Visit our Community Pages Please support our work

The Art Story.org - Your Guide to Modern Art

Movements Artists Timelines Ideas Blog
Artists Fairfield Porter

Fairfield Porter

American Painter, Printmaker, and Writer

Movement: Realism

Born: June 10, 1907 - Winnetka, Illinois

Died: September 18, 1975 - Southampton, New York

Quotes

"The right use of color can make any composition work."
Fairfield Porter
"The profoundest order is revealed in what is most casual."
Fairfield Porter
"If you are not vain it is vain to sign your pictures and vain not to sign them. If you not vain it is not vain to sign them and not vain not to sign them" (This was Porter's response to a heated discussion at the Artists' Club, concerning whether or not it was vain for an artist to sign his pictures.)
Fairfield Porter
"Subject matter must be normal in the sense that it does not appear sought after so much as simply happening to one."
Fairfield Porter
"It is the economic pressure on scholarship exerted by the universities that leads to the naming of movements in the arts, and once a movement is named, it is justified by words, and the literature around it gives it critical validity."
Fairfield Porter

"Any artist has a style which determines and is the particularity of his communication."

Synopsis

Fairfield Porter was one of the foremost practitioners of representational painting in the American art world of the mid-twentieth century. For several decades he created portraits, domestic scenes, and landscapes of the places he lived in, all depicting a relaxed and comfortable world that seemed to mirror his own affluent, well-connected existence. However, his art was often more nuanced than it appears at first glance. The influence of French Nabis painters Pierre Bonnard and Édouard Vuillard is obvious, yet Porter was also fully conversant in contemporary movements such as Abstract Expressionism, and his loose, energetic painting style owed much to his understanding of gestural abstraction. Porter was also a prolific critic whose work was published in several influential art journals; in his writing, as in his friendships and mentorships, he often championed other artists who sustained a commitment to realism and figuration.

Key Ideas

Porter painted in a representational style at the height of Abstract Expressionism's dominance. He insisted on the relevance of authentically lived experience as subject matter, rather than pure ideology as a motivation for making art."The truest order is what you already find there, or that will be given if you don't try for it,"he wrote. "When you arrange, you fail."
Porter was vitally concerned with the close relationship between realism and abstraction: in successful art, he believed, one could not exist without the other. He once wrote: "The realist thinks he knows ahead of time what reality is, and the abstract artist what art is, but it is in its formality that realist art excels, and the best abstract art communicates an overwhelming sense of reality."
As an art critic, Porter also championed the next generation of representational painters working in figurative and realist styles. In this way he provided a link between movements like Social Realism of the 1930s and Neo-Expressionism of the 1980s.

Most Important Art

Under the Elms (1971-72)
The ostensible subject of this well-known painting is his daughter Katie, posed in the yard of the family's Long Island home, yet Porter was less interested in capturing his sitter's personality than in visually integrating figure and background. The designs of the girl's vest are echoed in the broad patches of sunlight and shadow on the lawn and in the formations of the tree's foliage. This painting encompasses Porter's painterly style and philosophy: as a realist, he depicted locations and individuals from his own life, but he rendered those subjects with an expressive quality that recalled the turn-of-the-century Parisian masters. Under the Elms demonstrates why some of the great Abstract Expressionist artists admired Porter's art: in works like this one, he skillfully incorporated surface patterning and all-over compositional effects into representational imagery, while still suggesting a reality above and beyond the observed world. The landscape could almost be a fantastic scene within the girl's own imagination, as she stands on the threshold of adolescence.
Oil on canvas - Pennsylvania Academy of the Fine Arts, Philadelphia
More Art Works


By submitting above you agree to the ArtStory privacy policy.
Like The Art Story on Facebook

Biography

Childhood

Fairfield Porter was born in Winnetka, Illinois, a suburb of Chicago. He was the fourth of five children of James and Ruth (nee Furness) Porter. The Porter family fortune, based in Chicago real estate, was several generations old; both sides of his family also had deep roots in New England.

Porter acquired a love for art and literature at an early age. His mother, who belonged to the progressive Unitarian church, had sophisticated views on child-rearing and childhood education. From his mother, Porter learned to adopt a critical eye when viewing pictures and artworks.

Porter's father, James, held a degree in architecture from Columbia University and had designed the family homes in Winnetka, Illinois, as well as the Porter vacation home on Great Spruce Head Island off the coast of Maine. However, James was unable to make his living as an architect, and was instead obliged to assist his mother in managing the family real estate business during difficult economic times.

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Education and Training

Fairfield Porter Biography

Porter entered Harvard University in 1924 with the intention of studying philosophy. He attended lectures delivered by the English philosopher and mathematician Alfred North Whitehead, whom he would later credit as a major influence in his own development as an artist and writer. He also developed a strong interest in art history, studying under Arthur Pope, a well-known archeologist and historian of ancient Persian art. Porter wrote poetry during this time and also began to take an interest in leftist politics.

In the summer of 1927, Porter took a walking and bicycle tour of France, which eventually took him to Berlin and finally to Moscow. While in Russia he attended a lecture given by Leon Trotsky, an experience that would inform Porter's developing political views, especially during the years of the Great Depression.

After graduating from Harvard in 1928, Porter moved to New York and studied for two years at the Art Students League, where one of his teachers was Thomas Hart Benton. Benton's commitment to figurative painting had a lasting effect on Porter, as did his studies of the French Post-Impressionist painters Édouard Vuillard and Pierre Bonnard.

In 1931 Porter returned to Europe; on this trip, he concentrated on visiting museums and galleries. This travel, in addition to his studies at Harvard, afforded Porter a close and deep knowledge of nearly every movement and style in Western art, from ancient Greek sculpture to Old Master paintings to Pablo Picasso.

Upon his return to the United States, Porter set out to become more politically active and to create socially relevant art. He made artwork on behalf of the communist John Reed Club, taught drawing classes for the Socialist arts group Rebel Arts, and began work as an editor for a short-lived American Socialist tabloid called Arise!. It was during these years that Porter became interested in art criticism.

Mature Period

In 1932 Porter married Boston poet Anne Channing and the two settled in New York. They briefly lived in Porter's hometown of Winnetka in the late 1930s, then in New York again in the early 1940s. They had five children: John, Laurence, Richard, Katherine, and Elizabeth. The Porters struggled financially during the wartime years in New York, but they led a rich social life, becoming close friends with writer Edwin Denby and artists Rudy Burckhardt and Willem and Elaine de Kooning. Porter was one of the first people to purchase Willem de Kooning's art. In 1940 he wrote a piece on the artist for the Partisan Review; although it was not published, it is now believed to be the first review of his work ever written.

In 1949, the Porters moved to the seaside town of Southampton on New York's Long Island. Their new seasonal home would become the inspiration for many of Porter's landscape paintings over the next twenty-five years. Porter and his family divided their time between winters in Southampton and summers on Great Spruce Head Island in Maine (they also had a home in midtown Manhattan for several years). Porter and his wife experienced frequent personal difficulties, due to Porter's bisexuality, and an extramarital affair that Anne had in the early 1940s, yet the marriage endured.

Meanwhile, Porter was slowly establishing himself in the New York art world. As a bohemian and political leftist, Porter meshed easily with the New York School of intellectuals and Abstract Expressionist artists, but his representational and figurative paintings expressed something utterly different. While Porter continually expressed a deep interest in abstraction and believed that artists like Willem de Kooning and Jasper Johns were true modern masters, he wanted to express a different reality in his own paintings, something closer to what he saw with his eyes, rather than limiting himself to formal experimentation. Porter found himself slowly as an artist, and he was already in his early forties when he had his first exhibition in New York in 1952, at the Tibor de Nagy Gallery. From that point forward, the owner of the gallery, John Bernard Myers, represented Porter and gave him annual gallery exhibitions. His art was also included in six annual group exhibitions at the Whitney Museum of American Art from 1959 through 1968.

Porter's most prolific period as an art critic was the 1950s. From 1951 to 1967 he wrote for Art News, reviewing roughly twelve gallery shows and museum exhibitions every month. In addition, Porter also became a regular contributor to the leftist periodical The Nation. In 1959 he wrote an essay on the American realist and landscape artist Thomas Eakins for a series on American painters published by Thomas Hess.

Late Years and Death

Fairfield Porter Photo

Throughout his career, in spite of his friendships with many members of the American avant-garde, Porter felt a stronger kinship with the European Realists, Naturalists, and Impressionists, from Rembrandt to Edgar Degas and Édouard Vuillard, in his art and his criticism. These artists, much like Porter himself, stressed a theoretical fusion of paint application and composition and believed that the human figure should be the chief concern of art. Porter frequently referred to the abstract artists of the New York School as the "idealists of New York painting," and throughout his career he expressed mixed feelings regarding Abstract Expressionism. "[They] isolate art from the details of actuality," wrote Porter. "They wish to see profoundly and are against illusion. Or perhaps they simply wish to seem to see profoundly."

In 1967 Porter took his wife and two daughters to Europe, his first trip abroad since his studies in the early 1930s. Porter wrote occasionally throughout the 1960s and early 1970s, but he did not produce nearly as much criticism as in the previous decade. He continued to paint through his final years; in fact, many of his most famous landscapes were painted in the last five years of his life. The first retrospective exhibition of his art was held from 1974 to 1975 and traveled to three venues: the Heckscher Museum on Long Island, the Queens Museum in Flushing, New York, and the Montclair Art Museum in New Jersey.

Porter died on September 15, 1975 at age 68. A full-scale retrospective of his art was organized by the Boston Museum of Fine Art in 1983. Due to a donation by his wife Anne, the largest collection of his work and papers now resides at the Parrish Art Museum, not far from the Porters' home in Southampton, New York.

Legacy

Porter was a lasting influence on many younger American artists who explored figurative painting in the 1970s and beyond, such as Alex Katz, Jane Freilicher, Grace Hartigan, Larry Rivers, and Neil Welliver. He was also a friend to many poets of the New York School, including Frank O'Hara and James Schuyler, all of whom shared his interest in making art from the experiences of everyday life.

In his criticism, he praised and promoted certain artists, thus bringing their work to a wider audience; just a few of his subjects were Jane Freilicher, Larry Rivers, Jasper Johns, Joan Mitchell, Jack Tworkov, and Richard Stankiewicz. Lastly, he had an aesthetic ally in his own brother Eliot Porter, a well-known photographer who specialized in images of the natural world and continued that work until his own death in 1990.

Influences and Connections

Influences on artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Influenced by artist

Artists, Friends, Movements

Fairfield Porter
Interactive chart with Fairfield Porter's main influences, and the people and ideas that the artist influenced in turn.
- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

Artists

Pierre Bonnard
Édouard Vuillard
Willem de Kooning
Joseph Cornell
Isamu Noguchi

Friends

Virginia Woolf
Bertrand Russell
Carl Jung
Clement Greenberg

Movements

Naturalism
Impressionism
Realism
Folk Art
Abstract Expressionism
Fairfield Porter
Fairfield Porter
Years Worked: 1935 - 1961

Artists

Willem de Kooning
Donald Judd
Anselm Kiefer
Nell Blaine
Joan Mitchell

Friends

James Schuyler
John Ashbery
Frank O'Hara
Peter Schjeldahl

Movements

Conceptual Art
Neo-Expressionism
Social Realism
Photorealism

Original content written by The Art Story Contributors

Edited and published by The Art Story Contributors

. [Internet]. . TheArtStory.org website. Available from:
[Accesed ]

Useful Resources on Fairfield Porter

Books
Websites
Articles
More
The books and articles below constitute a bibliography of the sources used in the writing this page. These also suggest some accessible resources for further research, especially ones that can be found and purchased via the internet.
biography
Fairfield Porter: A Life in Art

By Justin Spring

Fairfield Porter

By John T. Spike

Fairfield Porter: Raw

By Klaus Ottmann

The Undiscovered Country

By Philip Guston, Fairfield Porter, John Baldessari, and Richard Hamilton

Fairfield Porter: Paintings and Works on Paper

By Greg Lindquist
Artcritical
March 1, 2006

Trusty Fairfield Porter Is Better Than Ever

By Hilton Kramer
The New York Observer
April 17, 2000

Putting the Spotlight on Fairfield Porter

By Michael Kimmelman
The New York Times
October 9, 1992

Fairfield Porter: Master Realist

By Grace Glueck
The New York Times
June 8, 1984

interviews
Oral History Interview with Fairfield Porter

Conducted by Paul Cummings for the Archives of American Art June 6, 1968

Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis
Les Nabis were a group of Post-Impressionist artists in 1890s Paris including Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, and Edouard Vuillard. They combined Impressionist brushstrokes with vivid colors, an at-times mystical or symbolic subject matter, and an interest in patterned and repeating backgrounds.
ArtStory: Les Nabis
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
Pierre Bonnard
The French artist Pierre Bonnard, although dismissed as old-fashioned by some of the avant-garde in his lifetime, was esteemed by contemporary colorists like Matisse. A member of the Nabis group in his youth, his innovative paintings play with light, decorative surfaces, and Impressionist techniques.
ArtStory: Pierre Bonnard
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Édouard Vuillard
Edouard Vuillard was a French Post-Impressionist painter especially known for his interiors and domestic scenes. A member of the Les Nabis group, his works are characterized by rough areas of color, pointillist daubs and dots, and decorative patterns that spread out across background fabrics and wallpaper.
ArtStory: Édouard Vuillard
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
Abstract Expressionism
A tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and '50s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraced the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the postwar mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: Abstract Expressionism
Social Realism
Social Realism
Social Realism
Social Realism refers to a style of figurative art with social concerns - generally left-wing. Inspired in part by nineteenth-century Realism, it emerged in various forms in the twentieth century. Political radicalism prompted its emergence in 1930s America, while distaste for abstract art encouraged many in Europe to maintain the style into the 1950s.
ArtStory: Social Realism
Neo-Expressionism
Neo-Expressionism
Neo-Expressionism
Neo-Expressionism began as a movement in German art in the early 1960s with the emergence of Georg Baselitz. It gained momentum in the 1970s, with the addition of painters such as Anselm Kiefer, Markus Lüpertz and Eugen Schönebeck. Drawing inspiration from German Expressionism, many of its practitioners focused on the country's troubled modern history. In the 1980s, it inspired many successful painters across the world, including Julian Schnabel.
ArtStory: Neo-Expressionism
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton
Thomas Hart Benton was an American painter whose rural and industrial subjects, grand-scale murals, and figurative style were hallmarks of American Regionalism.
ArtStory: Thomas Hart Benton
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism
Post-Impressionism refers to a number of styles that emerged in reaction to Impressionism in the 1880s. The movement encompassed Symbolism and Neo-Impressionism before ceding to Fauvism around 1905. Its artists turned away from effects of light and atmosphere to explore new avenues such as color theory and personal feeling, often using colors and forms in intense and expressive ways.
ArtStory: Post-Impressionism
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Pablo Picasso
Picasso dominated European painting in the first half of the last century, and remains perhaps the century's most important, prolifically inventive, and versatile artist. Alongside Georges Braque, he pioneered Cubism. He also made significant contributions to Surrealist painting and media such as collage, welded sculpture, and ceramics.
ArtStory: Pablo Picasso
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning
Willem de Kooning, a Dutch immigrant to New York, was one of the foremost Abstract Expressionist painters. His abstract compositions drew on Surrealist and figurative traditions, and typified the expressionistic 'gestural' style of the New York School.
ArtStory: Willem de Kooning
Elaine de Kooning
Elaine de Kooning
Elaine de Kooning
Elaine de Kooning was an important Abstract Expressionist painter and collagist whose work combines gestural energy with formalist investigations. She was married to the famous New York painter Willem de Kooning.
ArtStory: Elaine de Kooning
The New York School and Abstract Expressionism
The New York School and Abstract Expressionism
The New York School and Abstract Expressionism
The New York School is a reference to Abstract Expressionism movement, which was the tendency among New York painters of the late 1940s and 1950s, all of whom were committed to an expressive art of profound emotion and universal themes. The movement embraces the gestural abstraction of Willem de Kooning and Jackson Pollock, and the color field painting of Mark Rothko and others. It blended elements of Surrealism and abstract art in an effort to create a new style fitted to the post-war mood of anxiety and trauma.
ArtStory: The New York School and Abstract Expressionism
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns
Jasper Johns is an American artist who rose to prominence in the late 1950s for his multi-media constructions, dubbed by critics as Neo-Dada. Johns' work, including his world-famous targets and American flags series, were important predecessors to Pop art.
ArtStory: Jasper Johns
Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins
Thomas Eakins was an American painter, photographer, sculptor and teacher. Renowned as an influential Realist painter, particularly during the late-nineteenth century, Eakins' many portraits famously depicted the streets, parlors, natural scenery and citizens of his native Philadelphia. Working on both the canvas and with motion photography, Eakins was known as a master of light, shadow and movement, and for capturing simple scenes that evoked complex themes.
Thomas Eakins
Realism
Realism
Realism
Realism is an approach to art that stresses the naturalistic representation of things, the look of objects and figures in ordinary life. It emerged as a distinct movement in the mid-nineteenth century, in opposition to the idealistic, sometimes mythical subjects that were then popular, but it can be traced back to sixteenth-century Dutch art and forward into twentieth-century styles such as Social Realism.
ArtStory: Realism
Naturalism
Naturalism
Naturalism
As a distinct artistic medium, Naturalism began as far back as the Florentine School, with artists such as Botticelli and Michelangelo, and still survives to the present day. The term is meant to be self-explanatory, referring to the artist's depiction of realistic objects and settings, and their naturalistic movement. A common theme in naturalist paintings is nature's predominance over humankind.
Naturalism
Impressionism
Impressionism
Impressionism
A movement in painting that first surfaced in France in the 1860s, it sought new ways to describe effects of light and movement, often using rich colors. The Impressionists were drawn to modern life and often painted the city, but they also captured landscapes and scenes of middle-class leisure-taking in the suburbs.
ArtStory: Impressionism
Rembrandt
Rembrandt
Rembrandt
Known throughout history simply as Rembrandt, the seventeenth-century Dutch artist is among the premier master painters in Western civilization. Working during the time historians have dubbed the Dutch Golden Age (or the Dutch Baroque period), Rembrandt's art was characterized by his sweeping Biblical narratives, stunning attention to detail, and masterful use of chiaroscuro, the painterly application of light and shadow. In this respect, he remains one of the most influential painters of all time.
Rembrandt
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas
Edgar Degas was a French Impressionist painter, printmaker and sculptor with an extraordinarily long career from the mid-nineteenth century until after WWI. As one of the original group of Impressionists, although he preferred to be called a Realist, he traveled widely and employed the use of photography in his creative process. He is most renowned for his painting and drawings of ballet dancers in rehearsal and performances in the theatre.
ArtStory: Edgar Degas
Alex Katz
Alex Katz
Alex Katz
Alex Katz is an American figurative artist associated with the Pop art movement. His works seem simple, but according to Katz they are more reductive, which is fitting to his personality. Katz has received numerous accolades throughout his career, and has been the subject of a documentary and numerous publications.
ArtStory: Alex Katz
Jane Freilicher
Jane Freilicher
Jane Freilicher
Jane Freilicher was an American painter in mid-twentieth-century New York. After studying under Hans Hofmann, Freilicher became associated with a group of quasi-abstract figurative painters, such as Larry Rivers, Nell Blaine and Fairfield Porter.
Jane Freilicher
Grace Hartigan
Grace Hartigan
Grace Hartigan
Grace Hartigan was an American painter and an important figure among the second generation of Abstract Expressionists. Her paintings are characterized by their rich color and bold mixture of abstract and figurative styles.
ArtStory: Grace Hartigan
Larry Rivers
Larry Rivers
Larry Rivers
Larry Rivers was an American artist whose work combines the brushy texture of Abstract Expressionism with figurative elements and a Pop art style. He was an earlier practitioner of appropriation techniques, and his paintings sample from art history, commercial products, celebrity imagery, and other styles and sources.
Larry Rivers
Frank O'Hara
Frank O'Hara
Frank O'Hara
Frank O'Hara was a central figure of the New York School of Poetry. He was also an art critic and curator, and worked at the Museum of Modern Art.
Frank O'Hara
James Schuyler
James Schuyler
James Schuyler
James Schuyler was a New York School poet and art critic who wrote regularly on the Abstract Expressionists.
James Schuyler
Joan Mitchell
Joan Mitchell
Joan Mitchell
Joan Mitchell was a leading second-generation Abstract Expressionist who painted large works of gestural marks and overlapping, roiled color areas. She was famous for her acerbic personality, and her later work often earns comparison with the late painterly style of Impressionist Claude Monet.
ArtStory: Joan Mitchell
Jack Tworkov
Jack Tworkov
Jack Tworkov
Jack Tworkov was a Polish-born American painter. Part of the first generation of Abstract Expressionism, he worked in a variety of styles including geometric arrangements, gestural sweeps, and the thin "flame-like" marks that became emblematic of his work.
Jack Tworkov
Richard Stankiewicz
Richard Stankiewicz
Richard Stankiewicz
Richard Stankiewicz was an American sculptor best known for his work in scrap and junk sculpture. Originally a student of Hans Hofmann and cubists Fernand Léger and Ossip Zadkine, Stankiewicz went on to join such galleries as the Hansa and Stable.
Richard Stankiewicz
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell
Joseph Cornell was an American artist, best known for his collage work and "shadow boxes," which were highly complex diorama-like constructions. Cornell incorporated found objects, old photos, newspaper clippings and other objects into these boxes, resulting in uniquely surreal, three-dimensional worlds. Cornell was one of the few American artists associated with Surrealism.
ArtStory: Joseph Cornell
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi
Isamu Noguchi was a Japanese-American modern artist. best known for his organic, biomorphic sculpture works, Noguchi was also a furniture designer and landscape artist.
ArtStory: Isamu Noguchi
Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
Virginia Woolf
The British writer Virginia Woolf was a twentieth-century novelist known for her lyrical, stream-of-consciousness style. Describing daily banalities and the onrush of sensory information, Woolf explores the inner emotional lives of her characters.
Virginia Woolf
Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell
Bertrand Russell was a twentieth-century English philosopher, historian, mathematician and critic. He was one of the founders of analytic philosophy and a mentor to Ludwig Wittgenstein.
Bertrand Russell
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Jung
Carl Gustav Jung was a Swiss psychiatrist and the founder of analytical psychology. Jung studied the human psyche through an exploration of dreams, religion, mythology and art. Jung's extensive work and interest in the human unconscious was a major influence on some of the Abstract Expressionists.
Carl Jung
Clement Greenberg
Clement Greenberg
Clement Greenberg
Clement Greenberg was one the leading American art critics during the twentieth century. Best known as the ideological counterpart to Harold Rosenberg, Greenberg was a formalist who coined the terms "American-type painting" and 'Post-painterly abstraction.' He was a staunch champion of pure abstraction, including the work of Jackson Pollock, Clyfford Still and Hans Hofmann.
ArtStory: Clement Greenberg
Folk Art
Folk Art
Folk Art
Folk Art refers to any and all forms of art produced by indigenous cultures and people who are self-taught, and whose work is in no way influenced by artistic movements and academia. Most Folk Art is utilitarian or decorative in nature, and is tied directly to a particular culture's values and tribal identity.
Folk Art
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd
Donald Judd was an early and influential Minimalist artist who made large-scale geometric objects, often of industrial materials and serially arranged on the floor or wall. He helped found the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas, where many key works of Minimalism are installed.
ArtStory: Donald Judd
Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer
Anselm Kiefer is a German painter and sculptor, and was a pioneer of the late-twentieth-century movement Neo-Expressionism. Kiefer's mixed-media art typically incorporates straw, clay, lead and shellac, in addition to traditional paint and canvas. The themes of his work often focus on the atrocities of the Holocaust, as well as the occult, cosmos, and mythology.
ArtStory: Anselm Kiefer
Nell Blaine
Nell Blaine
Nell Blaine
The American painter Nell Blaine is best known for her lyrical realism, blending figuration with abstraction's structural vocabulary and energy. A prominent artist in 1940s New York, she studied with Hans Hofmann and was a founding member of the Jane Street Gallery.
Nell Blaine
John Ashbery
John Ashbery
John Ashbery
John Ashbery is an American poet and art critic. Heavily influenced by French Surrealism and the writings of W.H. Auden and Dylan Thomas, Ashbery's avant-garde poetry was labeled by John Bernard Myers in the 1950s as part of the "New York School."
John Ashbery
Peter Schjeldahl
Peter Schjeldahl
Peter Schjeldahl
Peter Schjeldahl is an American art critic, teacher and postmodern poet. He joined the writing staff of The New Yorker is 1998 and is currently the magazine's head art critic.
Peter Schjeldahl
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual Art
Conceptual art describes an influential movement that first emerged in the mid-1960s and prized ideas over the formal or visual components of traditional works of art. The artists often challenged old concepts such as beauty and quality; they also questioned the conventional means by which the public consumed art; and they rejected the conventional art object in favor of diverse mediums, ranging from maps and diagrams to texts and videos.
ArtStory: Conceptual Art
Photorealism
Photorealism
Photorealism
Photorealism is a style of painting that was developed by such artists as Chuck Close, Audrey Flack and Richard Estes. Photorealists often utilize painting techniques to mimic the effects of photography and thus blur the line that have typically divided the two mediums.
ArtStory: Photorealism