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Miriam Schapiro Photo

Miriam Schapiro

American Painter, Sculptor, and Printmaker

Movements and Styles: Abstract Expressionism, Feminist Art, Collage

Born: November 15, 1923 - Toronto, Ontario, Canada

Died: June 20, 2015 - Hampton Bays, New York

Miriam Schapiro Timeline

Important Art by Miriam Schapiro

The below artworks are the most important by Miriam Schapiro - that both overview the major creative periods, and highlight the greatest achievements by the artist.

Beast Land and Plenty (1957)
Artwork Images

Beast Land and Plenty (1957)

Artwork description & Analysis: Beast Land and Plenty is a large-scale, non-figurative work. Painted in broad, gestural brushstrokes, the canvas is filled with swirling forms in shades of blue, green, orange, red, and yellow, as well as black and white. The work follows a pattern of movement from dark to light, with the deepest blues and black on the left side of the canvas, while the far right of the canvas is painted in vibrant hues of pink, yellow, and white. In some areas the brushstrokes are controlled, while in other portions of the canvas appear larger swatches of colors including most prominently the thin wash of blue in the bottom center of the canvas.

Part of the second generation of Abstract Expressionist painters in New York, here Schapiro embraces the raw, emotional energy of this style. Yet Schapiro also succeeds in approaching this style on her own terms, developing her own process in which she would thin the paint with turpentine before by manipulating it across the canvas in broad wiping gestures.

In another break from typical Abstract Expressionism, many of Schapiro's paintings from this period were based on black-and-white copies of works by the (male) Old Masters; this particular painting stemmed from a painting by the Italian Renaissance artist Tintoretto. While drawing inspiration from other artists is not a new concept, Schapiro specifically referenced these male artists, recreating their work in her own style, to place herself on an equal playing field. Seizing artistic control in this fashion was an important gesture, prefiguring her future oeuvre and her activism on behalf of women artists.

Oil on canvas - Collection of New York University Art Collection, Grey Art Gallery and Study Center, New York, New York

Shrine for Two Paint Tubes (1963)
Artwork Images

Shrine for Two Paint Tubes (1963)

Artwork description & Analysis: Shrine for Two Paint Tubes depicts a vertical black column in the center of a cream-colored rectangular canvas, against which rises a curved tower-like structure with four framed sections. The elements included reference a personal symbolism that appears in multiple works. The bottom section of the tower is a framed silver square. The next contains a carefully drawn pencil-sketch of an egg, one that emphasizes her talent for shading detail. The third section contains another simple pencil still-life drawing featuring fruit, most notably an upright pear in the top left of the work. The curved uppermost section is a mustard-yellow panel framed in a brilliant dark blue.

Schapiro created a series of Shrine works that utilize symbols such as the tower and window shapes and the egg and fruit to create a visual account of the life of a female artist. When describing these works, Schapiro equates the golden color of the top section as a symbol of her career hopes and desires; the bottom section is meant to reference a mirror where a person can see herself and look inward for artistic motivation. The two middle sections are conventional drawings. In the series, the upper image always references great art of the past (here a traditional still life), while the egg in the remaining section represents in Schapiro's words, "the woman, the creative person, I, Myself." The implications of fertility and production are presented in terms that both reaffirm her gender (the egg) and complicate it (the visual language of Old Masters).

The paintings of this series are one of Schapiro's earliest organized series of works and an autobiographical reflection on her position as a woman artist that would deepen throughout her career. Here she captures "artistic struggles" of ambition and personal reflection with a connection to her own experiences.

Oil, metallic paint and pencil on canvas - Collection of Hirshhorn Museum and Sculpture Garden, Washington, D.C.

Big Ox No. 2 (1968)
Artwork Images

Big Ox No. 2 (1968)

Artwork description & Analysis: Big Ox No. 2 is composed of a large orange shape centered on a plain white canvas. At the shape's center is an eight-sided form (of uneven length sides) with four long lines radiating out to the four corners of the canvas. Despite the flatness of the composition, the interior and exterior edges of this shape are shades of pink, which create a limited illusion of three dimensions. The shape also relays the title of the work, legible as the letter "O" placed on top of an "X" to form the word "OX."

While in California, Schapiro was one of the first to see the benefit of computers for artmaking, establishing herself as an artist who in many ways was ahead of her time. Working with a physicist at the University of California, San Diego, she used computer-generated images and transferred them into large-scale canvases, including a group of paintings that featured this "OX" shape.

These works demonstrate Schapiro's skill at appropriating an often male-dominated art style, here that of Minimalist shapes and forms, and injecting it with a sense of feminine energy to encourage a dialogue about gender. For all its hard-edged masculinity, the form also evokes the female body both in the pink colors and the vagina-like center opening. For Schapiro, the "O" shape was an expansion of her earlier "egg" symbol, frequently used to reference the female body. Along with Judy Chicago, Carolee Schneemann and other feminists of the day, Schapiro's use of vaginal imagery was meant to reclaim the female body as powerful; it was a political, not a sexual gesture.

Never one to shy away from a bold statement, Schapiro later described the impact of these works (despite the limited attention they received from the male-dominated art world) stating "This work, the early work of cunt art, and various ways that women show themselves holding a mirror to themselves contributed to the changing ideas of modernism. It was radical, as radical as Cubism, but not touted in the same way. Not written about in the same way, not exposed in the same way." She continued, arguing that her painting "continues to be underground art, even though I have that painting hanging in a major museum in the West" before concluding that "it makes no difference. It is my bottle, with a little note inside. My note, a note that can be read only by women."

Acrylic on canvas - Collection of Museum of Contemporary Art, San Diego

Dollhouse (1972)
Artwork Images

Dollhouse (1972)

Artwork description & Analysis: On the surface, Dollhouse masquerades as an ordinary object. A long rectangular wooden structure that resembles a house, it rests on a matching base. The six separate sections (or rooms) are revealed when six corresponding shutters are opened. At the top of the structure is a triangular shape forming the house's roof. Each room is decorated, from the bottom living room and kitchen, to the mid-level bedrooms (one intended for a starlet and the other a seraglio, or a chamber belonging to a woman in a harem). The top two rooms consist of a nursery on the left and an artist studio on the right.

Dollhouse was created as part of the collaborative art installation Womanhouse (1972). In this ground-breaking work, Schapiro, along with her friend and fellow-artist Judy Chicago and twenty-one students from the Feminist Art Program took over a deteriorating Hollywood house and filled it with what was viewed as "traditionally-woman-themed" art such as craft, needlepoint, and weaving as well as paintings and collages. Open to the public for a period of three months, they also staged performances within the house to draw attention to the work.

Rich with metaphor, Schapiro intended the dollhouse as a statement on the lives of women. When closed, the house reveals nothing, suggesting the way a woman's public persona was supposed to convey well-trained compliance and little individuality. Yet, when access is granted to the interior, much is revealed about the personal interests and lifestyle of the owner of the house. While the traditional roles of homemaker or caregiver are included, there is more to be discovered beyond the female stereotype and opportunities for her to choose to be sexual or glamorous. Just like the shutters can reveal or conceal these rooms, so women control their lives and the perception of their public and private lives. When Dollhouse was placed in Womanhouse, it acted as a "house within a house" and further reinforced the message of the larger work.

Wood and mixed media - Collection of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington, D.C.

Anatomy of a Kimono (1976)
Artwork Images

Anatomy of a Kimono (1976)

Artwork description & Analysis: Anatomy of a Kimono is a monumental installation of ten panels, together measuring more than fifty-two feet long. A collage of collected bits of brightly colored and diversely patterned fabrics, handkerchiefs, bits of needlepointed text, and pieces of lace, it includes both abstract patterns and recognizable images such as a Japanese kimono, an obi sash, and a pair of kicking legs in motion. When viewed as a whole, the colors on each panel build from light pale tones to dark shades, ending in a vibrant explosion of reds, yellows, and orange color combinations.

The work was inspired by a book about Japanese kimonos, gifted to the artist from her assistant, Sherry Brody. The traditionally female task of kimono making combined Schapiro's lifelong interest in costumes, dance, and the theater with notions of women's work of craft, but it also integrated visual elements of Cubism. Bringing together "high" and "low" artistic production, Anatomy of a Kimono consolidated multiple aspects of Schapiro's artistic and political ambitions. This assemblage is perhaps the most elaborate example of a technique Schapiro called "femmage." While inspired by the practice of collage, in femmage Schapiro modified that process by using traditionally feminine "craft" materials, such as fabric, to elevate a functional object, the kimono, to the status of fine art.

This large and visually dramatic work was a powerful feminist statement, reclaiming the type of production that had often been dismissed or ignored as "woman's work" and transforming it into a monumental presence. Although the materials are unassuming textiles, materials that women had long worked with without any recognition of their artistry, their adoption by an established artist on this scale made them impossible to ignore. This was a political gesture of strength and determination to gain recognition and acceptance for different modes of artistic production. Indeed, the final panel, which figures the "kick" shape speaks to this empowered breaking down of boundaries. She explained, "I ended the painting with the kick so that the painting would walk or strut its way into the '80s."

Acrylic and fabric on canvas - Private Collection

I'm Dancin' as Fast as I Can (1984)
Artwork Images

I'm Dancin' as Fast as I Can (1984)

Artwork description & Analysis: Brightly colored and full of movement, I'm Dancin' as Fast as I Can weaves together three dancing figures in a complex and autobiographical narrative. Building upon her femmage technique, this work combines fragments of vibrant fabrics with paint to create a rainbow of patterns and shapes. The result is part of a trilogy of paintings created in the mid-1980s, where Schapiro attempted to visualize the struggle of asserting her identity and balancing the masculine and feminine aspects of her personality.

A male dancer in a formal suit appears on the left, striding away from the center of the canvas. His left hand holds a cane while his right hand grasps the brim of his hat. On the far right, a ballerina raises her arms to form an oval above her head, bending one leg to form a ninety-degree angle. Both of these figures strike stereotypical dance poses and appear much more static than the central female figure, who is depicted with multiple legs and arms to suggest a flurry of motion. She appears suspended between the two edges; her face turns to the left while she is connected to the dancer on the right with a brightly colored rope.

The flurry of motion of the central figure represents Schapiro's conflict in deciding between the male or female models in her personal life and her career. Drawing on her childhood, she struggles to reconcile her relationship with her father (the male dancer) and her mother (the ballerina). For Schapiro, her father was the inspiring force, the artist who worked in her chosen field, while her mother adopted the more traditional role of homemaker. Inspired by and emulating her father, Schapiro had more difficulty relating to her mother, feeling a need to reject her lifestyle to achieve artistic success. As the male figure moves off the stage, his coattails reveal miniature self-portraits of male master painters including Goya and Rembrandt and signatures of Van Gogh and Picasso. He carries with him the world Schapiro wanted to join, but to follow that life demanded her to sever the rope (or umbilical cord) that connects her with her mother.

While this particular depiction was deeply personal for Schapiro, layered with allusions to family interests in dance and costuming, the internal conflict between career and family spoke to a struggle shared by many women. As such, the painting demonstrates Schapiro's ability, as an artist, to give voice to issues central to women and the female experience.

Acrylic and fabric on canvas - Private Collection

Mother Russia (1994)
Artwork Images

Mother Russia (1994)

Artwork description & Analysis: Drawing from her familiy's heritage, Mother Russia connects Schapiro's feminist concerns and traditional forms of "woman's work" with a history of female artists from Russia. An open fan with alternating rows of red and white vertical stripes, the upper row includes silkscreened images of Sonia Delaunay, Antonia Sofronova, Olga Rozanova, Nina Simonovich Efimova, and Vera Muchkina, as well as an image of Schapiro herself, wearing a hat and veil. She joins a pantheon of revolutionary women artists and role models. Below is a narrow row which features embroidered gold text of one repeating word, "poejdka" or "journey." The following row consists of reproductions of artworks created by these women and below that is a row of red and black bands with an abstract design beneath, followed by another row of text reading "kooperaunia" or "cooperation." The final section consists of a sheaf of wheat placed behind a sickle, hammer, and red star to reference the symbols of the Russian flag.

Since the early 1970s, Schapiro made works that she considered "collaborations" in which she paid tribute to great artists of the past. Mother Russia, the most elaborate of these collaborations, helped to bring to light and remind viewers of the great work of female artists from a short but significant period in Russian history. From 1910 to 1920, female Russian artists took active roles in the Russian Revolution and helped shape Soviet culture, but they were quickly forgotten or overshadowed by their male colleagues. For Schapiro, this work was a way of bringing these women back to "the forefront of our cultural consciousness."

Furthermore, including herself among the portraits of these women, this work acknowledges Schapiro's own Russian ancestry and the deep artistic roots from which she descended. This particular image of Schapiro was captured by her students during their collaboration on Womanhouse (1972). This brings another level of meaning to the notions of "journey" and "cooperation," extending the revolution to the present day linking modern art workers and students with their female ancestors.

Acrylic and mixed media on canvas - Collection of Santa Barbara Museum of Art, Santa Barbara, California



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Miriam Schapiro Photo

Related Art and Artists

Self-portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird (1940)

Self-portrait with Thorn Necklace and Hummingbird (1940)

Artist: Frida Kahlo

Artwork description & Analysis: The frontal position and outward stare of Kahlo in this self-portrait directly confronts and engages the viewer. The artist wears Christ's unraveled crown of thorns as a necklace that digs into her neck, signifying her self-representation as a Christian martyr and the enduring pain experienced following her failed marriage. A dead hummingbird, a symbol in Mexican folkloric tradition of luck charms for falling in love, hangs in the center of her necklace. A black cat - symbolic of bad luck and death - crouches behind her left shoulder, and a spider monkey gifted from Rivera, symbolic of evil, is included to her right. Kahlo frequently employed flora and fauna in the background of her bust length portraits to create a tight, claustrophobic space, using the symbolic element of nature to simultaneously compare and contrast the link between female fertility with the barren and deathly imagery of the foreground.

Typically a symbol of good fortune, the meaning of a 'dead' hummingbird is be reversed. Kahlo, who craves flight, is perturbed and disturbed by the fact that the butterflies in her hair are too delicate to travel far and that the dead bird around her neck, has become an anchor, preyed upon by the nearby cat. In failing to directly translate complex interior feelings it as though the painting illustrates the artist's frustrations.

Oil on canvas on masonite - Nikolas Muray Collection, Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin

The Dinner Party (1979)
Artwork Images

The Dinner Party (1979)

Artist: Judy Chicago

Artwork description & Analysis: The Dinner Party is a monumental installation celebrating forgotten achievements in female history. Chicago described it as, "as a reinterpretation of The Last Supper from the point of view of women, who, throughout history, have prepared the meals and set the table." The central form is a forty-eight-foot triangular table with symbolic places set for thirty-nine "guests of honor"—remarkable women from different stages in Western civilization. Each guest has her own runner, embroidered on one side with her name and on the other with imagery illustrating her achievement. Each place setting includes a glass plate, decorated with a butterfly or floral motif symbolizing the vulva. By incorporating elements of a contemporary social event with the status and appearance of a banquet, Chicago elevates her guests to the role of heroes, a traditionally male epithet. In essence, Chicago states, the work "takes us on a tour of Western civilization, a tour that bypasses what we have been taught to think of as the main road." The floor is inscribed with the names of 999 additional women worthy of recognition, while acknowledgment panels on the walls honor the 129 collaborators who worked with Chicago on the piece.

Regarded as an icon of twentieth-century art, The Dinner Party is arguably the most significant and recognized piece of feminist art ever made, notable in its incorporation of collaborative working process, political symbolism, the sheer scale of the media response, and the unprecedented worldwide grassroots movement it prompted in reaction to the work's condemnation. The piece's lasting importance lies in its defiance of fine-art tradition by representing a feminine history suppressed by patriarchal society, as well as its celebration of the traditional "feminine" crafts: textile arts (weaving, embroidery, and sewing) and ceramic decoration. Featured in sixteen exhibitions in six different countries, The Dinner Party has now been seen by more than one million viewers.

Ceramic, porcelain, textile, glass - Elizabeth Sackler Center for Feminist Art, Brooklyn Museum

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Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino

" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
Content compiled and written by The Art Story Contributors
Edited and revised, with Synopsis and Key Ideas added by Sarah Archino
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