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Artists Odilon Redon

Odilon Redon

French Painter and Printmaker

Movements: Symbolism, Les Nabis

Born: April 20, 1840 - Bordeaux, France

Died: July 6, 1916 - Paris, France

Quotes

"My drawings inspire, and are not to be defined. They place us, as does music, in the ambiguous realm of the undetermined."
Odilon Redon
"My originality consists in bringing to life, in a human way, improbable beings and making them live according to the laws and probability, by putting - as far as possible - the logic of the visible at the service of the invisible."
Odilon Redon
"While I recognize the necessity for a basis of observed reality... true art lies in a reality that is felt."
Odilon Redon
"The artist ... will always be a special, isolated, solitary agent with an innate sense of organizing matter."
Odilon Redon
"If the art of the artist is the song of his life, a grave or sad melody, I must have sounded the note of gaiety in color".
Odilon Redon
"The Artist submits from day to day to the fatal rhythm of the impulses of the universal world which encloses him, continual center of sensations, always pliant, hypnotized by the marvels of nature which he loves, he scrutinizes. His eyes, like his soul, are in perpetual communion with the most fortuitous of phenomena."
Odilon Redon
"Everything in art occurs through voluntary submission to the advent of the unconscious."
Odilon Redon
"Nothing can be created in art by the will alone. All art is the submission of the will to the unconscious."
Odilon Redon
"All of my prints...were nothing but the fruit of curious, attentive, anxious, and impassioned analysis; of what power of expression could be contained in a greasy lithograph crayon, with the aid of paper and stone."
Odilon Redon
"With pastel I have recovered the hope of giving my dreams greater plasticity...Colors contain a joy which relaxes me; besides, they sway me toward something different and new."
Odilon Redon
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"I have often, as an exercise and as a sustenance, painted an object down to the smallest accidents of its visual appearance; but the day left me sad and with an unsatiated thirst. The next day I let the other source run, that of imagination, through the recollection of the forms and I was then reassured and appeased."

Synopsis

Redon is one of the most important and original of all the Symbolist artists. His visionary works concern the world of dreams, fantasy, and the imagination. He first became famous for his noirs series, monochromatic compositions that exploit the expressive and suggestive powers of the color black. His lithographs, which often reworked earlier drawings, became a means to broaden his audience, as well as to explore in series specific themes or literary texts - he was particularly drawn to the Romantic and Symbolist works of Poe, Flaubert, and Mallarmé. Later, Redon began to slowly adopt a more colorful palette, so that his pastels and oil paintings are riotous with color, consisting largely of portraits and floral still lifes. His encounter with the Nabis introduced him to a more decorative aesthetic, and his late works incorporate Japonisme as well as an attention to flat, abstract patterns, and decorative ensembles. Redon would have an enormous impact on the art of his contemporaries, such as Paul Gauguin, as well as later modern artists like Marcel Duchamp. His lithographs and noirs in particular were admired by the Symbolist writers of the day but also by later Surrealists for their often bizarre and fantastical subjects, many of which combine scientific observation and visionary imagination.

Key Ideas

Redon worked almost exclusively in black and white during the first half of his career. In both charcoal drawings and lithographic prints, the artist relied on the expressive and suggestive possibilities of black in his monochromatic compositions called noirs. These are some of his most famous works, and typify Symbolism in their mysterious subjects and bizarre, dreamlike inventions.
Redon's use of non-naturalistic color in his late pastels and oil paintings prefigure the later development of Expressionism and abstraction. In portraits, still lifes, and decorative ensembles, Redon explored the expressive and suggestive powers of color. Many of these works include passages that are purely nonobjective, often seen in the ethereal chromatic backgrounds that he coupled with figurative subjects.
One of the main themes in Redon's oeuvre is the decapitated or disembodied head. Often shown free-floating, and sometimes reduced to a mere eyeball, the severed head encapsulates the Symbolist desire to free oneself from the shackles of the ordinary, mundane world, and achieve a higher state of consciousness through the exploration of dreams and subjective vision.
When asked in an interview about his favorite artistic subjects, Redon replied, "My monsters. I believe that it is there that I have given my most personal note." While Redon's depictions of "monsters" - often hybrid human-plant or human-animal creatures - were the product of his vivid imagination, they also owed a great deal to his knowledge of the natural sciences, and especially new theories of evolution put forth by Charles Darwin, which for the first time established a connection between humans and our animal ancestors.

Most Important Art

Guardian Spirit of the Waters (1878)
A large head held aloft by wings floats above a tranquil sea, gazing upon a small sailboat with enormously expressive eyes. Seagulls flit through the air and skim the water's surface, while the water stretches out toward the distant horizon. A delicate halo surrounds the head, giving the strange creature a benevolent, divine aura despite its brutish features. With its realistic depiction of dreamlike imagery, The Guardian Spirit of the Waters anticipates twentieth-century Surrealism.

When the artist's father, Bernard Redon, was a young man, he travelled from France to Louisiana in order to try and recoup the family's lost wealth. While there, he met and married Redon's mother. On their later return to France, Odile was pregnant with Odilon, who was subsequently born in Bordeaux. The artist often regretted that he was not born at sea, "a place without a country on an abyss," which he perhaps felt would have better corresponded to the origins of his visionary sensibility, This work could thus be seen as representing a kind of alternative birth for Redon, signifying his awakening artistic consciousness.

The drawing is typical of Redon's noirs, in which he manipulated the charcoal medium in order to achieve a rich array of tones and textures. The artist employed wiping, stumping, incising and added touches of chalk on cream-colored treated paper, and often allowed untouched areas of the sheet to shine through for highlights.
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Biography

Childhood

Odilon Redon was born Bertrand Jean Redon to a prosperous family in Bordeaux. His nickname was a derivation of his mother's first name, Odile, who was a French Creole woman from Louisiana. Because of his ill health, perhaps due to epilepsy, Redon was entrusted to his uncle's care and grew up in Peyrelebade in the Medoc region of France on the family's winemaking estate. His childhood was solitary, and he described days spent "watching the clouds pass, following with infinite pleasure the magical brightness of their fleeting variations." However, Redon also characterized himself as a "sad and weak child," who "sought out the shadows." He recalled, "I remember taking a deep and unusual joy in hiding under the big curtains and in the dark corners of the house." This note of melancholy and pessimism would find its expression in his mature art, particularly in his noirs and mysterious Symbolist works.

Eventually Redon returned to his family in Bordeaux, where he attended school for the first time at the age of 11. After he won a prize for drawing, his parents arranged for him to study with Stanislas Gorin in 1855. Gorin had a profound influence on the budding artist, as Redon recalled, "His first words...were to advise me that I was myself, and that I should never make a single mark with a pencil unless my feeling and my reason were in it." An expert watercolorist, Gorin introduced Redon to such Romantic artists as Eugène Delacroix and Francisco Goya, whose works Redon was encouraged to copy. He also introduced the young artist to art by their contemporaries, including Camille Corot and Gustave Moreau.

Early Training and Work

Redon's father pressured him to study architecture instead of art, but in 1857 Redon failed the entrance exams for architectural studies at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts. In Paris Redon met and began a lifelong and highly influential friendship with the botanist Armand Clavaud who introduced him to the scientific theories of Charles Darwin, the literary works of Charles Baudelaire, Gustave Flaubert, and Edgar Allan Poe, and the sacred texts of Hinduism and Buddhism. Redon continued painting watercolors in the style of Gorin, and in 1862 created his first major work, Roland à Roncevaux, which portrayed the Romantic hero of the Crusades in a style reminiscent of Delacroix. In 1864 Redon entered the atelier of the famous academic painter, Jean-Leon Gerome, an educational experience that Redon described as "tortured," due to Gerome's overbearing emphasis on mimetic representation.

In 1865, seeking a more supportive environment, Redon returned happily to his family home in Bordeaux and took up sculpture. It was at this time that Redon made the acquaintance of Rodolphe Bresdin, an impoverished but thoroughly original and eccentric artist, whose combination of highly detailed depictions of the natural world and visionary subjects would have a profound influence on the young artist. Indeed, Bresdin became a mentor to Redon, teaching him how to make etchings and engravings, and encouraging him to tap into the world of spirit and mystery to which Redon was already drawn.

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Odilon Redon Biography Continues

Mature Period

The 1870s were a decade of profound change in Redon's life and artistic practice. In 1870 he was drafted into the Franco-Prussian War, which ended with France's humiliating defeat and the Commune one year later. The experience interrupted his life and work as an artist, compounding his natural tendencies toward melancholy. Yet at the same time, the tumultuous events of 1870-71 led to an artistic breakthrough. Back in Paris, he began working on what he called his noirs: monochromatic charcoal drawings that exploit the medium's inherently rich blackness. The extraordinary range of tone, texture, and shading that Redon achieved in these works is remarkable, rivaled only by Georges Seurat's Conte crayon drawings of the same period. Black became the ideal medium for Redon to express his imagination. As Redon said, "Black should be respected. Nothing prostitutes it. It does not please the eye and does not awaken sensuality. It is the agent of the spirit much more than the splendid color of the palette or the prism."

In 1872 Redon met Henri Fantin-Latour from whom he learned the transfer method of lithography. When Redon's father died penniless in 1874, Redon turned to lithography as a way to make a living, as these prints could be produced and sold in relatively large quantities, thereby allowing him to market his works to a broader public. As he described, "I had earlier tried, in vain, to show in the official Salons with the numerous drawings I had already completed...I therefore made my first lithographs (in 1878) to multiply my drawings."

In 1876 he met the poet and art critic, Stéphane Mallarmé, and participated in regular gatherings at Mallarmé's home, where he met many writers and artists in his Symbolist circle. Redon began to receive critical attention in the late 1870s, with the appearance of his Guardian Spirit of the Waters (1878). In 1879 he produced his first lithographic series, In the Dream.

In 1880 he married Camille Falte, a Creole woman like his mother, and said that "I believe the yes that I uttered on the day of our union was the expression of the most complete and unadulterated certainty I ever experienced. A certainty more complete even than my vocation." However, the happiness of his marriage was overshadowed by the loss of the couple's firstborn child, a son, who died at six months old. This tragedy plunged Redon into a profound depression that he poetically described as a "melancholy faintness."

During this period Redon worked primarily on lithographs, creating several portfolios conceived as accompaniments to literary works. For instance, To Edgar Poe appeared in 1882 (Poe's poems had been translated into French a decade earlier by Mallarmé), and The Temptaton of Saint Anthony, inspired by Flaubert's novel, in 1896. At Mallarmé's Salons, Redon met the critic and novelist, Joris-Karl Huysmans, who became a great admirer of the artist's. Huysmans's Decadent novel, Against Nature (1884) tells the story of the dandy Des Esseintes, who hides away from society in his mansion on the outskirts of Paris. Among his art collection are a number of works by Redon, including charcoal drawings. The novel helped make Redon famous. Around the same time, Redon befriended Paul Gauguin, who clearly understood his friend's visionary art: "I do not see why it is said that Odilon Redon paints monsters. They are imaginary beings. He is a dreamer, an imaginative spirit."

Redon exhibited with the Impressionists in their last group exhibition in 1886. His works signaled the shifting tides of modern art, from Impressionism to Symbolism, and from a focus on observing the fleeting effects of nature toward a concern for an emphasis on subjectivity and inner vision.

Later Period

In the 1890s Redon's work underwent a radical change, as he began working predominantly in pastels, at last employing color after years of only black. Some scholars have attributed the change to a religious awakening, as evidenced by the artist's growing interest in subjects taken from Buddhism or Christianity, but many of his black-and-white lithographs were also devoted to religious subject matter. No matter the medium, Redon's primary concern was with the subjective experience of spirituality, rather than illustrating liturgical texts. Color simply became another means by which he could explore realms beyond the visible, using it for expressive rather than mimetic purposes. Other scholars have attributed Redon's embrace of color to his personal happiness, as his second son, Ari, was born in 1889. Writing in 1913, the artist reflected upon his transition to color, saying, "If the art of an artist is the song of his life, a solemn or sad melody, I must have sounded the key-note of gaiety in color."

In the 1890s Redon's continuing friendship with Gauguin led to his encounter with the young artists of the Nabis. Maurice Denis saw in Redon an example of an established artist who likewise used the formal tools of his art to express personal feeling, or what he called "the state of the artist's soul." Redon also learned from the younger painters, and began to adopt their Japonisme, expressive use of color, and emphasis on decoration. Many of the Nabis, including Édouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard, created large-scale decorative projects such as folding screens and murals, and Redon would do so as well toward the end of his career, most notably in his wall paintings for the chateau of Baron Robert de Domecy and Fontfroide Abbey.

After 1900, Redon began to focus on portraits, many of them done on commission, as well as mythological and literary subjects, floral still lives, and the aforementioned decorative work. Everything he made from here on was utterly awash with brilliant color which displayed what the twentieth century Surrealist artist, Andre Masson, was to call "lyrical chromatics."

Redon's fame grew toward the end of his life; in 1903 the French government bestowed upon him the Legion of Honor. In 1913, the publisher Andre Mellerio issued a catalogue raisonne of his prints; that same year he was included in the famous Armory Show in New York, exhibiting more works than any other artist in the exhibition. Redon died in 1916, his death perhaps hastened by his anxiety and dread over his son, who was serving as a soldier on the front lines in World War I.


Legacy

Redon's far-reaching influence falls into two categories corresponding to the two main threads in his oeuvre: his extraordinarily vivid and colorful late paintings and pastels, and his earlier noirs. For the Nabis, it was Redon's free and expressive use of color that would have the most impact. Maurice Denis credited Redon with advancing the spiritual evolution of his own art, while Pierre Bonnard said of Redon, "All of our generation fell under his charm and received his advice." Later, Henri Matisse acknowledged the influence of Redon's pastels on his own colorful Fauvist palette.

But the impact of Redon's noirs on modern art was perhaps even more profound, for in them we find his greatest originality and inventiveness. The Surrealists were particularly taken with the dreamlike quality of those charcoals and lithographs, and André Breton, their de-facto leader, was a particularly great admirer. A key part of Redon's influence was the suggestiveness of his art - rather than describing things for us, the viewer participates actively in interpreting the work. The inventor of the "readymade", Marcel Duchamp, noted, "If I am to tell what my own departure has been, I should say that it was the art of Odilon Redon." Redon's influence even extends beyond the visual arts, including the work of the composer Toru Takemitsu.

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Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Odilon Redon
Interactive chart with Odilon Redon's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
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View Influences Chart

Artists

Henri Fantin-Latour
Francisco Goya
Eugène Delacroix

Friends

Emile Bernard
Stéphane Mallarmé
Paul Gauguin

Movements

Romanticism
Symbolism
Odilon Redon
Odilon Redon
Years Worked: 1865 - 1915

Artists

Pierre Bonnard
André Breton
Maurice Denis
Marcel Duchamp

Friends

Movements

Symbolism
Les Nabis
Surrealism



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Useful Resources on Odilon Redon

Books
Websites
Videos
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Odilon Redon: Prince of Dreams

By Douglas W. Druick and Odilon Redon

Odilon Redon

By Odilon Redon

The Dark Side of Nature: Science, Society, and the Fantastic in the Work of Odilon Redon (Refiguring Modernism)

By Barbara Larson

The Brush and the Pen: Odilon Redon and Literature

By Dario Gamboni (Author), Mary Whittall (Translator)

More Interesting Books about Odilon Redon
Explorations in Darkness and Light: Odilon Redon

By Courtney Wilder

Around Redon

By Musee d'Orsay

Spotlight Essay: Odilon Redon

By Orin Zahra

Evolution and Degeneration in the Early Work of Odilon Redon

By Barbara Larson

More Interesting Websites about Odilon Redon
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" Artist Overview and Analysis". [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org
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Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism
Symbolism is an artistic and literary movement that first emerged in France in the 1880s. In the visual arts it is often considered part of Post-Impressionism. It is characterized by an emphasis on the mystical, romantic and expressive, and often by the use of symbolic figures.
TheArtStory: Symbolism
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe
Edgar Allan Poe was an American poet, literary critic and short story writer. Widely considered one of America's leading Romanticists during the nineteenth century, Poe's writings became well known for dealing with mystery and the macabre, as exemplified in his most famous work, "The Raven." Poe's influence remains largely felt today, given his innovations in the genres of Gothic fiction and detective stories.
Edgar Allan Poe
Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert
Gustave Flaubert was a French writer who is counted among the greatest Western novelists. He is known especially for his first published novel, Madame Bovary (1857), and for his scrupulous devotion to his art and style. At the time of his death he was widely regarded as the most influential French Realist. Flaubert exercised an extraordinary influence over Guy de Maupassant, Edmond de Goncourt, Alphonse Daudet, and Emile Zola.
Gustave Flaubert
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé
Stéphane Mallarmé was a French Symbolist poet and critic in the late 1800s. Densely written, his poetry played with both the meaning and sound of words, making it difficult to translate. His work was greatly influential on the Dada and Surrealist movements.
Stéphane Mallarmé
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist artists in 1890s Paris including Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, and Édouard Vuillard. They combined Impressionist brushstrokes with vivid colors, an at-times mystical or symbolic subject matter, and an interest in patterned and repeating backgrounds.
TheArtStory: Les Nabis
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin
Paul Gauguin was a French Post-Impressionist artist who employed color fields and painterly strokes in his work. He is best known for his primitivist depictions of native life in Tahiti and Polynesia.
TheArtStory: Paul Gauguin
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
Marcel Duchamp
The French artist Marcel Duchamp was an instrumental figure in the avant-garde art worlds of Paris and New York. Moving through Dada, Surrealism, readymades, sculpture, and installation, his work involves conceptual play and an implicit attack on bourgeois art sensibilities.
TheArtStory: Marcel Duchamp
Surrealism
Surrealism
Surrealism
Perhaps the most influential avant-garde movement of the century, Surrealism was founded in Paris in 1924 by a small group of writers and artists who sought to channel the unconscious as a means to unlock the power of the imagination. Much influenced by Freud, they believed that the conscious mind repressed the power of the imagination. Influenced also by Marx, they hoped that the psyche had the power to reveal the contradictions in the everyday world and spur on revolution.
TheArtStory: Surrealism
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism
Expressionism is a broad term for a host of movements in early twentieth-century Germany and beyond, from Die Brücke (1905) and Der Blaue Reiter (1911) to the early Neue Sachlichkeit painters in the 1920s and '30s. Many Expressionists used vivid colors and abstracted forms to create spiritually or psychologically intense works, while others focused on depictions of war, alienation, and the modern city.
TheArtStory: Expressionism
Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix
Eugène Delacroix was a mid-nineteenth-century French painter and pioneer of European Modernist painting. Known primarily as a Romantic, Delacroix's paintings were passionate in their depictions of love, war and human sensuality, earning the artist both praise and controversy in his time. His preoccupation with color-induced optical effects and use of expressive brushstrokes were crucial influences on Impressionism and Pointillism.
Eugène Delacroix
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya
Francisco Goya was an eighteenth-century Spanish painter, and is considered by many to be "the father of modern painting." Informed by the Baroque style and the Classicists, Goya's art was part of the Romanticism movement, but also contained provocative elements such as social critiques, nudes, war, and allegories of death. He is considered a major influence on the works of Manet, Picasso, and Dali.
TheArtStory: Francisco Goya
Camille Corot
Camille Corot
Camille Corot
Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot was a nineteenth-century French painter and printmaker. Best known for his landscape paintings rendered in a Neo-Classical tradition, Corot's practice of painting outside in the open air was highly influential to many of the French Impressionists.
Camille Corot
Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau
Gustave Moreau was a French Symbolist painter who depicted narrative moments and figures from classical mythology and biblical history.
Gustave Moreau
Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
Georges Seurat
Georges-Pierre Seurat was a French painter who gave rise to the Post- and Neo-Impressionist artistic styles of the late nineteenth century. Seurat's greatest contribution to modern art was his development of Pointillism, a style of painting in which small dots of paint were applied to create a cohesive image. Combining the science of optics with painterly emotion, Pointillism evoked a visual harmony never before seen in modern art.
TheArtStory: Georges Seurat
Impressionism
Impressionism
Impressionism
A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
TheArtStory: Impressionism
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis
Maurice Denis was a French painter and writer, recognized as an important member of the Symbolist and Les Nabis movements. A pioneering theorist who insisted on the flatness of the picture plane, Denis created brightly colored Post-Impressionist works that profoundly influenced the next generation of modern artists.
Maurice Denis
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard was a French Post-Impressionist painter especially known for his interiors and domestic scenes. A member of the Les Nabis group, his works are characterized by rough areas of color, pointillist daubs and dots, and decorative patterns that spread out across background fabrics and wallpaper.
TheArtStory: Édouard Vuillard
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
The French artist Pierre Bonnard, although dismissed as old-fashioned by some of the avant-garde in his lifetime, was esteemed by contemporary colorists like Matisse. A member of the Nabis group in his youth, his innovative paintings play with light, decorative surfaces, and Impressionist techniques.
TheArtStory: Pierre Bonnard
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse
Henri Matisse was a French painter and sculptor who helped forge modern art. From his early Fauvist works to his late cutouts, he emphasized expansive fields of color, the expressive potential of gesture, and the sensuality inherent in art-making.
TheArtStory: Henri Matisse
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism
Fauvism was an early twentieth-century art movement founded by Henri Matisse and André Derain. Labeled as "wild beasts", Fauve artists favored vibrant colors and winding gestural strokes across the canvas.
TheArtStory: Fauvism
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton
André Breton, author of the 1924 Surrealist Manifesto, was an influential theorizer of both Dada and Surrealism. Born in France, he emigrated to New York during World War II, where he greatly influenced the Abstract Expressionists.
TheArtStory: André Breton
Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour
Henri Fantin-Latour was an Academy painter at the Ecole des Beaux Arts. He was best known for his still-lifes and group portraits of his Parisian artist and writer friends.
Henri Fantin-Latour
Emile Bernard
Emile Bernard
Emile Bernard
Emile Bernard was a Post-Impressionist painter who had artistic friendships with Van Gogh, Gauguin, Eugene Boch, and Cézanne. He is also associated with the art movements Cloisonnism and Synthetism. Bernard also produced plays, poetry, art criticism, as well as art historical statements.
Emile Bernard
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism
Romanticism was a nineteenth-century movement that celebrated the powers of emotion and intuition over rational analysis or classical ideals. Romantic artists emphasized awe, beauty, and the sublime in their works, which frequently charted the darker or chaotic sides of human life.
Romanticism
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