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Artists Diego Rivera

Diego Rivera

Mexican Painter and Muralist

Movements: Social Realism, Mexican Muralists

Born: December 8, 1886 - Guanajuato, Mexico

Died: November 24, 1957 - Mexico City, Mexico

Quotes

"... (Cubism) was a revolutionary movement, questioning everything that had previously been said and done in art. It held nothing sacred. As the old word would soon blow itself apart, never to be the same again, so Cubism broke down the forms as they had been seen for centuries, and was creating out of the fragments new forms, new objects, new patters and—ultimately—new worlds."
Diego Rivera
"All inner doubt, the conflict that had so tortured me in Europe, had disappeared. I painted as naturally as I breathed, spoke or sweated. My style was born like a child, in a moment, with the difference that this birth took place at the end of a painful, 35-year gestation."
Diego Rivera
"The marching mass... had the floating motion of a snake, but it was more awesome... At the head of this winding, undulating creature mass was a group in the form of an enormous locomotive. A big red star and five picks were over the "cylinder" of the "boiler". The "headlight" was an enormous inscription between two flags: THE UNIONS ARE THE LOCOMOTIVES MOVING THE TRAIN OF THE REVOLUTION. THE CORRECT REVOLUTIONARY THEORY IS THE STEEL TRACK."
Diego Rivera
"I know now that he who hopes to be universal in his art must plant in his own soil. Great art is like a tree, which grows in a particular place and has a trunk, leaves, blossoms, boughs, fruit, and roots of its own. The more native art is, the more it belongs to the entire world, because taste is rooted in nature. When art is true, it is one with nature. This is the secret of primitive art and also of the art of the masters—Michelangelo, Cézanne, Seurat, and Renoir. The secret of my best work is that it is Mexican."
Diego Rivera

"When art is true, it is one with nature. This is the secret of primitive art and also of the art of the masters—Michelangelo, Cézanne, Seurat, and Renoir. The secret of my best work is that it is Mexican.."

Synopsis

Widely regarded as the most influential Mexican artist of the twentieth century, Diego Rivera was truly a larger-than-life figure who spent significant periods of his career in Europe and the U.S., in addition to his native Mexico. Together with David Alfaro Siqueiros and Jose Clemente Orozco, Rivera was among the leading members and founders of the Mexican Muralist movement. Deploying a style informed by disparate sources such as European modern masters and Mexico's pre-Columbian heritage, and executed in the technique of Italian fresco painting, Rivera handled major themes appropriate to the scale of his chosen art form: social inequality; the relationship of nature, industry, and technology; and the history and fate of Mexico. More than half a century after his death, Rivera is still among the most revered figures in Mexico, celebrated for both his role in the country's artistic renaissance and re-invigoration of the mural genre as well as for his outsized persona.

Key Ideas

Rivera made the painting of murals his primary method, appreciating the large scale and public accessibility—the opposite of what he regarded as the elitist character of paintings in galleries and museums. Rivera used the walls of universities and other public buildings throughout Mexico and the United States as his canvas, creating an extraordinary body of work that revived interest in the mural as an art form and helped reinvent the concept of public art in the U.S. by paving the way for the Federal Art Program of the 1930s.
Mexican culture and history constituted the major themes and influence on Rivera's art. Rivera, who amassed an enormous collection of pre-Columbian artifacts, created panoramic portrayals of Mexican history and daily life, from its Mayan beginnings up to the Mexican Revolution and post-Revolutionary present, in a style largely indebted to pre-Columbian culture.
A lifelong Marxist who belonged to the Mexican Communist Party and had important ties to the Soviet Union, Rivera is an exemplar of the socially committed artist. His art expressed his outspoken commitment to left-wing political causes, depicting such subjects as the Mexican peasantry, American workers, and revolutionary figures like Emiliano Zapata and Lenin. At times, his outspoken, uncompromising leftist politics collided with the wishes of wealthy patrons and aroused significant controversy that emanated inside and outside the art world.

Most Important Art

Creation (1922–23)
His first commission from Mexican Minister of Education Jose Vasconcelos, Creation is the first of Rivera's many murals and a touchstone for Mexican Muralism. Treating, in the artist's words, "the origins of the sciences and the arts, a kind of condensed version of human history"—the work is a complex allegorical composition, combining Mexican, Judeo-Christian, and Hellenic motifs. It depicts a number of allegorical figures—among them Faith, Hope, Charity, Education, and Science—all seemingly represented with unmistakably Mexican features. The figure of Song was modeled on Guadalupe Marin, who later became Rivera's second wife. Through such features of the work as the use of gold leaf and the monumental, elongated figures, the mural reflects the importance of Italian and Byzantine art for Rivera's development.
Fresco in encaustic with gold leaf - Museo de San Idelfonso, Mexico City
More Art Works


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Biography

Childhood

Diego Rivera and his fraternal twin brother (who died at the age of two) were born in 1886 in Guanajuato, a small town in Mexico. His parents were both teachers; his mother was a devoted Catholic mestiza (part European, part Indian) and his father, a liberal criollo (Mexican of European descent). Diego's exceptional artistic talent was obvious to his parents from an early age, and they set aside a room in the house for him in which he painted his first "murals" on the walls. When Diego was six, his family moved from Guanajuato to Mexico City, to avoid the tensions caused by his father's role as co-editor of the opposition newspaper El Democrata. Once in Mexico City, his mother decided to send Diego to the Carpantier Catholic College.

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Early Training

By the age of ten, Rivera decided he wanted to attend art school, despite his father's desire that he pursue a military career. By the age of twelve, Rivera was enrolled full-time at the San Carlos Academy of Fine Arts, where he received training modeled on conservative European academies; one of his painting teachers had studied with Ingres, and another required Rivera to copy classical sculpture. Trained in traditional techniques in perspective, color, and the plein air method, Rivera also received instruction from Gerardo Murillo, one of the ideological forces behind the Mexican artistic revolution and a staunch defender of indigenous crafts and Mexican culture. With Murillo's support, Rivera was awarded a travel grant to Europe in 1906.

In Spain, Rivera studied the work of El Greco, Velazquez, Goya, and the Flemish masters that he saw in the Prado Museum, and which provided him with a strong foundation for his later painting. At the studio of the Spanish realist painter Eduardo Chicharro, Rivera became acquainted with the leading figures of the Madrid avant-garde, including the Dada poet Ramon Gomez de la Serna and the writer Ramon Valle-Inclan.

In 1909 Rivera traveled to Paris and Belgium with Valle-Inclan, where he met the Russian painter Angelina Beloff who would be Rivera's partner for twelve years. Returning to Mexico City in 1910, Rivera was offered his first exhibition at the San Carlos Academy. Rivera's return coincided with the onset of the Mexican Revolution, which lasted until 1917. Despite the political upheaval, Rivera's exhibit was a great success, and the money earned from the sale of his work enabled him to return to Europe.

Diego Rivera Biography

Back in Paris, Rivera became a fervent adherent of Cubism, which he regarded as a truly revolutionary form of painting. However, Rivera's difficult relationships with the other members of the movement came to a tumultuous end following a violent incident with the art critic Pierre Reverdy, resulting in a definitive break with the circle and the termination of his friendships with Picasso, Braque, Juan Gris, Fernand Leger, Gino Severini, and Jacques Lipchitz.

Rivera subsequently shifted his focus to the work of Cézanne and Neoclassical artists such as Ingres, as well as a rediscovery of figural painting. Receiving another grant to travel to Italy to study classical art, Rivera copied Etruscan, Byzantine, and Renaissance artworks, and developed a particular interest in the frescoes of the 14th and 15th centuries of the Italian Renaissance. In 1921, following the appointment of Jose Vasconcelos as the new Mexican Minister of Education, Rivera returned to his home country, leaving behind his partner, Angelina Beloff, as well as Marevna Stebelska, another Russian artist, with whom Rivera had a daughter, Marika, in 1919.

Mature Period

Diego Rivera Photo with Frida Kahlo

Rivera returned to Mexico with a reawakened artistic perspective, deeply influenced by his study of classical and ancient art. There, he was afforded the opportunity to visit and study many pre-Columbian archaeological sites under the auspices of the Ministry of Education's art program. Yet his first mural painting, produced for the National Preparatory School and entitled Creation(1922), shows a strong influence of Western art. Rivera soon became involved with local politics through his membership in the Revolutionary Union of Technical Workers and his entry into the Mexican Communist Party in 1922. At this time, he painted frescoes in the Ministry of Education in Mexico City and the National School of Agriculture in Chapingo. During the latter project, he became involved with the Italian photographer Tina Modotti, who had modeled for his murals; the affair prompted him to separate from his wife at the time, Lupe Marin.

In 1927, Rivera visited the Soviet Union to attend the celebrations of the tenth anniversary of the October Revolution, an experience he found extremely inspiring. He spent nine months in Moscow, teaching monumental painting at the School of Fine Arts. Upon his return to Mexico, he married the painter Frida Kahlo, who was twenty-one years his junior, and became the director of the Academy of San Carlos. His radical ideas about education earned him enemies among the conservative faculty and student body; at the same time, he was expelled from the Communist Party for his cooperation with the government. Politically cornered, Rivera found support in the American ambassador to Mexico, Dwight W. Morrow, who commissioned him to paint a mural in the Cortes Palace in Cuernavaca depicting the history of that city. A great admirer of Rivera's work, Morrow offered the artist the opportunity to travel to the United States, all expenses paid. Rivera remained in the U.S. for four years. There, the always-prolific artist worked around the clock, painting murals in San Francisco, New York, and Detroit, celebrating the powerful forces of unions, education, industry, and art. In New York, he met with enormous popularity (his one-man show at The Museum of Modern Art had fifty-seven thousand visitors) as well as controversy (some of his murals were threatened with physical harm). Rivera's American adventure ended in 1933, when John D. Rockefeller, Jr., ordered the destruction of the mural he had commissioned for the lobby of Rockefeller Center, Man at the Crossroads, because of both Rivera's unwillingness to eliminate the portrait of Lenin and for what the Rockefeller family regarded as an offensive portrait of David Rockefeller.

Later Years and Death

After Rivera returned to Mexico, he and Kahlo shared a house-studio in a beautiful Bauhaus-style building in Mexico City that can still be visited today. From 1929 until 1945, Rivera worked on and off in the National Palace, creating some of his most famous murals there. In 1937, he and Kahlo helped Leon Trotsky - a major Russian Communist leader - and his wife obtain political exile; the Trotskys lived with Rivera and Kahlo for two years in the "Blue House" in the suburb of Coyoacan. Two years later, Rivera and Kahlo divorced, although they remarried a year later in San Francisco, while Rivera was working for the Golden Gate International Exposition. They would remain together until Kahlo's death in 1954.

Diego Rivera Painting

During his last years, Diego continued to paint murals, sometimes working on portable panels. He also produced a large number of oil portraits, usually of the Mexican bourgeoisie, children, or American tourists. These works are not always remarkable, and they are often infused with a kitschy aesthetic reminiscent of Pop art. However, they were very successful during his lifetime, and provided a way for the artist to acquire more pre-Columbian objects for his spectacular collection. Today, his collection is housed in the Anahuacalli Museum, a building inspired by the Great Temple of Tenochtitlan and designed by Rivera himself.

Widowed and already sick with cancer, Rivera married for the third time in 1955 to Emma Hurtado, his art dealer and rights holder since 1946. Following a trip to the Soviet Union made in the hope of curing his cancer, Rivera died in Mexico in 1957 at age seventy-one. His wish to have his ashes mingled with those of Kahlo was not honored, and he was buried in the Rotunda of Famous Men of Mexico.

Legacy

Rivera saw the artist as a craftsman at the service of the community, who, as such, needed to deploy an easily accessible visual language. This concept greatly influenced American public art, helping give rise to governmental initiatives such as Franklin Roosevelt's Federal Art Project of the Works Progress Administration, whose artists depicted scenes from American life on public buildings. With his socially and politically expansive artistic vision, narrative focus, and use of symbolic imagery, Rivera inspired such diverse artists as Ben Shahn, Thomas Hart Benton, and Jackson Pollock.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Diego Rivera
Interactive chart with Diego Rivera's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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Artists

Paul Cézanne
Henri Rousseau
Pablo Picasso
André Breton

Friends

Gerardo Murillo
Leon Trotsky
Guillaume Apollinaire

Movements

Post-Impressionism
Cubism
Surrealism
Pre-Columbian Art
Mexican Muralists
Diego Rivera
Diego Rivera
Years Worked: 1906 - 1957

Artists

Frida Kahlo
Fernando Botero
Rufino Tamayo
Ben Shahn
Jackson Pollock

Friends

Tina Modotti
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Bertram Wolfe
André Breton

Movements

Mexican Muralists
Pop Art

Original content written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

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Useful Resources on Diego Rivera

Books
Websites
Articles
Videos
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Diego Rivera, 1886-1957: A Revolutionary Spirit in Modern Art (Taschen Basic Art)

By Andrea Kettenmann

Dreaming with His Eyes Open: A Life of Diego Rivera (Discovery Series)

By Patrick Marnham

Diego Rivera

By Pete Hamill

The Diego Rivera Mural Project

Info and Preservation of Diego Mural in San Francisco, CA

Diego Rivera Web Museum

Articles and works dedicated to the mexican Muralist

Diego Rivera Experts

Diego Rivera Celebrated by Google doodle

By David Batty
The Guardian
December 7, 2011

Time Capsule With Pulse on Present

By Karen Rosenberg
The New York Times
November 17, 2011

The Mural Vanishes

By Peter Catapano
The New York Times
April 1, 2011

Kahlo and Rivera, Side by Side in Istanbul

By Susan Fowler
The New York Times
February 7, 2011

archival documents
Archives of American Art, Smithsonian

Photographs of Rivera, often with Frida

in pop culture
The Cradle will Rock (1999)

Rivera's Rockerfeller murals are part of the plot in this movie. Diego Rivera portrayed by Ruben Blades

Frida (2002)

Diego Rivera is portrayed by Alfred Molina in this main-stream movie

David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Jose David Alfaro Siquieros was a Mexican social realist painter, an active member of the Mexican Communist Party, and one of three artists - along with Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco - who gave rise to the Mexican Mural Renaissance in the early twentieth century. Siqueiros's large-scale fresco murals are defined by their anti-Fascist politics and near expressionistic aesthetic.
David Alfaro Siqueiros
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco
Jose Clemente Orozco was a Mexican social realist painter who is best known for his large-scale murals of human toil, suffering, and the industrial age.
Jose Clemente Orozco
Mexican Muralists
Mexican Muralists
Mexican Muralists
The Mexican Muralists were active in the first half of the twentieth century, especially in the 1930s. The large-scale works, executed in Mexico and the US, were frequently done in a figurative, allegorical style, and dealt with political, social, and radical themes.
Mexican Muralists
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism
Cubism was developed by Pablo Picasso and Georges Braque between 1907-1911, and it continued to be highly influential long after its decline. This classic phase has two stages: 'Analytic', in which forms seem to be 'analyzed' and fragmented; and 'Synthetic', in which pre-existing materials such as newspaper and wood veneer are collaged to the surface of the canvas.
ArtStory: Cubism
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
ArtStory: Pablo Picasso
Georges Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque
Georges Braque was a modern French painter who, along with Pablo Picasso, developed analytic Cubism and Cubist collage in the early twentieth century.
ArtStory: Georges Braque
Juan Gris
Juan Gris
Juan Gris
Juan Gris was a Spanish painter and sculptor, and one of the few pioneers of Cubism. Along with Matisse, Léger, Braque and Picasso, Gris was among the elite visual artists working in early-twentieth-century France.
Juan Gris
Fernand Léger
Fernand Léger
Fernand Léger
Influenced by Cubism and Futurism, the French painter Fernand Léger developed a unique style of Cubism using cylindrical and other geometric forms with mechanically smooth edges. Often colorful and punctuated by patterns, his paintings range from still lifes and figures to abstract compositions.
ArtStory: Fernand Léger
Gino Severini
Gino Severini
Gino Severini
Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. He was associated with neo-classicism and the pictorial return to order in the decade after the First World War. During his career he worked in a variety of media, including mosaic and fresco.
Gino Severini
Jacques Lipchitz
Jacques Lipchitz
Jacques Lipchitz
The Lithuanian-born Jacques Lipchitz moved to Paris in 1909, becoming a well-known Cubist sculptor and important member of the Ecole de Paris. Amid the German occupation of Paris during World War II, Lipchitz fled France for the United States in 1941, among the numerous artists so helped by Varian Fry and the Emergency Rescue Committee.
Jacques Lipchitz
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne
Paul Cézanne was an influential French Post-Impressionist painter whose depictions of the natural world, based on internal geometric planes, paved the way for Cubism and later modern art movements.
ArtStory: Paul Cézanne
Neo-Classicism
Neo-Classicism
Neo-Classicism
Neo-Classicism encompasses several distinct movements in the arts and architecture during the mid-1700s to the late 1800s that drew specifically on ancient Western cultures for inspiration. Looking back to the arts of Greece and Rome for ideal models and forms, both human and structural, Neo-Classicism was a category for literature and music as well as the visual arts. Jacques-Louis David and Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres were the most iconic French Neo-Classic painters.
Neo-Classicism
Tina Modotti
Tina Modotti
Tina Modotti
Tina Modotti was a twentieth-century Italian photographer, actress, model and political activist. She is perhaps best known for documenting the artistic practices of Mexican muralists Diego Rivera and Jose Clemente Orozco, as well as for her photographic work with architectural interiors, landscapes and urban scenes. Modotti was also an active member of the Mexican Communist Party. Her untimely death from heart failure at age 42 is something that remains highly suspicious.
Tina Modotti
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo
Frida Kahlo is a twentieth-century Mexican artist whose work has a strong autobiographical component as it addresses issues of feminism and nationalism. Her work is often associated with Surrealism and she is best known for her many, often uncanny self-portraits.
ArtStory: Frida Kahlo
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
Museum of Modern Art
The Museum has become the home for some of the greatest works of avant-garde painting, sculpture, film and multi-media art in the world. While MoMA remains true to its roots as a place where new styles of art can circulate, its permanent collection is widely considered the most impressive and diverse assortment of Modern art to ever exist, ranging from late-nineteenth-century van Goghs, Monets and Gauguins to works produced in the present day.
ArtStory: Museum of Modern Art
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus
Bauhaus is a style associated with the Bauhaus school, an extremely influential art and design school in Weimar Germany that emphasized functionality and efficiency of design. Its famous faculty - including Joseph Albers and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe - generally rejected distinctions between the fine and applied arts, and encouraged major advances in industrial design.
ArtStory: Bauhaus
Pop Art
Pop Art
Pop Art
British artists of the 1950s were the first to make popular culture the dominant subject of their art, and this idea became an international phenomenon in the 1960s. But the Pop art movement is most associated with New York, and artists such as Andy Warhol, who broke with the private concerns of the Abstract Expressionists, and turned to themes which touched on public life and mass society.
ArtStory: Pop Art
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn
Ben Shahn was a Lithuanian-born American artist and painter. Inspired by the European Expressionists and Fauves, as well as muralists like Diego Rivera, Shahn's Social Realist paintings and murals reflected his leftist political views, focusing on themes like urban life, immigration and organized labor.
Ben Shahn
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton was an American painter whose rural and industrial subjects, grand-scale murals, and figurative style were hallmarks of American Regionalism.
ArtStory: Thomas Hart Benton
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock
Jackson Pollock was the most well-known Abstract Expressionist and the key example of Action Painting. His work ranges from Jungian scenes of primitive rites to the purely abstract "drip paintings" of his later career.
ArtStory: Jackson Pollock
Social Realism
Social Realism
Social Realism
Social Realism refers to a style of figurative art with social concerns - generally left-wing. Inspired in part by nineteenth-century Realism, it emerged in various forms in the twentieth century. Political radicalism prompted its emergence in 1930s America, while distaste for abstract art encouraged many in Europe to maintain the style into the 1950s.
Social Realism
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau
Henri Rousseau was a French self-taught painter. His most famous works, done in his characteristic flat figurative style, show surreal and dream-like scenes in primitive or natural settings.
ArtStory: Henri Rousseau
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
ArtStory: André Breton
Gerardo Murillo
Gerardo Murillo
Gerardo Murillo
Gerardo Murillo (aka Dr. Atl, the name he used to sign his works) was a Mexican painter, writer, and Socialist political activist. His work focused mainly on panoramic landscapes and mythological subjects, painted in the tradition of the Mexican Muralists. For most of his career Murillo was a key fixture in Mexican art, helping to promote the work of such artists as Diego Rivera and Francisco de la Torre.
Gerardo Murillo
Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky
Leon Trotsky was a Russian revolutionary and Marxist theorist. In October 1917, Trotksy and Vladimir Lenin led the Bolshevik Revolution that eventually helped form the Soviet Union. In the years that followed, Trotsky founded and led the Red Army, and was an original member of the Politburo, the Soviet governing body. As a leading leftist and political contrarian, Trotksy was eventually banished from Russia and assassinated on the order of Premier Joseph Stalin, his biggest political and ideological rival.
Leon Trotsky
Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire
Guillaume Apollinaire was a French writer and art critic who in the early twentieth century was a member of the avant-garde group of artists based in the Montparnasse community of Paris, which included Picasso, André Breton and Henri Rousseau. He is credited with coining the term "Surrealism."
Guillaume Apollinaire
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
ArtStory: Post-Impressionism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
ArtStory: Surrealism
Pre-Columbian Art
Pre-Columbian Art
Pre-Columbian Art
Pre-Columbian Art is a term that applies to all art from Mexico, Central and South America created before these areas were colonized by Europe ("before Columbus") in the sixteenth century. These art forms cover vast media and subject matter. The uniting factor among most works is that they were discovered in tombs, which suggests a purpose of paying tribute to fallen leaders, accompanying them as they enter the afterlife.
Pre-Columbian Art
Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero
Fernando Botero is a Columbian painter, whose work is characterized by exaggerated figurative depictions of current and historical events, often infused with irony and/or harsh political criticism. Painting in a distinct style known as "Boterismo," the artist often focuses on situational portraiture and depicts his subjects as disproportionately fat almost in spite of context.
Fernando Botero
Rufino Tamayo
Rufino Tamayo
Rufino Tamayo
Rufino Tamayo was a twentieth-century Zapotecan Indian painter from Mexico. Tamayo was known as an artistic rebel in his day. While his contemporaries, such as Diego Rivera, painted large murals charged with leftist politics and revolutionary zeal, Tamayo painted in a more avant-garde style, inspired by Cubism, Fauvism and Post-Impressionism.
Rufino Tamayo
Bertram Wolfe
Bertram Wolfe
Bertram Wolfe
Bertram Wolfe was a Jewish-American writer and former Communist activist (eventually opposing the Party because of Stalin), best known for his biographies on such subjects as Lenin, Trotsky and Diego Rivera. A Brooklyn native, Wolfe was a founding member of the Communist Party of America, and later became a delegate in Mexico for that nation's Communist party.
Bertram Wolfe