had captivated him growing up, and the artist suggests that the use of his bodily fluids is an attempt to "personalize religion for myself". The importance of his work's titles and their ability to clarify the content of the image are, according to the artist, an influence of his time working in advertising.

After showing in group exhibitions in the East Village art scene of the early 1980s, Serrano began to exhibit his work more consistently, including his first solo show at Leonard Perlson Gallery in 1985. He was taken on by Stux Gallery in 1986-7, alongside contemporaries such as Lawrence Carroll and Vik Muniz. In 1987, Stux was the first gallery to exhibit Piss Christ, Serrano's now infamous photograph of a crucifix submerged in what the title suggests is the artist's urine. This image and its subsequent display in an exhibition funded by the National Endowment for the Arts brought Serrano to national attention as a key figure in the 'culture wars' of the 1990s, with the work and artist denounced by politicians, advocacy groups, and religious organisations. The resulting controversy brought Serrano worldwide notoriety and fame, and positioned his work at the forefront of debates about public funding of controversial art and of censorship. In 1989, Serrano was denounced on the floor of the United States Senate by Alfonse D'Amato (R-NY), who said that Piss Christ was an "outrage", "obscenity" and "disgrace" before ripping up a reproduction from an exhibition catalogue.

Serrano continued to develop his work throughout the 1990s, turning away from photographing objects to portrait work, although still often focusing on challenging subjects and imagery. Portrait series produced at this time include images of the homeless, members of the Ku Klux Klan, and a series of images of dead bodies taken at a morgue. From 1995-96, he photographed several couples and individuals in sexual poses for the series A History of Sex to illustrate the wide-ranging nature of human sexuality and sexual preferences. After the 9/11 attacks in New York Serrano embarked on a wide-ranging series of portraits designed to profile America, which included images of the homeless, boy scouts, Playboy models, and celebrities, including then businessman and now-President Donald J. Trump. His portrait work pushes the viewer to reconsider the meaning of significant topics, such as death (as in The Morgue), good vs. evil (as in Klansmen), sexual norms (as in A History of Sex), and citizenship (as in Residents of New York). Serrano approaches his portrait work objectively, saying "I wouldn't get in bed with the devil, but I would certainly take the devil's picture if he let me. An artist doesn't have judgments against things or people."

Serrano continues to make new work. His most recent major series Sign of the Times (2013) consists of the collected hand-written signs of homeless people in New York, which Serrano purchased (usually for around $20) and exhibited on the walls of the gallery. Now, as an established artist, Serrano is regularly featured in exhibitions around the world, and there have been major retrospectives of his work in New York, Paris, Brussels, and Moscow. Serrano's reputation as a rebel and an iconoclast has also resulted in collaborations with clothing manufacturers, musicians, and filmmakers. In 1996, Serrano supplied the cover artwork for the album Load by the band Metallica. In 2017 the clothing label Supreme released a collection featuring several of his photographic images (including Piss Christ) printed on sweaters and t-shirts.


Serrano's role in contemporary art history is unavoidably tied up in the reception of his work and controversy that surrounds it. The issues of propriety and obscenity highlighted by the reaction to Piss Christ have also shaped the current state of arts funding in the United States. The 'decency clause' brought in to moderate the kinds of work able to be funded by the NEA is still in place, having been upheld by the Supreme Court in 1998 during a case brought by performance artist Karen Finley. Despite this, many of the artists originally attacked during these 'culture wars' of the 1980s and 1990s are now well represented in museums and galleries, including Serrano, David Wojnarowicz and Robert Mapplethorpe. Since the high point of attacks on artists and censorship of their art in the 1990s led by Senator Jesse Helms (R-NC), art historians, curators, and critics have been keen to point out the precedents for the supposedly obscene work of these artists. This acknowledgment by the art world has not always translated to wider public acceptance however, and there are periodic resurfacings of issues around such work, as in the removal of Wojnarowicz's Fire in My Belly from the Smithsonian following political pressure from the Catholic League in 2010.

Whilst some commentators still consider Serrano's work explicit for the sake of being explicit, his work is widely accepted as being a significant intervention in the representation of religion in contemporary art practices, and as having a strong element of political and social critique.

Later artists have created work that continues his combination of bodily fluids and religious imagery, most notably Chris Ofili, whose work using elephant dung to paint a black Virgin Mary in Holy Virgin Mary (1996) provoked outrage similar to that provoked by Piss Christ. Tim Noble and Sue Webster created Urine Shroud, a piece directly inspired by Piss Christ, in 2011, whilst Terence Koh created Gold Plated Poop using his own feces in 2007 as a reference to both Serrano and Piero Manzoni.

There are also correlations between Serrano's work and that of the Young British Artists movement in the UK, a group which included artists Tracy Emin, Damien Hirst and Sarah Lucas. The use of organic and bodily material in photographs and installations was commonplace across the movement, again provoking controversy around the public funding of art. Hirst's installations of submerged icons, such as The Golden Calf (2008) strongly echo Serrano's Immersions of religious images.

Aside from the scandal and controversy around the content of Serrano's work, it also brought about a change in the relationship of major commercial galleries to photography. As he became more established the conceptual nature of his photography was recognized as being as relevant and important as its technique. Alongside contemporaries like Cindy Sherman and Felix Gonzales-Torres, Serrano's work was positioned as Conceptual art rather than relegated to galleries or curatorial departments devoted specifically to photography. This has opened up the curatorial remit of many galleries, allowing many younger artists to engage with photography alongside installation, painting, and other mediums in a conceptual manner.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Andres Serrano
Interactive chart with Andres Serrano's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart


Marcel DuchampMarcel Duchamp
Luis BunuelLuis Bunuel
Pablo PicassoPablo Picasso
Edward Curtis


Julie AultJulie Ault
Leon GolubLeon Golub
Nancy SperoNancy Spero
Tim Rollins
Group Material


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Andres Serrano
Andres Serrano
Years Worked: 1983 - present


Tim Noble
Sue Webster
Connie Sasso
Terence Koh
Maciek Wojciechowski


Roy Stuart
Francesco Carrozzini


Conceptual ArtConceptual Art
Contemporary Photography

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Useful Resources on Andres Serrano






The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing of this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
Art Matters: How the Culture Wars Changed America Recomended resource

By Brian Wallis, Marianne Weems, Phillip Yenawine
New York: New York University Press

Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Photography, Vol.1

By Lynne Warren
London: Routledge


Andres Serrano: Uncensored Photographs

By Andres Serrano, Nathalie Dietschy, and Jan Koenot

Andres Serrano: Holy Works Recomended resource

By Germano Celant, James Frey, and Andres Serrano

More Interesting Books about Andres Serrano
Homelessness: The Other 1% Recomended resource

By Andres Serrano
The Guardian
December 18, 2013

Andres Serrano: Provocation And Spirituality

By Michael Brenson
The New York Times
December 8, 1989

Serrano Focuses On Death

By Michael Kimmelman
The New York Times
February 5, 1993

On Desecration: Andres Serrano Piss Christ

By Ilan Stavans and Jorge J. E. Gracia
Michigan Quarterly Review
Fall 2013

More Interesting Articles about Andres Serrano


Archives of American Art Oral History Interview

in pop culture

Metallica, Load

This 1996 album by American metal band Metallica uses Serrano's Semen and Blood III as its cover artwork.

Andres Serrano for Supreme

Serrano collaborated with urban fashion line Supreme and footwear brand Vans in the fall of 2017 to create hooded sweatshirts, sweatpants, graphic t-shirts, and sneakers that feature Serrano's works Piss Christ, Madonna & Child II, and Blood and Semen II.

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