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Artists James Rosenquist

James Rosenquist

American Painter

Movement: Pop Art

Born: November 29, 1933 - Grand Forks, North Dakota

Quotes

"I'm the one who gave steroids to Pop art."
James Rosenquist
"I feel lucky that I've been able to make a living from painting any idea that comes into my head."
James Rosenquist
"I'm interested in contemporary vision - the flicker of chrome, reflections, rapid associations, quick flashes of light. Bing! Bang!"
James Rosenquist
"The best thing about being an artist is the free clothing and getting to kiss pretty girls."
James Rosenquist
"When I started out, I wanted to paint the Sistine Chapel. But I didn't have the content."
James Rosenquist
"I stick the collages on the wall and, if I still like them after a month or two, I make a painting."
James Rosenquist
"I painted billboards above every candy store in Brooklyn."
James Rosenquist

"Popular culture isn't a freeze-frame; it is images zapping by in rapid-fire succession, which is why collage is such an effective way of representing contemporary life. The blur between images creates a kind of motion in the mind."

Synopsis

A seminal figure in the Pop Art movement, James Rosenquist is best known for his colossal collage paintings of enigmatically juxtaposed fragmentary images borrowed largely from advertisements and mass media. Brought together and enlarged so as to cover entire gallery walls and overwhelm the viewer, these seemingly unrelated pictures of consumer products, weaponry, and celebrities hint at the artist's social, political, and cultural concerns. The billboard painter-turned-artist's early works are also considered emblematic of a burgeoning consumer culture in America during the 1960s. Six decades into his career, Rosenquist continues to create massive, provocative paintings, whose relevance hinges on their engagement with current economic, political, environmental, and scientific issues.

Key Ideas

The artist was among the first to directly address the persuasive, even deceptive, powers of advertising by applying the Surrealist practice of juxtaposing seemingly unrelated subjects to fragmented commercial images and ads in a manner that highlights the omnipresence of ads.
An advocate for his fellow artists, Rosenquist used his prominent artistic reputation to help lobby for federal protection of artists' rights during the 1970s and was soon thereafter appointed to the National Council on the Arts.
Because he successfully moved beyond his early fascination with popular culture and mass media to address new issues, such as the intersection of science and aesthetics, Rosenquist is credited with being one the few Pop artists whose later work continues to be relevant.
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Most Important Art

President Elect (1960-61)
Like many Pop artists, Rosenquist was fascinated by the popularization of political and cultural figures in mass media. In his billboard-style painting President Elect, the artist fuses Madison Avenue caliber advertising with political ambition by depicting John F. Kennedy's smiling face alongside consumer items - namely, a yellow Chevrolet and a slice of cake from an ad. Rosenquist created the collage using images cut from their original context that he adapted to fit a monumental scale in a photo-realistic style. As Rosenquist explains, "The face was from Kennedy's campaign poster. I was very interested at that time in people who advertised themselves. Why did they put up an advertisement of themselves? So that was his face. And his promise was half a Chevrolet and a piece of stale cake."

Considered the artist's breakthrough work, President Elect speaks to Rosenquist's fascination with subliminal persuasion through advertising. Rosenquist had a strong interest in the imagery of advertising, and wanted to translate its power into his artwork: "Painting is probably much more exciting than advertising," he said, "so why shouldn't it be done with that power and gusto, with that impact." This large-scale work exemplifies Rosenquist's technique of combining discrete images through techniques of blending, interlocking, and juxtaposition, as well as his skill at including political and social commentary using popular imagery. By placing Kennedy, the first presidential candidate to harness mass media to benefit his campaign, in the same frame as a sleek, powerful 1949 Chevy and dainty fingers caressing cake, the artist suggests the three subjects are similarly neatly packaged, marketed as desirable, and sold to the American people. At the same time, here Kennedy becomes a symbol of post-war American abundance.
Oil on masonite - Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris
More Art Works


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Biography

Childhood

James Rosenquist, born in North Dakota, was the only child of amateur pilots Ruth and Louis Rosenquist. His father's search for work repairing planes meant that the family moved frequently, particularly during World War II, occasionally sending Rosenquist to stay with his grandfather on his farm near Mekinock, North Dakota. When the war concluded, the family settled in Minneapolis. By then, Rosenquist had lived in five different towns and attended seven different schools, all the while working during his summers and after school collecting newspapers, selling ice cream, picking seasonal produce at his grandfather's farm, and making deliveries for a local drug store.

Throughout these years, Rosenquist's mother, also an amateur painter, nurtured her son's budding creativity by taking him to visit art schools and museums whenever she could. Paper was hard to find, but young Rosenquist made do by drawing on rolls of discarded wallpaper. While his parents were away working, the artist sketched large battle scenes, cars, airplanes, and boats, honing his abilities. In eighth grade, Rosenquist's watercolor of a sunset won him a scholarship for four free classes at the Minneapolis School of Art (now Minneapolis College of Art and Design). While there, he was exposed to "real artists" - veterans who had studied art in Paris after World War II.

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Early Training

James Rosenquist painting a billboard, 1960

Rosenquist's formal art training began in 1952 when he matriculated to the University of Minnesota and studied under painter Cameron Booth. An American Abstract Expressionist who had studied in France under the guidance of renown German painter Hans Hofmann, Booth introduced his students to modern and contemporary art movements and took them to exhibitions at the Art Institute of Chicago.

During his first summer at the university, Rosenquist began working as a commercial sign painter, traveling throughout Minnesota and Iowa for various jobs. Although today most signs are printed, in the 1950s billboards were painted by hand, a job that took a good deal of skill and considerable effort. Rosenquist painted large-scale signs based on small pictures he was given so that the image could be seen from far away - even from a moving car. Commercial sign painting, a job that would have a long-term impact on his art, did not however, deter the artist from creating Abstract Expressionist paintings at school. Rosenquist considered action painting particularly heroic, admiring what he described as "splashing your psyche on the canvas."

This began to change in 1955, when, at Booth's suggestion, the artist enrolled in the Art Students League in New York City. Rosenquist later recalled that Booth "was a man of the world, he'd taught all over. He told me to get out of the Midwest and to go to New York." There Rosenquist studied with Will Barnet, Vaclav Vytlacil, and George Grosz. The artist also interacted with members of the Beat Generation literary scene, such as Jack Kerouac and Allen Ginsberg.

Rosenquist experienced a cultural jolt upon moving to New York - one that altered his outlook on wealth and consumerism: "My life changed drastically. I was like a young bum. I had no money. I lived really poorly. I walked everywhere. The luxury of being in a car was amazing."

When he was not in his studio creating small works in the Abstract Expressionist style, Rosenquist was perched atop scaffolding high overhead painting billboards. For Rosenquist, sign painting was more than a way to earn some cash. Painting alongside veteran sign painters who offered tips on coloring and perspective constituted a modern version of working in an old master's workshop. In the artist's words: "I felt as if the craft of traditional painting had gotten mislaid; you no longer learned your trade from a master painter, but from books and classes, and it occurred to me that looking for art at an art school was like looking for your wallet under a streetlamp when you hadn't lost it there." As a sign painter, Rosenquist experimented with color, learned how to manipulate paint to mimic other media (such as film), and developed an interest in the impact and prevalence of advertising in American culture. After quitting his job in 1960 when a fellow sign painter fell to his death, Rosenquist applied all he had learned to his canvas paintings.

Mature Period

James Rosenquist Photo

1960 was an important year for James Rosenquist. After marrying textile designer Mary Lou Adams, the artist began renting a small studio in Coenties Slip, an area of lower Manhattan popular among emerging artists at the time. His neighbors included Robert Indiana, Agnes Martin, and Ellsworth Kelly. Working in this new studio space, Rosenquist began to reconsider his approach to painting. The Abstract Expressionist style he so admired for its intensity and its success in making New York City the new center of the art world during the early 1950s was, by 1960, running on fumes. According to Rosenquist, "Abstract Expressionism had become this corny-looking habit...What had been brilliant and incisive in the 1940s and early fifties had become idiot-like and romantic...Everyone was searching to get down to absolute zero, to just color and form, and the only way I knew to do that was to start using imagery again, to paint specific things that couldn't be confused with something else."

The artist turned instead to a new realism and to the techniques that he had developed through billboard painting. Working on a massive scale, Rosenquist painted brightly colored, fragmented pictures from the commercial realm, creating collages that comment on the socio-political and economic climate of America. Collectors and influential gallery owners like Richard Bellamy and Leo Castelli began to show interest in Rosenquist's new paintings. His work made him a pioneer of Pop Art in 1962 when his first solo exhibition at the Green Gallery in New York sold out at approximately the same time that two other like-minded artists, Andy Warhol and Roy Lichtenstein, held similarly successful and groundbreaking shows. Rosenquist remembered: "They called me a Pop artist because I used recognizable imagery. The critics like to group people together. I didn't meet Andy Warhol until 1964. I did not really know Andy or Roy Lichtenstein that well. We all emerged separately."

Fame came quickly to Rosenquist. The artist seemed to be in as high demand as were his large-scale paintings. Rosenquist remembers one evening in particular, during which he dined with Surealist painter Salvador Dalí, one of his idols, and Jeff Koons. Rosenquist ordered asparagus and, according to Koons, Dali placed the vegetable on his head for the entire meal. Dali's absurd behavior (for which he had a reputation) amused the artists in his company. Rosenquist, having been catapulted into the upper echelons of New York's art scene, enjoyed such engagements. His fame continued to grow and in 1987 he was admitted to the American Academy and Institute of Art and Letters in New York.

Late Period

James Rosenquist Portrait

Rosenquist's commissions often took him away from New York City. In the 1970s, the artist began work on two murals for the State of Florida. He set up a studio in Ybor City before commissioning a house and studio from architect Gilbert Flores in 1976. This new workspace in Aripeka allowed more room for his large canvases.

During this time, Rosenquist also became politically involved; lobbying the government in 1974 for better legislation to protect artists' rights and protesting the Vietnam War. Paintings created during this decade reflect his political concerns, as well as his fascination with technology, modern innovations, and their sometimes conflicting relationship with nature. By 1980, ecological issues had begun to concern Rosenquist, as evidenced in his series depicting local tropical flora. And by the 1990s, his fascination with space and time had become a dominant theme, echoing the fashion for science fiction in other areas of popular culture. In addition to painting, Rosenquist also produced large-scale prints. His 1992 work Time Dust is thought to be the largest print ever made, measuring 86 x 420 inches.

Rosenquist is one of only a few pop artists still working today. Throughout his career, one characteristic has remained constant - the artist's fascination with chaos. Fragmented images overlap, collide, and swirl across massive canvases that overwhelm the gallery space they occupy and the viewers who enter that space. Sadly, in 2009, a fire gutted Rosenquist's home and studio in Aripeka, Florida, destroying the majority of his work held there. Among the work destroyed was a huge mural that would have measured a massive 133x24 feet upon completion.

The fact that he has outlived so many of his colleagues, saddens Rosenquist: "They're not around, they're dead. D-E-D, dead. Roy [Lichtenstein], Andy, Dan Flavin, Don Judd. I hate it." Many of the artist's paintings are now commissioned by corporations or purchased by private collectors. Every composition is meaningful and finished to the highest possible quality no matter its intended destination. Rosenquist insists, "I never let anything go out of my studio if I don't think it has something, an essence, because it could wind up in a museum."

Legacy

James Rosenquist's irreverent and at times surreal appropriation of popular culture and the materials and techniques of advertising inspired several other artists. For example, Richard Prince's photographic use of advertisement imagery demonstrates Rosenquist's influence, as do Marilyn Minter's ad-inspired paintings. Rosenquist's legacy has impacted many contemporary artists, such as Jeff Koons, whose vibrant works often echo the huge scale and incorporation of popular imagery and advertisements characteristic of Rosenquist's paintings. His significance to modern art is assured, but Rosenquist himself is unconcerned about how or if he will be remembered after death: "You live till you die, and that's the end of it. What good is your legacy when you are dead? I worry about being alive, selling work, having fun, moving and doing things when I am alive."


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Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

James Rosenquist
Interactive chart with James Rosenquist's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Andy Warhol
Richard Hamilton
Eduardo Paolozzi
Salvador Dalí
Rene Magritte

Friends

Robert Indiana
Ellsworth Kelly

Movements

Surrealism
Pop Art
Contemporary Art
James Rosenquist
James Rosenquist
Years Worked: 1950s - Present

Artists

Richard Prince
Marilyn Minter

Friends

Movements

Pop Art
Neo Pop Art

Content compiled and written by Anna Souter

Edited and revised by Sandy McCain

. [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org website. Available from:
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Useful Resources on James Rosenquist

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
James Rosenquist: A Retrospective

By Sarah Bancroft

Rosenquist: Painting Below Zero

By James Rosenquist and David Dalton

artworks
James Rosenquist Time Dust Complete Graphics 1962-1992

By Constance Glenn

James Rosenquist: Pop Art, Politics and History in the 1960s

By Michael Lobel

James Rosenquist and Erro discuss a long friendship forged in Pop art

By Randy Kennedy
The New York Times
March 17, 2016

In Conversation with James Rosenquist

By Mary Anne Staniszewski
Bomb Magazine
Fall, 1987

Q&A with James Rosenquist

By Courtney Jordan
Smithsonian Magazine
March 2007

King of Pop

By Mark Stevens
New York Magazine
October 27, 2003

Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
ArtStory: Pop Art
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
ArtStory: Surrealism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Hans Hofmann
Hans Hofmann
Hans Hofmann
German-born American painter, art teacher and theorist. Hofmann matured as an artist in 1904-14 in Paris, where he met many of the greatest artists of that time. After he emigrated to America in the early 1930s, he enjoyed a prominent career as a teacher, powerfully influencing many Abstract Expressionists with his understanding of European modernism.
ArtStory: Hans Hofmann
George Grosz
George Grosz
George Grosz
George Grosz was a German Dada and Neue Sachlichkeit artist. He was enamored of America and highly critical of Weimar society. Grosz immigrated to the United States just as Hitler came to power and opened a private art school in Des Moines.
ArtStory: George Grosz
Beat Generation
Beat Generation
Beat Generation
The Beat Generation was a group of authors published and popularized throughout the 1950's influenced by American culture in the wake of World war II. In the spirit of this movement anti-materialism and flight from standard values were common, while spiritualism and various types of liberation were embraced.
Beat Generation
Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac
Jack Kerouac was an American author and poet, known for being one of the pioneers of the Beat Generation.
Jack Kerouac
Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg
Allen Ginsberg was an American poet and writer commonly associated with the mid-twentieth-century Beat poets. A compatriot of writers like Kerouac, Cassady and Burroughs, Ginsberg's most famous work is the 1956 poem "Howl," which he wrote while living in Berkeley, California.
Allen Ginsberg
Robert Indiana
Robert Indiana
Robert Indiana
Best known for his iconic LOVE series, which has been reproduced in formats ranging from large public sculptures to postage stamps, Robert Indiana explores the American experience using everyday objects and language.
ArtStory: Robert Indiana
Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin
Agnes Martin was a Canadian-born American painter, typically associated with Minimalism and at times Abstract Expressionism. Always something of a recluse, Martin's art was informed by Eastern Taoist philosophy and contained elements of spirituality. Her painting style employed simple lines, grid patterns and soft colors.
Agnes Martin
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly
Ellsworth Kelly is an American Color Field and Hard edge painter. Kelly got his start in the late 1950s with showings at the Betty Parsons Gallery and the Whitney Museum. His work often consists of shaped canvases, simple geometric shapes, and large panels of uniform color.
ArtStory: Ellsworth Kelly
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol
Andy Warhol was an American Pop artist best known for his prints and paintings of consumer goods, celebrities, and photographed disasters. One of the most famous and influential artists of the 1960s, he pioneered compositions and techniques that emphasized repetition and the mechanization of art.
ArtStory: Andy Warhol
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein
Roy Lichtenstein was an American painter and a pioneer of the Pop art movement. His signature reproductions of comic book imagery eventually redefined how the art world viewed high vs. lowbrow art. Lichtenstein employed a unique form of painting called the Benday dot technique, in which small, closely-knit dots of paint were applied to form a much larger image.
ArtStory: Roy Lichtenstein
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí
Salvador Dalí was a Spanish Surrealist painter who combined a hyperrealist style with dream-like, sexualized subject matter. His collaborations with Hollywood and commercial ventures, alongside his notoriously dramatic personality, earned him scorn from some Surrealist colleagues.
ArtStory: Salvador Dalí
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons
Jeff Koons is an American sculptor, painter and Neo-Pop artist, best known for mirror-finished stainless steel constructions of animals and everyday objects. Koons' works are often large public installations, in which viewers are invited to interact with his art.
ArtStory: Jeff Koons
Richard Prince
Richard Prince
Richard Prince
Richard Prince created collages containing photographs, such as his series of Cowboys that question advertising, and series of Nurses that show off popular stereotypes.
ArtStory: Richard Prince
Richard Hamilton
Richard Hamilton
Richard Hamilton
Richard Hamilton is an English painter and collage artist, and is best known as a founding member of the British Independent Group, which launched the mid-century Pop art movement. Hamilton's 1956 collage 'Just What Is It That Makes Today's Homes So Different, So Appealing?' is widely considered one of the first works of Pop art.
ArtStory: Richard Hamilton
Eduardo Paolozzi
Eduardo Paolozzi
Eduardo Paolozzi
Eduardo Paolozzi was a Scottish sculptor, printmaker and multi-media artist, and a pioneer in the early development of Pop art. His 1947 print 'I Was a Rich Man's Plaything' is considered the very first work of the movement. He was also a founder of the Independent Group in 1952.
ArtStory: Eduardo Paolozzi
Rene Magritte
Rene Magritte
Rene Magritte
Rene Magritte has achieved great popular acclaim for his idiosyncratic approach to Surrealism. His beautiful and troubling images of bowler-hatted men and nature scenes are popular in art and general circles.
ArtStory: Rene Magritte
Contemporary Art
Contemporary Art
Contemporary Art
Contemporary art is a general term that typically refers to any art produced in the present day, but also arguably to art produced since the end of World War II, beginning with Abstract Expressionism. Contemporary art may also refer to the broad canon of "postmodern" artists who came to prominence with such art movements as Pop, Neo-Dada, Land art and Performance art, among many other disciplines that in one form or another abandoned the traditional practices of the single artist in the studio space.
Contemporary Art
Marilyn Minter
Marilyn Minter
Marilyn Minter
Marilyn Minter is an American artist known for her photgraphic works which often include sexuality and erotic imagery.
Marilyn Minter
Neo Pop Art
Neo Pop Art
Neo Pop Art
Neo-Pop refers to Pop art's revival and evolution in the 1980s, when a renewed interest appeared in creating artworks based on the celebrities and popular culture of that decade. Artists such as Jeff Koons, Keith Haring and Takashi Murakami were major figures of early Neo-Pop, a movement that continues today.
Neo Pop Art
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